neurokinin b

Summary

Summary: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.

Top Publications

  1. Kotani H, Hoshimaru M, Nawa H, Nakanishi S. Structure and gene organization of bovine neuromedin K precursor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:7074-8 pubmed
    ..The results described thus indicate that the diversity of the mammalian tachykinin system has been acquired through various cellular mechanisms including gene duplication and differential expression of duplicated genes. ..
  2. Lehman M, Coolen L, Goodman R. Minireview: kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) cells of the arcuate nucleus: a central node in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion. Endocrinology. 2010;151:3479-89 pubmed publisher
    ..was identified in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus that colocalize three neuropeptides, kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin, each of which has been shown to play a critical role in the central control of reproduction...
  3. Gillies S, Haddley K, Vasiliou S, Bubb V, Quinn J. The human neurokinin B gene, TAC3, and its promoter are regulated by Neuron Restrictive Silencing Factor (NRSF) transcription factor family. Neuropeptides. 2009;43:333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In similar models the neurokinin B (NKB) gene (TAC3) is also induced and NKB has also been shown to be proconvulsant...
  4. Page N, Morrish D, Weston Bell N. Differential mRNA splicing and precursor processing of neurokinin B in neuroendocrine tissues. Peptides. 2009;30:1508-13 pubmed publisher
    The tachykinin neurokinin B which is encoded on the tachykinin 3 precursor, has prominent roles in both neuronal and endocrine systems, yet little is known about its evolution, potential splice variants and the manner in which it is ..
  5. Li Z, Zhao Y, Chen Q, Zou L, Wang Z. [Relationship between neurokinin B and endothelin-1 and hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2008;43:584-8 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship between neurokinin B (NKB), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP)...
  6. Lovell T, Woods R, Butlin D, Brayley K, Manyonda I, Jarvis J, et al. Identification of a novel mammalian post-translational modification, phosphocholine, on placental secretory polypeptides. J Mol Endocrinol. 2007;39:189-98 pubmed
    Placental neurokinin B appears to be post-translationally modified by phosphocholine (PC) attached to the aspartyl side chain at residue 4 of the mature peptide...
  7. Moody T, Merali Z. Bombesin-like peptides and associated receptors within the brain: distribution and behavioral implications. Peptides. 2004;25:511-20 pubmed
    ..GRP and NMB modulate distinct biological processes through discrete brain regions or circuits, and globally these peptidergic systems may serve in an integrative or homeostatic function. ..
  8. Sakamoto R, Osada H, Iitsuka Y, Masuda K, Kaku K, Seki K, et al. Profile of neurokinin B concentrations in maternal and cord blood in normal pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003;58:597-600 pubmed
    b>Neurokinin B (NKB) is a neuropeptide with a vasopressor effect belonging to the tachykinin family...
  9. Grant A, Akhtar R, Gerard N, Brain S. Neurokinin B induces oedema formation in mouse lung via tachykinin receptor-independent mechanisms. J Physiol. 2002;543:1007-14 pubmed
    The tachykinin neurokinin B (NKB) has been implicated in the hypertension that characterises pre-eclampsia, a condition where tissue oedema is also observed...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wenk G, Zajaczkowski W, Danysz W. Neuroprotection of acetylcholinergic basal forebrain neurons by memantine and neurokinin B. Behav Brain Res. 1997;83:129-33 pubmed
    ..In addition, we investigated whether neuroprotection could be provided by neurokinin B (NKB). Following an injection of NMDA (0...
  2. Billings H, Connors J, Altman S, Hileman S, Holaskova I, Lehman M, et al. Neurokinin B acts via the neurokinin-3 receptor in the retrochiasmatic area to stimulate luteinizing hormone secretion in sheep. Endocrinology. 2010;151:3836-46 pubmed publisher
    Recent data have demonstrated that mutations in the receptor for neurokinin B (NKB), the NK-3 receptor (NK3R), produce hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans...
  3. Wakabayashi Y, Yamamura T, Sakamoto K, Mori Y, Okamura H. Electrophysiological and morphological evidence for synchronized GnRH pulse generator activity among Kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin A (KNDy) neurons in goats. J Reprod Dev. 2013;59:40-8 pubmed
    Neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that concomitantly express kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are termed KNDy neurons and are likely candidates for the intrinsic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator...
  4. Cheng G, Coolen L, Padmanabhan V, Goodman R, Lehman M. The kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) cell population of the arcuate nucleus: sex differences and effects of prenatal testosterone in sheep. Endocrinology. 2010;151:301-11 pubmed publisher
    Recent work in sheep has identified a neuronal subpopulation in the arcuate nucleus that coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (referred to here as KNDy cells) and that mediate the negative feedback influence of progesterone ..
