thyrotropin releasing hormone


Summary: A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.

Top Publications

  1. Gáspár E, Hardenbicker C, Bodo E, Wenzel B, Ramot Y, Funk W, et al. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH): a new player in human hair-growth control. FASEB J. 2010;24:393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Human HFs provide an excellent discovery tool for identifying and dissecting nonclassical functions of TRH and TRH-mediated signaling in situ, which emerge as novel players in human epithelial biology. ..
  2. Nillni E. Regulation of the hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neuron by neuronal and peripheral inputs. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2010;31:134-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the central regulation of the thyroid axis by Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is of key importance for the ..
  3. Prieto Tenreiro A, Diaz Guardiola P. Isolated idiopathic central hypothyroidism in an adult, possibly caused by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) deficiency. Hormones (Athens). 2010;9:176-80 pubmed
    ..A thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test confirmed the diagnosis...
  4. Scalabrino G, Hogan N, O Boyle K, Slator G, Gregg D, Fitchett C, et al. Discovery of a dual action first-in-class peptide that mimics and enhances CNS-mediated actions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Neuropharmacology. 2007;52:1472-81 pubmed
    ..This discovery provides new opportunities for probing the role of TRH actions in the CNS and a basis for development of novel TRH-based neurotherapeutics. ..
  5. Siqueira C, Rossoni R, Schenberg L. Dorsal periaqueductal gray matter-evoked panic-like behaviors are markedly inhibited by a low peripheral dose of thyrotropin releasing hormone. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35:262-71 pubmed publisher
    ..It is not clear, however, whether these effects were due to an increase in thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), a decrease in thyroid hormones or to the overall effects of hypothyroidism...
  6. Kouidhi S, Seugnet I, Decherf S, Guissouma H, Elgaaied A, Demeneix B, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) modulates hypothalamic Trh regulation in vivo. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;317:44-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These demonstrations of PPARgamma effects on hypothalamic Trh transcription in vivo consolidate the role of the TRH neuron as a central integrator of energy homeostasis. ..
  7. Gómez J, Pomar M, Casariego A, Rodríguez I. [Selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone in a patient treated with amiodarone]. Endocrinol Nutr. 2009;56:418-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the case of a patient with pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone, who was treated with amiodarone to control paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. ..
  8. Lovas G, Nielsen J, Johnson K, Hudson L. Alterations in neuronal gene expression profiles in response to experimental demyelination and axonal transection. Mult Scler. 2010;16:303-16 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that this experimental approach may be useful for the identification of pathways that could be targeted for remyelinative or neuroprotective drug development. ..
  9. Mayr J, Kohlfürst S, Gallowitsch H, Lind P, Mikosch P. [Thyroid and pregnancy]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2010;160:186-93 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Sanchez E, Vargas M, Singru P, Pascual I, Romero F, Fekete C, et al. Tanycyte pyroglutamyl peptidase II contributes to regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis through glial-axonal associations in the median eminence. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2283-91 pubmed publisher
  2. Sun Y, Zupan B, Raaka B, Toth M, Gershengorn M. TRH-receptor-type-2-deficient mice are euthyroid and exhibit increased depression and reduced anxiety phenotypes. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:1601-8 pubmed publisher
  3. Lyons D, Horjales Araujo E, Broberger C. Synchronized network oscillations in rat tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons: switch to tonic discharge by thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Neuron. 2010;65:217-29 pubmed publisher
  4. Decherf S, Seugnet I, Kouidhi S, Lopez Juarez A, Clerget Froidevaux M, Demeneix B. Thyroid hormone exerts negative feedback on hypothalamic type 4 melanocortin receptor expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4471-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus parallel repression by T(3) on hypothalamic Mc4r and Trh contributes to energy homeostasis. ..
