pepstatins

Summary

Summary: N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.

Top Publications

  1. O Donoghue A, Mahon C, Goetz D, O Malley J, Gallagher D, Zhou M, et al. Inhibition of a secreted glutamic peptidase prevents growth of the fungus Talaromyces emersonii. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..emersonii in complex media is unaffected by the aspartyl peptidase inhibitor pepstatin but is inhibited by TA1 and PT1. This study provides insight into the functional role of the glutamic peptidase TGP1 for growth of T. emersonii...
  2. Li L, Zhong L, Jiang L, Geng C, Zhu T, Xu Y, et al. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization contributes to elemene emulsion-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Free Radic Res. 2011;45:1232-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated that apoptosis induced by elemene emulsion in A549 cells is mediated in part through LMP and lysosomal protease cathepsin D. ..
  3. Aoki W, Kitahara N, Miura N, Morisaka H, Yamamoto Y, Kuroda K, et al. Candida albicans possesses Sap7 as a pepstatin A-insensitive secreted aspartic protease. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32513 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding will lead to the development of a novel protease inhibitor beyond pepstatin A. Such a novel inhibitor will be an important research tool as well as pharmaceutical agent for patients suffering from candidiasis. ..
  4. Chen C, Chen W, Zhou M, Arttamangkul S, Haugland R. Probing the cathepsin D using a BODIPY FL-pepstatin A: applications in fluorescence polarization and microscopy. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2000;42:137-51 pubmed
    ..These properties, along with the good photostability of the BODIPY FL fluorophore, make this probe a novel tool for the study of the secretion and trafficking of cathepsin D. ..
  5. Bidere N, Lorenzo H, Carmona S, Laforge M, Harper F, Dumont C, et al. Cathepsin D triggers Bax activation, resulting in selective apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) relocation in T lymphocytes entering the early commitment phase to apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:31401-11 pubmed
    ..This allowed us to define a novel sequence of events in which Cat D triggers Bax activation, Bax induces the selective release of mitochondrial AIF, and the latter is responsible for the early apoptotic phenotype. ..
  6. Zaidi N, Burster T, Sommandas V, Herrmann T, Boehm B, Driessen C, et al. A novel cell penetrating aspartic protease inhibitor blocks processing and presentation of tetanus toxoid more efficiently than pepstatin A. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;364:243-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, inhibition of tetanus toxoid C-fragment processing by PepA-P clearly implicates the role of aspartic proteinases in antigen processing. ..
  7. Drew M, Banerjee R, Uffman E, Gilbertson S, Rosenthal P, Goldberg D. Plasmodium food vacuole plasmepsins are activated by falcipains. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12870-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a further level of redundancy between the protease families involved in Plasmodium hemoglobin degradation. ..
  8. Beaujouin M, Liaudet Coopman E. Cathepsin D overexpressed by cancer cells can enhance apoptosis-dependent chemo-sensitivity independently of its catalytic activity. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;617:453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results imply that cytosolic CD stimulates apoptotic pathways by interacting with a member of the apoptotic machinery rather than by cleaving specific substrate(s). ..
  9. Raiber E, Tulone C, Zhang Y, Martinez Pomares L, Steed E, Sponaas A, et al. Targeted delivery of antigen processing inhibitors to antigen presenting cells via mannose receptors. ACS Chem Biol. 2010;5:461-476 pubmed publisher
    ..The strategy adopted for MPC6 synthesis may therefore represent a more general way to deliver chemical inhibitors to cells of the innate immune system, especially at sites of inflammation. ..

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Johansson A, Steen H, Ollinger K, Roberg K. Cathepsin D mediates cytochrome c release and caspase activation in human fibroblast apoptosis induced by staurosporine. Cell Death Differ. 2003;10:1253-9 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the relative sequence of apoptotic events indicates that, in this cell type, cathepsin D acts upstream of cytochrome c release and caspase activation. ..
  2. Klemba M, Goldberg D. Characterization of plasmepsin V, a membrane-bound aspartic protease homolog in the endoplasmic reticulum of Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2005;143:183-91 pubmed
    ..Together, these results strongly suggest that the role of PM V in P. falciparum is distinct from those of previously characterized plasmepsins. ..
  3. Schild L, Heyken A, De Groot P, Hiller E, Mock M, de Koster C, et al. Proteolytic cleavage of covalently linked cell wall proteins by Candida albicans Sap9 and Sap10. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:98-109 pubmed publisher
    ..albicans by human macrophages. We propose that Sap9 and Sap10 influence distinct cell wall functions by proteolytic cleavage of covalently linked cell wall proteins. ..