  5. Navarro V, Gottsch M, Chavkin C, Okamura H, Clifton D, Steiner R. Regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion by kisspeptin/dynorphin/neurokinin B neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the mouse. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11859-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objectives were to determine whether preprodynorphin (Dyn) and neurokinin B (NKB) are coexpressed in Kiss1 neurons in the mouse and to evaluate its physiological significance...
  6. Okamura H, Murata K, Sakamoto K, Wakabayashi Y, Ohkura S, Takeuchi Y, et al. Male effect pheromone tickles the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse generator. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:825-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Because it has been suggested that the neurokinin B and dynorphin coexpressed in those neurones play critical roles in generating rhythmic bursts, they may be ..
  7. Mantha A, Moorthy K, Cowsik S, Baquer N. Membrane associated functions of neurokinin B (NKB) on Abeta (25-35) induced toxicity in aging rat brain synaptosomes. Biogerontology. 2006;7:19-33 pubmed
    The effect of different concentrations (0.1-5 microM) of neurokinin B (NKB) and Abeta (25-35) on acetylcholine esterase (AChE), Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and membrane fluidity (DPH anisotropy) were investigated in rat brain synaptosomes of 3, 9, ..
  8. Fong T, Huang R, Strader C. Localization of agonist and antagonist binding domains of the human neurokinin-1 receptor. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:25664-7 pubmed
    ..segment with the corresponding amino acids of the human neurokinin-3 receptor results in an increase in neurokinin B affinity without affecting substance P binding, suggesting that the two peptides do not interact with the same ..
  9. Navarro V, Gottsch M, Wu M, Garcia Galiano D, Hobbs S, Bosch M, et al. Regulation of NKB pathways and their roles in the control of Kiss1 neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the male mouse. Endocrinology. 2011;152:4265-75 pubmed publisher
    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) (encoded by the Kiss1 and Tac2 genes, respectively) are indispensable for reproduction. In the female of many species, Kiss1 neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) coexpress dynorphin A and NKB...
  10. Kallo I, Vida B, Deli L, Molnar C, Hrabovszky E, Caraty A, et al. Co-localisation of kisspeptin with galanin or neurokinin B in afferents to mouse GnRH neurones. J Neuroendocrinol. 2012;24:464-76 pubmed publisher
    ..the ultrastructural characteristics of KP-immunoreactive (IR) afferents to GnRH neurones; (ii) their galanin or neurokinin B (NKB) content; and (iii) the co-expression of galanin or NKB with KP in the two major subpopulations of KP ..
  11. Wareing M, Bhatti H, O Hara M, Kenny L, Warren A, Taggart M, et al. Vasoactive effects of neurokinin B on human blood vessels. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188:196-202 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to investigate whether neurokinin B (NKB) is the circulating factor associated with PE...
  12. Page N. Neurokinin B and pre-eclampsia: a decade of discovery. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2010;8:4 pubmed publisher
    At the start of the last decade, we provided evidence that levels of the peptide neurokinin B were highly elevated in pre-eclampsia...
  13. Yunker A, Krause J, Roth K. Neurokinin B- and substance P-like immunoreactivity are co-localized in enteric nerves of rat ileum. Regul Pept. 1999;80:67-74 pubmed
    The tachykinins (TKs) substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), and neurokinin B (NKB) have conserved C-terminal sequences and mediate similar physiological responses by activating neurokinin receptors found on neural and smooth muscle cells...
  14. de Croft S, Boehm U, Herbison A. Neurokinin B activates arcuate kisspeptin neurons through multiple tachykinin receptors in the male mouse. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2750-60 pubmed publisher
    Kisspeptin neurons located in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) coexpress dynorphin and neurokinin B (NKB) and may interact to influence gonadotropin secretion...
  15. Rance N, Krajewski S, Smith M, Cholanian M, Dacks P. Neurokinin B and the hypothalamic regulation of reproduction. Brain Res. 2010;1364:116-28 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding either neurokinin B (NKB) or its receptor, NK3 (NK3R), result in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, characterized by an absence of pubertal development and low circulating levels of LH and ..
  16. Tofa K, Gebhardt S, Rebello G, Geissbuehler V, Moser R, Stolk M, et al. Altered circulating neurokinin B (NKB) levels are not due to sequence variants in the encoding genes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008;140:135-6 pubmed
  17. Torricelli M, Giovannelli A, Leucci E, Florio P, De Falco G, Torres P, et al. Placental neurokinin B mRNA expression increases at preterm labor. Placenta. 2007;28:1020-3 pubmed
    b>Neurokinin B (NKB) is a neuropeptide belonging to the family of tachykinins-related peptides that elicits contractility of human myometrial strips in vitro...
