neurokinin a


Summary: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.

Top Publications

  1. Crimi N, Pagano C, Palermo F, Mastruzzo C, Prosperini G, Pistorio M, et al. Inhibitory effect of a leukotriene receptor antagonist (montelukast) on neurokinin A-induced bronchoconstriction. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;111:833-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the effective role played by leukotrienes (LTs) in neurokinin A (NKA)-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients...
  2. Ravina C, Seda M, Pinto F, Orea A, Fernandez Sanchez M, Pintado C, et al. A role for tachykinins in the regulation of human sperm motility. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:1617-25 pubmed
    ..following World Health Organization guidelines and we found that substance P (SP), human hemokinin-1 (hHK-1), neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB) produced concentration-dependent increases in sperm progressive motility...
  3. Springer J, Wagner S, Subramamiam A, McGregor G, Groneberg D, Fischer A. BDNF-overexpression regulates the reactivity of small pulmonary arteries to neurokinin A. Regul Pept. 2004;118:19-23 pubmed
    ..To assess the interactions of BDNF and the tachykinin neurokinin A (NKA) in small pulmonary vessels, BDNF-transgenic mice were examined for tachykinin contents in the airways, ..
  4. Mostafa G, Al Ayadhi L. The possible link between the elevated serum levels of neurokinin A and anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies in children with autism. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:180 pubmed publisher
    Neurogenic inflammation is orchestrated by a large number of neuropeptides. Tachykinins (substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B) are pro-inflammatory neuropeptides that may play an important role in some autoimmune neuroinflammatory ..
  5. Ben Jebria A, Marthan R, Rossetti M, Savineau J. Effect of passive sensitization on the mechanical activity of human isolated bronchial smooth muscle induced by substance P, neurokinin A and VIP. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;109:131-6 pubmed
    ..activity of human isolated bronchial smooth muscle induced by the following neuropeptides substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied both in the absence and in the presence of the ..
  6. Schelfhout V, Van De Velde V, Maggi C, Pauwels R, Joos G. The effect of the tachykinin NK(2) receptor antagonist MEN11420 (nepadutant) on neurokinin A-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2009;3:219-26 pubmed publisher
    ..reported that the nonpeptide tachykinin NK(2) receptor antagonist SR48968 (saredutant) significantly inhibits neurokinin A-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma...
  7. Sun J, Ramnath R, Tamizhselvi R, Bhatia M. Neurokinin A engages neurokinin-1 receptor to induce NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in murine macrophages: implications of ERK1/2 and PI 3-kinase/Akt pathways. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C679-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurokinin A (NKA) belongs to the tachykinin neuropeptide family. Its biological functions are primarily mediated by the neurokinin (NK)-2 receptor. NKA has been implicated in several inflammatory conditions...
  8. Salter M, Henry J. Responses of functionally identified neurones in the dorsal horn of the cat spinal cord to substance P, neurokinin A and physalaemin. Neuroscience. 1991;43:601-10 pubmed
    The mammalian tachykinins, substance P and neurokinin A, and the non-mammalian tachykinin, physalaemin, were tested on functionally identified dorsal horn neurones in vivo...
  9. Palanche T, Ilien B, Zoffmann S, Reck M, Bucher B, Edelstein S, et al. The neurokinin A receptor activates calcium and cAMP responses through distinct conformational states. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34853-61 pubmed
    ..In order to address the question of multiple receptor states, we monitored rapid kinetics of fluorescent neurokinin A (NKA) binding to tachykinin NK2 receptors, in parallel with intracellular calcium, using rapid mixing equipment ..

More Information


  1. De Laurentiis A, Candolfi M, Pisera D, Seilicovich A. Effects of lipopolysaccharide on neurokinin A content and release in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Regul Pept. 2003;111:91-5 pubmed
    ..Since neurokinin A (NKA) plays a role in inflammatory responses and is involved in the control of prolactin secretion, we examined ..