  5. Langan E, Ramot Y, Hanning A, Poeggeler B, Biro T, Gaspar E, et al. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and oestrogen differentially regulate prolactin and prolactin receptor expression in female human skin and hair follicles in vitro. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:1127-31 pubmed publisher
  6. Ao Y, Ko M, Chen A, Marvizon J, Adelson D, Song M, et al. Potent hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone microinjected into the rostroventrolateral medulla and abnormal responses in type 2 diabetic rats. Neuroscience. 2010;169:706-19 pubmed publisher
  7. Warner M, Beckett G. Mechanisms behind the non-thyroidal illness syndrome: an update. J Endocrinol. 2010;205:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, human and animal models of sepsis and trauma indicate that expression of THRs and their coactivators are decreased in acute illness. ..
  8. Carreón Rodríguez A, Charli J, Pérez Martínez L. T3 differentially regulates TRH expression in developing hypothalamic neurons in vitro. Brain Res. 2009;1305:20-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have demonstrated that thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) transcription in the adult hypothalamus is subjected to negative regulation by thyroid hormones...
  9. Iziga R, Ponce M, Infante C, Rebordinos L, Cañavate J, Manchado M. Molecular characterization and gene expression of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;157:167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, no significant changes in mRNA levels between photoperiods at any time were detected. Overall, these results indicate that TRH do not participate in the regulation of HPT nor adaptation to photoperiod in sole. ..
  10. Kamath J, Yarbrough G, Prange A, Winokur A. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone can relieve cancer-related fatigue: hypothesis and preliminary observations. J Int Med Res. 2009;37:1152-7 pubmed
    ..No anti-fatigue responses were seen in five of the six saline controls. No unexpected side-effects were seen with TRH administration. These initial findings support the proposal that TRH can ameliorate cancer-related fatigue. ..
  11. Mebis L, Debaveye Y, Ellger B, Derde S, Ververs E, Langouche L, et al. Changes in the central component of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in a rabbit model of prolonged critical illness. Crit Care. 2009;13:R147 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the low circulating and peripheral tissue thyroid hormone levels, thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) expression in the hypothalamus is reduced and it remains unclear which mechanism is responsible...
  12. Mazzoccoli G, De Cata A, Greco A, Carughi S, Giuliani F, Tarquini R. Circadian rhythmicity of lymphocyte subpopulations and relationship with neuro-endocrine system. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2010;24:341-50 pubmed
    ..The results show that specific lymphocyte subsets present different profiles of nyctohemeral changes and different timed relationships with neuro-endocrine hormones. ..
  13. Díaz Gallardo M, Cote Vélez A, Carreón Rodríguez A, Charli J, Joseph Bravo P. Phosphorylated cyclic-AMP-response element-binding protein and thyroid hormone receptor have independent response elements in the rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone promoter: an analysis in hypothalamic cells. Neuroendocrinology. 2010;91:64-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that pCREB binds to a response element in the TRH promoter (CRE-2) that is independent of Site-4 where TRbeta2 is bound; pCREB and TR do not present mutual interference on their binding sites. ..
  14. Jara P, Rage F, Dorfman M, Grouselle D, Barra R, Arancibia S, et al. Cold-induced glutamate release in vivo from the magnocellular region of the paraventricular nucleus is involved in ovarian sympathetic activation. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:979-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This in turn triggers hypothalamic-ovarian pathway activation, which might be responsible for the polycystic condition induced by cold stress and other ovarian pathologies characterised by increased sympathetic discharge. ..
  15. Ciosek J, Izdebska K. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone modulates vasopressin and oxytocin synthesis and release from the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system of different age male rats. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60:63-70 pubmed
    ..This effect, however, is opposed: TRH acts as a stimulator of vasopressin biosynthesis most of all in young male rats and as an inhibitor for oxytocin biosynthesis especially in mature animals. ..
  16. Kilburn Watt E, Banati R, Keay K. Altered thyroid hormones and behavioural change in a sub-population of rats following chronic constriction injury. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:960-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Because T3 availability to the brain is dependent on both circulating T3 and T4, decreased peripheral thyroid hormones may result in changed neural function, as expressed in altered complex behaviours in this sub-population of rats. ..