  18. Grachev P, Li X, Lin Y, Hu M, Elsamani L, Paterson S, et al. GPR54-dependent stimulation of luteinizing hormone secretion by neurokinin B in prepubertal rats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44344 pubmed publisher
    Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A (Dyn) are coexpressed within KNDy neurons that project from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) to GnRH neurons and numerous other hypothalamic targets...
  19. Ciofi P, Lapirot O, Tramu G. An androgen-dependent sexual dimorphism visible at puberty in the rat hypothalamus. Neuroscience. 2007;146:630-42 pubmed
    ..immunohistochemistry, we explored how this applies to the postnatal development and masculinization of the neurokinin B (NKB)-containing system of the arcuate nucleus/median eminence complex (ARC/ME)...
  20. Sawicki G, Dakour J, Morrish D. Functional proteomics of neurokinin B in the placenta indicates a novel role in regulating cytotrophoblast antioxidant defences. Proteomics. 2003;3:2044-51 pubmed
    b>Neurokinin B (NKB) has recently been demonstrated to be secreted from the placenta in abnormally high amounts in preeclampsia (PE) and to cause hypertension in rats, suggesting it may be a mediator of some pathophysiological features of ..
  21. Gill J, Navarro V, Kwong C, Noel S, Martin C, Xu S, et al. Increased neurokinin B (Tac2) expression in the mouse arcuate nucleus is an early marker of pubertal onset with differential sensitivity to sex steroid-negative feedback than Kiss1. Endocrinology. 2012;153:4883-93 pubmed
    At puberty, neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin (Kiss1) may help to amplify GnRH secretion, but their precise roles remain ambiguous...
  22. Schlembach D, Scalera F, Fischer T, Marx S, Beinder E, Garfield R. Neurokinin B peptide serum levels are higher in normotensive pregnant women than in preeclamptic pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189:1418-22 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to examine neurokinin B levels in serum from preeclamptic and normotensive and to investigate the role of neurokinin B in preeclampsia...
  23. Sakamoto K, Murata K, Wakabayashi Y, Yayou K, Ohkura S, Takeuchi Y, et al. Central administration of neurokinin B activates kisspeptin/NKB neurons in the arcuate nucleus and stimulates luteinizing hormone secretion in ewes during the non-breeding season. J Reprod Dev. 2012;58:700-6 pubmed
    Human genetic studies have suggested that kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) play pivotal roles in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion...
  24. D Anna R, Baviera G, Corrado F, Crisafulli A, Ientile R, Buemi M, et al. Neurokinin B and nitric oxide plasma levels in pre-eclampsia and isolated intrauterine growth restriction. BJOG. 2004;111:1046-50 pubmed
    To verify if neurokinin B plasma level is increased in pre-eclampsia and IUGR. Also, to ascertain if there is a correlation between neurokinin B plasma level and nitric oxide production. A total of 90 pregnant women were studied...
  25. Cintado C, Pinto F, Devillier P, Merida A, Candenas M. Increase in neurokinin B expression and in tachykinin NK(3) receptor-mediated response and expression in the rat uterus with age. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;299:934-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, we characterized the expression of the preprotachykinin-B (TAC-3) gene, which encodes neurokinin B (NKB), the preferred endogenous agonist of NK(3)R...
  26. Laliberte C, DiMarzo L, Morrish D, Kaufman S. Neurokinin B causes concentration-dependent relaxation of isolated human placental resistance vessels. Regul Pept. 2004;117:123-6 pubmed
    Placental neurokinin B (NKB) was recently identified as the causative agent in preeclampsia, a condition characterized by increased maternal and feto-placental vascular resistance...
  27. Wasseff S. Mechanisms of convulsions in eclampsia. Med Hypotheses. 2009;72:49-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The utero-placental ischemia causes the release of certain molecules such as neurokinin B, inflammatory cytokines, endothelins, and tissue plasminogen activator...
  28. Hrabovszky E, Ciofi P, Vida B, Horvath M, Keller E, Caraty A, et al. The kisspeptin system of the human hypothalamus: sexual dimorphism and relationship with gonadotropin-releasing hormone and neurokinin B neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:1984-98 pubmed publisher
    ..ii) sexual dimorphism, (iii) relationship to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and (iv) neurokinin B content of kisspeptin-immunoreactive hypothalamic neurons in human autopsy samples...