  2. Trafton J, Abbadie C, Basbaum A. Differential contribution of substance P and neurokinin A to spinal cord neurokinin-1 receptor signaling in the rat. J Neurosci. 2001;21:3656-64 pubmed
    Although the tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) are coreleased from primary afferent nociceptors and act via neurokinin (NK) receptors, their differential effects in vivo are not known...
  3. Bhogal N, Donnelly D, Findlay J. The ligand binding site of the neurokinin 2 receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis and identification of neurokinin A binding residues in the human neurokinin 2 receptor. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:27269-74 pubmed
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis was used to alter these residues in order to ascertain their importance in binding neurokinin A (NKA), the physiological peptide ligand for the NK2 receptor, and the non-peptide NK2 receptor selective ..
  4. Awawdeh L, Lundy F, Shaw C, Lamey P, Linden G, Kennedy J. Quantitative analysis of substance P, neurokinin A and calcitonin gene-related peptide in pulp tissue from painful and healthy human teeth. Int Endod J. 2002;35:30-6 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in painful and healthy human dental pulps...
  5. Li P, Zhuo M. Substance P and neurokinin A mediate sensory synaptic transmission in young rat dorsal horn neurons. Brain Res Bull. 2001;55:521-31 pubmed
    Spinal nociceptive transmission is mediated by glutamate and neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA). The neuropeptide-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) had a slow onset and long duration...
  6. Quinn T, Collins C, Baird A. Mechanisms of neurokinin A- and substance P-induced contractions in rat detrusor smooth muscle in vitro. BJU Int. 2004;94:651-7 pubmed
    To investigate the mechanisms of neurokinin A- and substance P-induced contractions of rat urinary bladder smooth muscle, and to compare them with those of the muscarinic agonist carbachol...
  7. Awawdeh L, Lundy F, Linden G, Shaw C, Kennedy J, Lamey P. Quantitative analysis of substance P, neurokinin A and calcitonin gene-related peptide in gingival crevicular fluid associated with painful human teeth. Eur J Oral Sci. 2002;110:185-91 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the gingival crevicular fluid of teeth diagnosed with pain of pulpal origin compared with ..
  8. Sadananda P, Chess Williams R, Burcher E. Contractile properties of the pig bladder mucosa in response to neurokinin A: a role for myofibroblasts?. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153:1465-73 pubmed publisher
    The bladder urothelium is now known to have active properties. Our aim was to investigate the contractile properties of the urinary mucosa in response to the tachykinin neurokinin A (NKA) and carbachol.
  9. Bennedich Kahn L, Gustafsson L, Olgart Hoglund C. Nerve growth factor enhances neurokinin A-induced airway responses and exhaled nitric oxide via a histamine-dependent mechanism. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2008;21:522-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied if NGF could evoke increased airway responsiveness to tachykinins, such as neurokinin A (NKA), in a similar way as for histamine and, if so, whether an NGF-evoked increase in NKA airway ..
  10. Van Rensen E, Hiemstra P, Rabe K, Sterk P. Assessment of microvascular leakage via sputum induction: the role of substance P and neurokinin A in patients with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:1275-9 pubmed
    ..In a crossover study, sputum was induced before and 30 minutes after inhalation of substance P or neurokinin A (as control) by 12 subjects with atopic and mild, steroid-naive asthma...
  11. Imasaki T, Kobayashi H, Hataishi R, Hayashi I, Tomita T, Majima M. Nitric oxide is generated in smooth muscle layer by neurokinin A and counteracts constriction in guinea pig airway. Nitric Oxide. 2001;5:465-74 pubmed
    ..However, it has not been elucidated whether neurokinin A (NKA), a potent bronchoconstrictor liberated from nerve terminals, generates NO...