  17. Messini C, Dafopoulos K, Chalvatzas N, Georgoulias P, Anifandis G, Messinis I. Effect of ghrelin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone on prolactin secretion in normal women. Horm Metab Res. 2010;42:204-8 pubmed publisher
    ..No changes in growth hormone and prolactin levels were seen after saline injection. These results demonstrate that the stimulating effect of ghrelin on prolactin secretion is not additive with that of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. ..
  18. Chambery A, Severino V, Di Maro A, D Aniello A, Ruvo M, Parente A. Quantification of thyrotropin-releasing hormone by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. Amino Acids. 2010;38:1031-41 pubmed publisher
    ..1, corresponding to the N-terminus dipeptide pyroglutamic acid-histidine. The method has been tested on rat hypothalami to evaluate its suitability for the detection within very complex biological samples. ..
  19. Stolarczyk E, Guissard C, Michau A, Even P, Grosfeld A, Serradas P, et al. Detection of extracellular glucose by GLUT2 contributes to hypothalamic control of food intake. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E1078-87 pubmed publisher
  20. Pekary A, Stevens S, Blood J, Sattin A. Rapid modulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release in rat brain, pancreas, and testis by a GSK-3beta inhibitor. Peptides. 2010;31:1083-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These contrasting effects of glucocorticoid on peptide release appear to be mediated by GSK-3beta. ..
  21. Wallis M. Molecular evolution of the thyrotrophin-releasing hormone precursor in vertebrates: insights from comparative genomics. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:608-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The comparative genomics approach thus provides a wider view than previously available of the range of ppTRH genes in vertebrates, and of the species specificity displayed by this molecule. ..
  22. Wittmann G, Fuzesi T, Singru P, Liposits Z, Lechan R, Fekete C. Efferent projections of thyrotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons residing in the anterior parvocellular subdivision of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. J Comp Neurol. 2009;515:313-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the major differences in the projection fields of aPVN and perifornical TRH neurons suggest that these two TRH-synthesizing neuronal groups are functionally different. ..
  23. Parmentier R, Kolbaev S, Klyuch B, Vandael D, Lin J, Selbach O, et al. Excitation of histaminergic tuberomamillary neurons by thyrotropin-releasing hormone. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4471-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate a key role of the brain histamine system in TRH-induced arousal. ..
  24. Mittag J, Davis B, Vujovic M, Arner A, Vennstrom B. Adaptations of the autonomous nervous system controlling heart rate are impaired by a mutant thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2388-95 pubmed publisher
  25. Nguyen V, Zharikova A, Prokai Tatrai K, Prokai L. [Glu2]TRH dose-dependently attenuates TRH-evoked analeptic effect in mice. Brain Res Bull. 2010;82:83-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, [Glu(2)]TRH may be considered as a negative modulator for the cholinergic effect of TRH in the mouse brain. ..
  26. Hara J, Gerashchenko D, Wisor J, Sakurai T, Xie X, Kilduff T. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone increases behavioral arousal through modulation of hypocretin/orexin neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3705-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that TRH modulates behavioral arousal, in part, through the Hcrt system. ..
  27. Kubek M, Domb A, Veronesi M. Attenuation of kindled seizures by intranasal delivery of neuropeptide-loaded nanoparticles. Neurotherapeutics. 2009;6:359-71 pubmed publisher
  28. van den Pol A. Excitatory neuromodulator reduces dopamine release, enhancing prolactin secretion. Neuron. 2010;65:147-9 pubmed publisher
  29. Buckley C, MacDonald E, Tuziak S, Volkoff H. Molecular cloning and characterization of two putative appetite regulators in winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus): preprothyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and preproorexin (OX). Peptides. 2010;31:1737-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that orexin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) might have a role in the seasonal regulation of food intake in winter flounder. ..
  30. Kádár A, Sanchez E, Wittmann G, Singru P, Fuzesi T, Marsili A, et al. Distribution of hypophysiotropic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-synthesizing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the mouse. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:3948-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the organization of the PVN is markedly different in mice and rats. ..