  4. Free P, Hurley C, Kageyama T, Chain B, Tabor A. Mannose-pepstatin conjugates as targeted inhibitors of antigen processing. Org Biomol Chem. 2006;4:1817-30 pubmed
    ..However, a neomannosylated BSA-pepstatin conjugate incorporating a cleavable disulfide linkage between the pepstatin and the BSA showed the best uptake to dendritic cells and the best inhibition of antigen processing. ..
  5. Rolland S, Bruel C, Rascle C, Girard V, Billon Grand G, Poussereau N. pH controls both transcription and post-translational processing of the protease BcACP1 in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Microbiology. 2009;155:2097-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence is presented for an autocatalytic proteolysis of the enzyme that is triggered by acidic pH. Environmental pH therefore controls Bcacp1 production at both the transcriptional and post-translational level. ..
  6. Takenouchi T, Iwamaru Y, Sugama S, Tsukimoto M, Fujita M, Sekigawa A, et al. The activation of P2X7 receptor induces cathepsin D-dependent production of a 20-kDa form of IL-1? under acidic extracellular pH in LPS-primed microglial cells. J Neurochem. 2011;117:712-23 pubmed publisher
  7. Guha S, Baltazar G, Tu L, Liu J, Lim J, Lu W, et al. Stimulation of the D5 dopamine receptor acidifies the lysosomal pH of retinal pigmented epithelial cells and decreases accumulation of autofluorescent photoreceptor debris. J Neurochem. 2012;122:823-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduced accumulation of lipofuscin-like autofluorescence implies the D5 receptor stimulation may enable cells to better support adjacent neurons...
  8. Cosio G, Jeziorski M, Lopez Barrera F, de la Escalera G, Clapp C. Hypoxia inhibits expression of prolactin and secretion of cathepsin-D by the GH4C1 pituitary adenoma cell line. Lab Invest. 2003;83:1627-36 pubmed
    ..These mechanisms may act in concert to stimulate angiogenesis in prolactinomas. ..
  9. Baker A, Batchelor D, Thomas G, Wen J, Rafiee M, Lin H, et al. Central penetration and stability of N-terminal tripeptide of insulin-like growth factor-I, glycine-proline-glutamate in adult rat. Neuropeptides. 2005;39:81-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that GPE crosses the blood-CSF and the functional CSF-brain barriers. The longer half-life of GPE in the CNS may be due to its unique enzymatic stability. ..
  10. Inoue H, Tsubota K, Ono M, Kizu Y, Mizuno F, Takada K, et al. Possible involvement of EBV-mediated alpha-fodrin cleavage for organ-specific autoantigen in Sjogren's syndrome. J Immunol. 2001;166:5801-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, an increase in apoptotic protease activities induced by EBV reactivation may be involved in the progression of alpha-fodrin proteolysis in the development of SS. ..
  11. Munkhjargal T, Aboulaila M, Terkawi M, Sivakumar T, Ichikawa M, Davaasuren B, et al. Inhibitory effects of pepstatin A and mefloquine on the growth of Babesia parasites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:681-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, mefloquine may antagonize the actions of pepstatin A against babesiosis and aspartic proteases may play an important role in the asexual growth cycle of Babesia parasites. ..
  12. Dodds R, James I, Rieman D, Ahern R, Hwang S, Connor J, et al. Human osteoclast cathepsin K is processed intracellularly prior to attachment and bone resorption. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16:478-86 pubmed
    ..The processing of procathepsin K to mature cathepsin K occurs as the osteoclast approaches bone, suggesting that local factors may regulate this process. ..
  13. Hu L, Roth J, Brooks P, Luty J, Karpatkin S. Thrombin up-regulates cathepsin D which enhances angiogenesis, growth, and metastasis. Cancer Res. 2008;68:4666-73 pubmed publisher
    ..02). Thus, thrombin-induced CD contributes to the malignant phenotype by inducing tumor cell migration, nodule growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. CD-induced angiogenesis requires the proteolytic activation of MMP-9. ..
  14. Liu Y, Zhou Y, Zhu K. Inhibition of glioma cell lysosome exocytosis inhibits glioma invasion. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45910 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of cathepsin D inhibited glioma cell migration. The data suggest that the inhibition of lysosome exocytosis from glioma cells plays an important modulatory role in their migration and invasion. ..