  12. Joos G, Vincken W, Louis R, Schelfhout V, Wang J, Shaw M, et al. Dual tachykinin NK1/NK2 antagonist DNK333 inhibits neurokinin A-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma patients. Eur Respir J. 2004;23:76-81 pubmed
    Inhalation of neurokinin A (NKA) causes bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. In vitro both tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptors can mediate airway contraction...
  13. Samsam M, Covenas R, Csillik B, Ahangari R, Yajeya J, Riquelme R, et al. Depletion of substance P, neurokinin A and calcitonin gene-related peptide from the contralateral and ipsilateral caudal trigeminal nucleus following unilateral electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion; a possible neurophysiological and neur. J Chem Neuroanat. 2001;21:161-9 pubmed
    ..trigeminal domain including the dura, looking for calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) immunoreactivity (IR) in the caudal trigeminal nucleus (CTN) into which massive central trigeminal ..
  14. Marriott I. The role of tachykinins in central nervous system inflammatory responses. Front Biosci. 2004;9:2153-65 pubmed
    ..The ability of substance P to augment immune responses of glial cells has important ramifications for the development of protective host responses within the CNS or, alternatively, the progression of damaging inflammation. ..
  15. Mamikunian P, Ardill J, O Dorisio T, Krutzik S, Vinik A, Go V, et al. Validation of neurokinin a assays in the United States and Europe. Pancreas. 2011;40:1000-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Neurokinin A (NKA) has been shown to be a powerful independent predictor of a poor prognosis in well-differentiated midgut ..
  16. Carter M, Krause J. Structure, expression, and some regulatory mechanisms of the rat preprotachykinin gene encoding substance P, neurokinin A, neuropeptide K, and neuropeptide gamma. J Neurosci. 1990;10:2203-14 pubmed
    The rat preprotachykinin (PPT) gene encoding the neuropeptides substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), neuropeptide K (NPK), and neuropeptide gamma was isolated from a lambda Charon 4A genomic library...
  17. Caviedes Bucheli J, Lombana N, Azuero Holguin M, Munoz H. Quantification of neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) expressed in healthy and inflamed human dental pulp. Int Endod J. 2006;39:394-400 pubmed
    To quantify the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in healthy and inflamed human dental pulp tissue...
  18. Canning B. Neurokinin3 receptor regulation of the airways. Vascul Pharmacol. 2006;45:227-34 pubmed
    ..In both the CNS and in the airways, NK(3) receptors are likely activated by either substance P and/or neurokinin A (NKA), both of which are full agonists at NK(3) receptors, as there is little evidence that airway nerves ..
  19. Labrou N, Mello L, Rigden D, Keen J, Findlay J. Structure-activity studies on cysteine-substituted neurokinin A analogs. Peptides. 1999;20:795-801 pubmed
    A complete series of analogs of tyrosine modified neurokinin A ([Tyr1]-NKA or [Tyr0]-NKA) has been synthesized by substituting each natural residue with 1-Cys...
  20. Bost K. Tachykinin-mediated modulation of the immune response. Front Biosci. 2004;9:3331-2 pubmed
    ..Studies which document this surprising role for neurokinin receptor expression by leukocytes are detailed in the following reviews. ..
  21. Pennefather J, Patak E, Ziccone S, Lilley A, Pinto F, Page N, et al. Regulation of the stimulant actions of neurokinin a and human hemokinin-1 on the human uterus: a comparison with histamine. Biol Reprod. 2006;75:334-41 pubmed
    ..The effects of neurokinin A (NKA) and human hemokinin-1 (hHK-1) in tissues from pregnant but not from nonpregnant women were enhanced by ..
  22. Kobayashi M, Ashino S, Shiohama Y, Wakita D, Kitamura H, Nishimura T. IFN-? elevates airway hyper-responsiveness via up-regulation of neurokinin A/neurokinin-2 receptor signaling in a severe asthma model. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:393-402 pubmed publisher
    ..AHR elevation but not neutrophilia, and remarkably induced neurokinin-2 receptor (NK2R) expression along with neurokinin A (NKA) production in the lung...