  31. Wachten S, Masada N, Ayling L, Ciruela A, Nikolaev V, Lohse M, et al. Distinct pools of cAMP centre on different isoforms of adenylyl cyclase in pituitary-derived GH3B6 cells. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:95-106 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate the existence of distinct adenylyl-cyclase-centered cAMP microdomains in live cells and open the door to their molecular micro-dissection. ..
  32. Okada R, Kobayashi T, Yamamoto K, Nakakura T, Tanaka S, Vaudry H, et al. Neuroendocrine regulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion in amphibians. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1163:262-70 pubmed publisher
  33. Pekary A, Sattin A, Blood J. Rapid modulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release in rat brain and peripheral tissues by leptin. Brain Res. 2010;1345:9-18 pubmed publisher
  34. Jantas D, Jaworska Feil L, Lipkowski A, Lason W. Effects of TRH and its analogues on primary cortical neuronal cell damage induced by various excitotoxic, necrotic and apoptotic agents. Neuropeptides. 2009;43:371-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the results point to involvement of the inhibition of calpains in the TRH neuroprotective effect in Glu model of neuronal cell death. ..
  35. Tanaka S, Fukuda I, Hizuka N, Takano K. Gender differences in serum GH and IGF-I levels and the GH response to dynamic tests in patients with acromegaly. Endocr J. 2010;57:477-83 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that gender, presumably sex steroids in female, may partially modulate the relationship between circulating IGF-I and GH levels in patients with acromegaly. ..
  36. Díaz Gallardo M, Cote Vélez A, Charli J, Joseph Bravo P. A rapid interference between glucocorticoids and cAMP-activated signalling in hypothalamic neurones prevents binding of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein and glucocorticoid receptor at the CRE-Like and composite GRE sites of thyrot. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:282-93 pubmed publisher
  37. Mebis L, Van den Berghe G. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in critical illness. Neth J Med. 2009;67:332-40 pubmed
    ..Reduced expression of TRH in the hypothalamus appears to play a key role in the prolonged phase of critical illness, although the processes that trigger this upstream disturbance remain unclear. ..
  38. Ishibashi H, Nakahata Y, Eto K, Nabekura J. Excitation of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons by thyrotropin-releasing hormone. J Physiol. 2009;587:5709-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The action of TRH on LC neurons may influence a variety of CNS functions related to the noradrenergic system which include arousal and analgesia. ..
  39. Oride A, Kanasaki H, Purwana I, Mutiara S, Miyazaki K. Follistatin, induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), plays no role in prolactin expression but affects gonadotropin FSHbeta expression as a paracrine factor in pituitary somatolactotroph GH3 cells. Regul Pept. 2009;156:65-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Somatolactotroph-derived follistatin affects gonadotrophs by countering activin-induced FSHbeta gene expression in a paracrine fashion. ..
  40. Lopez M, Varela L, Vazquez M, Rodriguez Cuenca S, González C, Velagapudi V, et al. Hypothalamic AMPK and fatty acid metabolism mediate thyroid regulation of energy balance. Nat Med. 2010;16:1001-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects are reversed by pharmacological blockade of the SNS. Thus, thyroid hormone-induced modulation of AMPK activity and lipid metabolism in the hypothalamus is a major regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis...
  41. Benrick A, Schéle E, Pinnock S, Wernstedt Asterholm I, Dickson S, Karlsson Lindahl L, et al. Interleukin-6 gene knockout influences energy balance regulating peptides in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009;21:620-8 pubmed publisher
    ..e. energy balance regulating peptides) as well as AVP in the PVN. Because IL-6 receptor alpha is co-expressed with CRH, oxytocin and AVP, IL-6 could stimulate the expression of these peptides directly. ..
  42. Spoov J, Bredbacka P, Stenman U. An abnormal relation between basal prolactin levels and prolactin response to 12.5 microg TRH i.v. in drug-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2010;119:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..v., but not by 12.5 microg TRH i.v. As far as we know, this is the first study to report an abnormality in TRH-induced prolactin release in acute schizophrenia. ..