  15. Almeida C, Pereira C, da Costa D, Pereira S, Pissarra J, Simões I, et al. Chlapsin, a chloroplastidial aspartic proteinase from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Planta. 2012;236:283-96 pubmed publisher
  16. Puri S, Kumar R, Chadha S, Tati S, Conti H, Hube B, et al. Secreted aspartic protease cleavage of Candida albicans Msb2 activates Cek1 MAPK signaling affecting biofilm formation and oropharyngeal candidiasis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46020 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of Msb2 processing at the level of Saps may provide a means of attenuating MAPK signaling and reducing C. albicans virulence...
  17. Roberg K, Johansson U, Ollinger K. Lysosomal release of cathepsin D precedes relocation of cytochrome c and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential during apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999;27:1228-37 pubmed
    ..Moreover, apoptosis could be inhibited by pretreatment with pepstatin A. ..
  18. Binkert C, Frigerio M, Jones A, Meyer S, Pesenti C, Prade L, et al. Replacement of isobutyl by trifluoromethyl in pepstatin A selectively affects inhibition of aspartic proteinases. Chembiochem. 2006;7:181-6 pubmed
    ..In summary, Tfm can be used to replace an isobutyl group and can affect the selectivity profile of a compound. These findings have implications for the design of novel bioactive molecules and synthetic mimics of natural compounds. ..
  19. Li J, Chi Z, Wang X. Cloning of the SAP6 gene of Metschnikowia reukaufii and its heterologous expression and characterization in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Res. 2010;165:173-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The purified rSAP6 was characterized as an aspartic protease as it was inhibited by aspartic protease-specific inhibitors, such as pepstatin. It was also found that the purified rSAP6 had milk-clotting activity. ..
  20. Pichova I, Pavlickova L, Dostal J, Dolejsí E, Hruskova Heidingsfeldova O, Weber J, et al. Secreted aspartic proteases of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida lusitaniae. Inhibition with peptidomimetic inhibitors. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:2669-77 pubmed
    ..The HIV-1 protease inhibitors ritonavir, saquinavir, indinavir, and nelfinavir were also tested for the inhibition of four Saps. Only ritonavir and saquinavir inhibited Sap2p, Sapt1p, Sapp1p, and Saplp in micromolar concentrations. ..
  21. Coyne C, Baravick J, Howell T, Baravick E, Willetto C, Fenwick B. Biochemical mechanisms that interact with membrane-associated IL-1 RII (60-kDa decoy) receptors in populations of adherent macrophages and vascular endothelium. Cell Signal. 2001;13:765-76 pubmed
  22. Blusch J, Seelmeir S, von der Helm K. Molecular and enzymatic characterization of the porcine endogenous retrovirus protease. J Virol. 2002;76:7913-7 pubmed
    ..Among the known retroviral proteases, the PERV proteases resemble most closely the protease of the murine leukemia retrovirus. ..
  23. Song K, Miyazaki M, Okunishi H, Ishii K, Takai S, Shiota N, et al. Localization and quantitation of active renin in monkey kidney by radioinhibitor binding and in vitro autoradiography. Am J Hypertens. 1994;7:529-35 pubmed
    ..This technique permits specific labeling of the catalytic site of renin in the monkey kidney sections. ..
  24. Consolaro M, Gasparetto A, Svidzinski T, Peralta R. Effect of pepstatin A on the virulence factors of Candida albicans strains isolated from vaginal environment of patients in three different clinical conditions. Mycopathologia. 2006;162:75-82 pubmed
    ..1, 48.7 and 59.9%, respectively to isolates from asymptomatic, VVC and RVVC patients). This result suggests that the secreted aspartate proteinases (Saps) of this fungal pathogen may have auxiliary roles in cellular adhesion. ..
  25. Amirhusin B, Shade R, Koiwa H, Hasegawa P, Bressan R, Murdock L, et al. Protease inhibitors from several classes work synergistically against Callosobruchus maculatus. J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:734-40 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggest that transgenic resistance strategies that involve multigene products are likely to have enhanced efficacy and durability. ..
  26. Matúz K, Mótyán J, Li M, Wlodawer A, Tozser J. Inhibition of XMRV and HIV-1 proteases by pepstatin A and acetyl-pepstatin. FEBS J. 2012;279:3276-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure is thus in good agreement with the very similar interaction energies calculated for the two types of binding. ..
  27. Mothes E, Shoeman R, Traub P. Effect of pepstatin A on structure and polymerization of intermediate filament subunit proteins in vitro. J Struct Biol. 1991;106:64-72 pubmed
    ..These data show that non-ionic interactions can substitute for the effect of salt and effectively drive the higher-order polymerization of IF subunit proteins. ..