  23. Paris J, Mitsushio H, Lorens S. Intra-raphe neurokinin-induced hyperactivity: effects of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine lesions. Brain Res. 1989;476:183-8 pubmed injections into the MR of the neurokinin (NK) 3 agonists, DiMe-C7 and senktide, and the NK-2 agonist, neurokinin A. In contrast, the MFB 5,7-DHT lesions did not affect the locomotor hyperactivity produced by intra-MR ..
  24. Turner G, Johnston B, McCance D, McGinty A, Watson R, Patterson C, et al. Circulating markers of prognosis and response to treatment in patients with midgut carcinoid tumours. Gut. 2006;55:1586-91 pubmed
    ..Factors associated with a poor outcome on univariate analysis included: plasma neurokinin A (NKA), urinary 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid output, age, and >/=5 liver metastases...
  25. Gerard N, Eddy R, Shows T, Gerard C. The human neurokinin A (substance K) receptor. Molecular cloning of the gene, chromosome localization, and isolation of cDNA from tracheal and gastric tissues. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:20455-62 pubmed
    b>Neurokinin A (substance K) is a peptide neurotransmitter of the tachykinin family with potential as a major mediator in human airway and gastrointestinal tissues...
  26. Chiwakata C, Brackmann B, Hunt N, Davidoff M, Schulze W, Ivell R. Tachykinin (substance-P) gene expression in Leydig cells of the human and mouse testis. Endocrinology. 1991;128:2441-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the tachykinins substance-P and neurokinin-A must now be added to the list of potentially paracrine substances regulating intratesticular function. ..
  27. Sellers D, Chapple C, W Hay D, Chess Williams R. Depressed contractile responses to neurokinin A in idiopathic but not neurogenic overactive human detrusor muscle. Eur Urol. 2006;49:510-8 pubmed
    The role of tachykinins such as neurokinin A in regulating bladder function is unclear, but NK2 receptors seem to mediate contraction in the human bladder and it has been suggested that these peptides may have a role in the ..
  28. Pintado C, Pinto F, Pennefather J, Hidalgo A, Baamonde A, Sanchez T, et al. A role for tachykinins in female mouse and rat reproductive function. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:940-6 pubmed
    ..The preprotachykinin (PPT) genes, PPT-A, PPT-B and PPT-C, that encode substance P/neurokinin A, neurokinin B, and hemokinin-1, respectively, and the genes that encode the tachykinin NK1, NK2, and NK3 ..
  29. Boyer C, Maubert E, Charnay Y, Chichery R. Distribution of neurokinin A-like and serotonin immunoreactivities within the vertical lobe complex in Sepia officinalis. Brain Res. 2007;1133:53-66 pubmed
    Immunohistochemistry, using antibodies raised against mammalian neurokinin A (NKA) and serotonin (5-HT), was applied in double-staining experiments to map these molecules within the vertical lobe complex (inferior frontal, superior ..
  30. Pelletier L, Angonin R, Regnard J, Fellmann D, Charbord P. Human bone marrow angiogenesis: in vitro modulation by substance P and neurokinin A. Br J Haematol. 2002;119:1083-9 pubmed
    ..The substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) were similarly potent at increasing in vitro angiogenesis, via NK1 and NK2 receptors respectively...
  31. Maggi C. The troubled story of tachykinins and neurokinins. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2000;21:173-5 pubmed
    ..In mammals, three of these peptides (substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B) satisfy the criteria to be considered as neurotransmitters either in the central, peripheral ..
  32. Debeljuk L, Lasaga M. Modulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and the pineal gland by neurokinin A, neuropeptide K and neuropeptide gamma. Peptides. 1999;20:285-99 pubmed
    Modulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and the pineal gland by neurokinin A, neuropeptide K, and neuropeptide gamma. PEPTIDES 1999...