  29. Grachev P, Li X, Kinsey Jones J, di Domenico A, Millar R, Lightman S, et al. Suppression of the GnRH pulse generator by neurokinin B involves a ?-opioid receptor-dependent mechanism. Endocrinology. 2012;153:4894-904 pubmed
    b>Neurokinin B (NKB) and its receptor (NK3R) are coexpressed with kisspeptin, Dynorphin A (Dyn), and their receptors [G-protein-coupled receptor-54 (GPR54)] and ?-opioid receptor (KOR), respectively] within kisspeptin/NKB/Dyn (KNDy) neurons ..
  30. Nestor C, Briscoe A, Davis S, Valent M, Goodman R, Hileman S. Evidence of a role for kisspeptin and neurokinin B in puberty of female sheep. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2756-65 pubmed publisher
    ..genetic studies in humans, two possible neuropeptides that could promote puberty onset are kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB)...
  31. Ramaswamy S, Seminara S, Plant T. Evidence from the agonadal juvenile male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) for the view that the action of neurokinin B to trigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone release is upstream from the kisspeptin receptor. Neuroendocrinology. 2011;94:237-45 pubmed publisher
    Human genetics have revealed that kisspeptin signaling and neurokinin B (NKB) signaling are both required for robust pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, and therefore for puberty and maintenance of adult gonadal ..
  32. Mostari P, Ieda N, Deura C, Minabe S, Yamada S, Uenoyama Y, et al. dynorphin-kappa opioid receptor signaling partly mediates estrogen negative feedback effect on LH pulses in female rats. J Reprod Dev. 2013;59:266-72 pubmed
    Accumulating evidence suggests that the arcuate nucleus (ARC) kisspeptin/neurokinin B (NKB)/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons play a role in estrogen negative feedback action on pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (..
  33. Young J, George J, Tello J, Francou B, Bouligand J, Guiochon Mantel A, et al. Kisspeptin restores pulsatile LH secretion in patients with neurokinin B signaling deficiencies: physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications. Neuroendocrinology. 2013;97:193-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB), neuropeptides secreted by the same neuronal population in the ventral hypothalamus, have emerged ..
  34. Koutcherov Y, Ashwell K, Paxinos G. The distribution of the neurokinin B receptor in the human and rat hypothalamus. Neuroreport. 2000;11:3127-31 pubmed
    The neurokinin B receptor (NK3) is an element of the hypothalamic neuronal circuitry regulating blood pressure in rats. The present study used immunohistochemistry to reveal the distribution of NK3 in the human hypothalamus...
  35. Geissbuehler V, Hillermann R, Czarniecki J, Gebhardt S, Forst S, Eberhard J, et al. Third trimester plasma neurokinin B levels in women with and without preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008;21:95-100 pubmed publisher
    This study was undertaken to measure neurokinin B (NKB) levels in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia (PE) in the third trimester...
  36. Wang M, Xiong S, Li Z. Neurokinin B potentiates ATP-activated currents in rat DRG neurons. Brain Res. 2001;923:157-62 pubmed
    ..It suggests that this potentiating effect was caused by phosphorylation of ATP receptor, which resulted from the activation of G protein coupled NK3 receptor and consequential intracellular signal transduction cascade. ..
  37. Ravina C, Seda M, Pinto F, Orea A, Fernandez Sanchez M, Pintado C, et al. A role for tachykinins in the regulation of human sperm motility. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:1617-25 pubmed
    ..Organization guidelines and we found that substance P (SP), human hemokinin-1 (hHK-1), neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB) produced concentration-dependent increases in sperm progressive motility...
  38. Page N, Dakour J, Morrish D. Gene regulation of neurokinin B and its receptor NK3 in late pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Mol Hum Reprod. 2006;12:427-33 pubmed
    Elevated circulating levels of the tachykinin, neurokinin B (NKB), have been observed in women with pre-eclampsia during the third trimester of pregnancy...
  39. Young J, Bouligand J, Francou B, Raffin Sanson M, Gaillez S, Jeanpierre M, et al. TAC3 and TACR3 defects cause hypothalamic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2287-95 pubmed publisher
    Missense loss-of-function mutations in TAC3 and TACR3, the genes encoding neurokinin B and its receptor NK3R, respectively, were recently discovered in kindreds with nonsyndromic normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), ..
  40. Goodman R, Hileman S, Nestor C, Porter K, Connors J, Hardy S, et al. Kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin act in the arcuate nucleus to control activity of the GnRH pulse generator in ewes. Endocrinology. 2013;154:4259-69 pubmed publisher
    Recent work has led to the hypothesis that kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons in the arcuate nucleus play a key role in GnRH pulse generation, with kisspeptin driving GnRH release and neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin acting ..