  43. Decherf S, Seugnet I, Fini J, Clerget Froidevaux M, Demeneix B. Disruption of thyroid hormone-dependent hypothalamic set-points by environmental contaminants. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;323:172-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, perinatal exposure to EDCs affecting nuclear receptor signalling modulates hypothalamic set-points controlling metabolic responses. ..
  44. Oride A, Kanasaki H, Purwana I, Miyazaki K. Possible involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced prolactin gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;382:663-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present results support a critical role of MKP-1 in TRH-induced, ERK-dependent, prolactin gene expression. ..
  45. Drastichova Z, Bourova L, Hejnova L, Jedelsky P, Svoboda P, Novotny J. Protein alterations induced by long-term agonist treatment of HEK293 cells expressing thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor and G11alpha protein. J Cell Biochem. 2010;109:255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel, we observed decrease in caspase 3 and alterations in some other apoptotic marker proteins, which were in line with the presumed antiapoptotic effect of TRH. ..
  46. Veronesi M, Aldouby Y, Domb A, Kubek M. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone d,l polylactide nanoparticles (TRH-NPs) protect against glutamate toxicity in vitro and kindling development in vivo. Brain Res. 2009;1303:151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide proof of principle that intranasal delivery of sustained-release TRH-NPs may be neuroprotective and can be utilized to suppress seizures and perhaps epileptogenesis. ..
  47. Perello M, Cakir I, Cyr N, Romero A, Stuart R, Chiappini F, et al. Maintenance of the thyroid axis during diet-induced obesity in rodents is controlled at the central level. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299:E976-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This interactive relationship between T(3) and pSTAT3 signaling appears essential to maintain the HPT axis at normal levels in conditions such as obesity. ..
  48. Pecori Giraldi F, Pesce S, Maroni P, Pagliardini L, Lasio G, Losa M, et al. Inhibitory effect of prepro-thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (178-199) on adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion by human corticotroph tumours. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:294-300 pubmed publisher
    ..This appears a promising avenue of research and further studies are warranted to explore the full scope of preproTRH(178-199) as a regulator of ACTH secretion. ..
  49. Duval F, Mokrani M, Lopera F, Diep T, Rabia H, Fattah S. Thyroid axis activity and suicidal behavior in depressed patients. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35:1045-54 pubmed publisher
    ..006; at 2300 h: p<0.02). Our results, obtained in a large sample of depressed inpatients, indicate that various degrees of HPT axis dysregulation are associated with the history of suicide. ..
  50. Sugrue M, Vella K, Morales C, Lopez M, Hollenberg A. The thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene is regulated by thyroid hormone at the level of transcription in vivo. Endocrinology. 2010;151:793-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it should be possible to identify the elements within the TRH locus that mediate its regulation by T(3) using in vivo approaches. ..
  51. Umezawa R, Yamada M, Horiguchi K, Ishii S, Hashimoto K, Okada S, et al. Aberrant histone modifications at the thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene in resistance to thyroid hormone: analysis of F455S mutant thyroid hormone receptor. Endocrinology. 2009;150:3425-32 pubmed publisher
  52. Herwig A, Wilson D, Logie T, Boelen A, Morgan P, Mercer J, et al. Photoperiod and acute energy deficits interact on components of the thyroid hormone system in hypothalamic tanycytes of the Siberian hamster. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R1307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These data point to a mechanism whereby energy deprivation can interact with an SD photoperiod on hypothalamic tanycytes to regulate components of the thyroid hormone system involved in photoperiodic regulation of seasonal physiology...
  53. Hogan N, O Boyle K, Hinkle P, Kelly J. A novel TRH analog, Glp-Asn-Pro-D-Tyr-D-TrpNH2, binds to [3H][3-Me-His2]TRH-labelled sites in rat hippocampus and cortex but not pituitary or heterologous cells expressing TRHR1 or TRHR2. Neurosci Lett. 2008;431:26-30 pubmed
    ..Also, the results raise the possibility that Glp-Asn-Pro-D-Tyr-D-TrpNH(2) is not displacing [(3)H][3-Me-His(2)]TRH from a known TRH receptor in rat cortex, but rather a hitherto unidentified TRH receptor. ..