  33. Ramalho R, Soares R, Couto N, Moreira A. Tachykinin receptors antagonism for asthma: a systematic review. BMC Pulm Med. 2011;11:41 pubmed publisher
    Tachykinins substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B seem to account for asthma pathophysiology by mediating neurogenic inflammation and several aspects of lung mechanics...
  34. Burbach G, Kim K, Zivony A, Kim A, Aranda J, Wright S, et al. The neurosensory tachykinins substance P and neurokinin A directly induce keratinocyte nerve growth factor. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;117:1075-82 pubmed
    ..In order to address this question experimentally we examined the effect of the neuropeptides, substance P and neurokinin A, on nerve growth factor expression in human keratinocytes and the murine keratinocyte PAM 212 cell line by ..
  35. Reynolds A, Holmes M, Scicchitano R. Cytokines enhance airway smooth muscle contractility in response to acetylcholine and neurokinin A. Respirology. 2000;5:153-60 pubmed
    ..Following incubation cumulative concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh) and neurokinin A (NKA) were obtained...
  36. Schelfhout V, Louis R, Lenz W, Heyrman R, Pauwels R, Joos G. The triple neurokinin-receptor antagonist CS-003 inhibits neurokinin A-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2006;19:413-8 pubmed
    b>Neurokinin A (NKA) causes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. In vitro both NK1 and NK2 receptors can mediate airway contraction. Moreover in guinea pigs, NK3 receptors facilitate cholinergic neurotransmission...
  37. Nagashima A, Takano Y, Tateishi K, Matsuoka Y, Hamaoka T, Kamiya H. Cardiovascular roles of tachykinin peptides in the nucleus tractus solitarii of rats. Brain Res. 1989;487:392-6 pubmed
    ..ganglionectomy) caused significant decrease in the content of substance P-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI) and neurokinin A-like immunoreactivity (NKA-LI) in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of rats...
  38. Krause J, Chirgwin J, Carter M, Xu Z, Hershey A. Three rat preprotachykinin mRNAs encode the neuropeptides substance P and neurokinin A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:881-5 pubmed screen a rat striatal cDNA library for sequences corresponding to the tachykinin peptides substance P and neurokinin A. The cDNA library was constructed from RNA isolated from the rostral portion of the rat corpus striatum, the ..
  39. Brenes J, Broiz A, Bassi G, Schwarting R, Brandao M. Involvement of midbrain tectum neurokinin-mediated mechanisms in fear and anxiety. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2012;45:349-56 pubmed
  40. Barr A, Watson S, Bernal A, Nimmo A. The presence of NK3 tachykinin receptors on rat uterus. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991;203:287-90 pubmed
    ..The rat uterus is the second peripheral tissue in which a post-synaptic, non-neuronal NK3 receptor has been identified. ..
  41. Sanchez L, Covenas R, Aguirre J, Narvaez J, Gomez A, Tramu G. Mapping of tachykinins in the cat spinal cord. Arch Ital Biol. 2005;143:29-50 pubmed
    Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, the location of cell bodies and fibers containing substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B was studied in the cat spinal cord...
  42. Tjoa M, Lomecky M, Martens F, van Wijk I, van Vugt J, Blankenstein M, et al. Neurokinin B levels in maternal circulation during early pregnancy. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2004;42:611-3 pubmed
    ..No difference was found in plasma neurokinin B levels, although neurokinin B levels increased slightly towards term. ..
  43. Severini C, Ciotti M, Mercanti D, Barbato C, Calissano P. A tachykinin-like factor increases glutamate toxicity in rat cerebellar granule cells. Neuropharmacology. 2003;44:117-24 pubmed
    Tachykinins (TKs), which include substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B, constitute a group of neuropeptides widely expressed in the CNS where they play several functions connected with neural modulation often in synergy with ..