  41. Page N, Woods R, Gardiner S, Lomthaisong K, Gladwell R, Butlin D, et al. Excessive placental secretion of neurokinin B during the third trimester causes pre-eclampsia. Nature. 2000;405:797-800 pubmed
    ..a precursor protein of 121 amino acids which gives rise to a mature peptide identical to the neuropeptide neurokinin B (NKB) of other mammalian species...
  42. Mittelman Smith M, Williams H, Krajewski Hall S, McMullen N, Rance N. Role for kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons in cutaneous vasodilatation and the estrogen modulation of body temperature. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19846-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Because menopause is accompanied by marked alterations in hypothalamic kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons, we hypothesized that these neurons could contribute to the generation of flushes...
  43. Zhou L, Furuta T, Kaneko T. Neurokinin B-producing projection neurons in the lateral stripe of the striatum and cell clusters of the accumbens nucleus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 2004;480:143-61 pubmed
    Neurons producing preprotachykinin B (PPTB), the precursor of neurokinin B, constitute 5% of neurons in the dorsal striatum and project to the substantia innominata (SI) selectively...
  44. Krajewski S, Anderson M, Iles Shih L, Chen K, Urbanski H, Rance N. Morphologic evidence that neurokinin B modulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion via neurokinin 3 receptors in the rat median eminence. J Comp Neurol. 2005;489:372-86 pubmed
    Recent studies suggest that arcuate neurokinin B (NKB) neurons play a role in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion, but there is little information on the relationship between these neurons and the hypothalamic reproductive axis...
  45. Pal S, Wu J, Murray J, Gellman S, Wozniak M, Keely P, et al. An antiangiogenic neurokinin-B/thromboxane A2 regulatory axis. J Cell Biol. 2006;174:1047-58 pubmed
    ..These results establish a conserved mechanism in which NK-B instigates multiple activities that collectively oppose vascular remodeling. ..
  46. Yang J, Dhawan V, Morrish D, Kaufman S. Bimodal effects of chronically administered neurokinin B (NKB) on in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular responses in female rats. Regul Pept. 2007;143:136-42 pubmed
    The in vivo cardiovascular effects of acutely administered neurokinin B (NKB) have been attributed both to direct effects on vascular tone and to indirect effects on central neuroendocrine control of the circulation...
  47. Topaloglu A, Reimann F, Guclu M, Yalin A, Kotan L, Porter K, et al. TAC3 and TACR3 mutations in familial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism reveal a key role for Neurokinin B in the central control of reproduction. Nat Genet. 2009;41:354-358 pubmed publisher
    ..failure in which all affected individuals are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in TAC3 (encoding Neurokinin B) or its receptor TACR3 (encoding NK3R)...
  48. Mittelman Smith M, Williams H, Krajewski Hall S, Lai J, Ciofi P, McMullen N, et al. Arcuate kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons mediate the estrogen suppression of gonadotropin secretion and body weight. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2800-12 pubmed publisher
    ..of hypothalamic arcuate neurons that coexpress estrogen receptor ?, neurokinin 3 receptor (NK(3)R), kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin for the regulation of reproduction...
  49. Zulfikaroglu E, Ugur M, Taflan S, Ugurlu N, Atalay A, Kalyoncu S. Neurokinin B levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood in preeclamptic and normal pregnancies. J Perinat Med. 2007;35:200-2 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that NKB enters both fetal and maternal circulation and may modulate fetoplacental hemodynamics. ..
  50. D Anna R, Corrado F, Baviera G, Jasonni V. Neurokinin B peptide levels in normal pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002;103:101-2 pubmed
  51. Klassert T, Pinto F, Hernandez M, Candenas M, Hernández M, Abreu J, et al. Differential expression of neurokinin B and hemokinin-1 in human immune cells. J Neuroimmunol. 2008;196:27-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we have detected for the first time the presence of NKB protein in these cellular types. These findings reinforce the suggestion that tachykinins play a central role in the pathophysiology of the inflammatory process. ..
  52. Krajewski S, Burke M, Anderson M, McMullen N, Rance N. Forebrain projections of arcuate neurokinin B neurons demonstrated by anterograde tract-tracing and monosodium glutamate lesions in the rat. Neuroscience. 2010;166:680-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin receptor signaling are essential components of the reproductive axis...
  53. Eghlidi D, Haley G, Noriega N, Kohama S, Urbanski H. Influence of age and 17beta-estradiol on kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and prodynorphin gene expression in the arcuate-median eminence of female rhesus macaques. Endocrinology. 2010;151:3783-94 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptides kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin A (collectively abbreviated as KNDy) are, respectively, encoded by KiSS-1, NKB, and PDYN and are coexpressed by neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC)...