  44. Horie M, Yanagisawa H, Sugawara M. Fluorometric immunoassay based on pH-sensitive dye-encapsulating liposomes and gramicidin channels. Anal Biochem. 2007;369:192-201 pubmed
    ..DNP-PE], Fab' fragment of anti-substance P, and Fab' of anti-neurokinin A). The addition of gramicidin induced release of H(+) ions from the inner solution (pH 5...
  45. Sakurada S, Orito T, Furuta S, Watanabe H, Mobarakeh J, Yanai K, et al. Intrathecal histamine induces spinally mediated behavioral responses through tachykinin NK1 receptors. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;74:487-93 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that elicitation of scratching, biting and licking behavior induced by intrathecal injection of histamine may be largely mediated by NK(1) receptors via H(1) receptors in the spinal cord. ..
  46. Stacey A, Woodhall G, Jones R. Neurokinin-receptor-mediated depolarization of cortical neurons elicits an increase in glutamate release at excitatory synapses. Eur J Neurosci. 2002;16:1896-906 pubmed
    ..83, 2519-2525], whereas the terminals of neurons responsible for the NK1-receptor induced glutamate release may not bear these receptors. These results have implications for control of activity and epileptogenesis in cortical networks. ..
  47. Van Wulfen K, Bowker R. Evaluation of tachykinins and their receptors to determine sensory innervation in the dorsal hoof wall and insertion of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament and deep digital flexor tendon on the distal phalanx in healthy feet of horses. Am J Vet Res. 2002;63:222-8 pubmed
    To localize substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) and their receptors in the insertion of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament (DSIL), deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT), and dorsal hoof wall of healthy feet of horses...
  48. Palma C, Nardelli F, Manzini S, Maggi C. Substance P activates responses correlated with tumour growth in human glioma cell lines bearing tachykinin NK1 receptors. Br J Cancer. 1999;79:236-43 pubmed
    ..Second, application of SP or neurokinin A (NKA) to NK1R+ glioma cell lines increased the secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and potentiated IL-6 secretion ..
  49. Ukai M, Shinkai N, Kameyama T. Involvement of dopamine receptors in beneficial effects of tachykinins on scopolamine-induced impairment of alternation performance in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998;350:39-45 pubmed
    ..of dopamine receptors in the beneficial effects of intracerebroventricular injection of substance P, neurokinin A and senktide on the scopolamine-induced impairment of spontaneous alternation performance was investigated in ..
  50. Krishnakumar S, Holmes E, Moore R, Kappel L, Venugopal C. Non-adrenergic non-cholinergic excitatory innervation in the airways: role of neurokinin-2 receptors. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 2002;22:215-24 pubmed
    ..8 These studies indicated that neurokinin-2 receptors were involved in the vagally mediated efferent neurotransmission of NANC-e and that NANC-e plays a role in allergen-induced bronchoconstriction. ..
  51. Liu L, Burcher E. Radioligand binding and functional characterisation of tachykinin receptors in chicken small intestine. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2001;364:305-13 pubmed
    ..The study provides evidence for a tachykinin receptor with similarities to the NK1 receptor in the chicken small intestine. In addition, senktide may act on a receptor similar to the mammalian NK3 receptor. ..
  52. Otsuka M, Yoshioka K, Yanagisawa M, Suzuki H, Zhao F, Guo J, et al. Use of NK1 receptor antagonists in the exploration of physiological functions of substance P and neurokinin A. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1995;73:903-7 pubmed
    Tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists were used to explore the physiological functions of substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA)...
  53. Tokuyama K, Yokoyama T, Morikawa A, Mochizuki H, Kuroume T, Barnes P. Attenuation of tachykinin-induced airflow obstruction and microvascular leakage in immature airways. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;108:23-9 pubmed
    1. To study the effect of maturation on substance P (SP)- and neurokinin A (NKA)-induced airflow obstruction and airway microvascular leakage (MVL), we have measured changes in both lung resistance (RL) and extravasation of Evans blue dye ..