  28. Verity C, McManus D, Brindley P. Developmental expression of cathepsin D aspartic protease in Schistosoma japonicum. Int J Parasitol. 1999;29:1819-24 pubmed
    ..japonicum, express an aspartic protease. Moreover, they are consistent with the hypothesis that this enzyme plays a key role in maturing and adult schistosomes in the proteolysis of host haemoglobin from ingested erythrocytes. ..
  29. Zhou W, Scott S, Shelton S, Crutcher K. Cathepsin D-mediated proteolysis of apolipoprotein E: possible role in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience. 2006;143:689-701 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that aspartic proteases, catD in particular, may be involved in proteolysis of apoE and perhaps contribute to the generation of apoE fragments previously implicated in AD pathology. ..
  30. Butler D, Zhang D. Corpuscles of Stannius secrete renin or an isorenin that regulates cardiovascular function in freshwater North American eels, Anguilla rostrata LeSueur. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2001;124:199-217 pubmed
    ..These findings support strongly the hypothesis that the corpuscles of Stannius secrete renin or isorenin and that the renin-angiotensin system regulates cardiovascular function in freshwater eels and other bony fishes that possess them. ..
  31. Roberts N, Taylor W. Comparative pepstatin inhibition studies on individual human pepsins and pepsinogens 1,3 and 5(gastricsin) and pig pepsin A. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2003;18:209-17 pubmed
    ..The explanation for the reduced affinity of pepstatin to pepsin 5(gastricsin) needs further study by co-crystallisation X-ray analysis. ..
  32. Wang X, Fan H, Ying Z, Li B, Wang H, Wang G. Degradation of TDP-43 and its pathogenic form by autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Neurosci Lett. 2010;469:112-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data suggest that TDP-43 and TDP-25 are degraded by both proteasome and autophagy with TDP-25 being more regulated. ..
  33. Aoki K, Matsubara S, Umeda M, Tachibanac S, Doi M, Takenaka S. Aspartic protease from Aspergillus (Eurotium) repens strain MK82 is involved in the hydrolysis and decolourisation of dried bonito (Katsuobushi). J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93:1349-55 pubmed publisher
    ..It is proposed that aspartic protease plays a role in the decolourisation of Katsuobushi by the hydrolysis of haem proteins that allows the released haem to aggregate in the dried bonito. ..
  34. Cordonnier M, Dauzonne D, Louvard D, Coudrier E. Actin filaments and myosin I alpha cooperate with microtubules for the movement of lysosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:4013-29 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our observations indicate for the first time that both actin filaments and MMIalpha contribute to the movement of lysosomes in cooperation with microtubules and their associated molecular motors. ..
  35. Kalra P, Das A, Jayaram B. Free-energy analysis of enzyme-inhibitor binding: aspartic proteinase-pepstatin complexes. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2001;96:93-108 pubmed
    ..Implications of these observations to drug design are discussed. ..
  36. Bas D, Rogers D, Jensen J. Very fast prediction and rationalization of pKa values for protein-ligand complexes. Proteins. 2008;73:765-83 pubmed publisher
  37. Andoh T, Yoshida T, Lee J, Kuraishi Y. Cathepsin E induces itch-related response through the production of endothelin-1 in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;686:16-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that cathepsin E is an endogenous itch inducer, and that its action is mediated at least in part by the production of endothelin-1 in the epidermis. ..
  38. Hamazaki H. Carboxy-terminal truncation of long-tailed amyloid beta-peptide is inhibited by serine protease inhibitor and peptide aldehyde. FEBS Lett. 1998;424:136-8 pubmed
    ..The present data suggest that the serine carboxypeptidase contributes to the generation of short-tailed Abeta peptides and is important in the intracellular clearance of Abeta1-42/43 in brains. ..
  39. Reijonen H, Elliott J, van Endert P, Nepom G. Differential presentation of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) T cell epitopes among HLA-DRB1*0401-positive individuals. J Immunol. 1999;163:1674-81 pubmed
    ..This may be an important mechanism for the deviation of the immune response either into a regulatory pathway or into an inflammatory autoimmune reactivity. ..
  40. Benes P, Koelsch G, Dvorak B, Fusek M, Vetvicka V. Detection of procathepsin D in rat milk. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;133:113-8 pubmed
    ..This study represents third demonstration of presence of procathepsin D in mammal breast milk. Potential sources and physiological functions are discussed. ..
  41. Chu J, Thomas L, Watkins S, Franchi L, Nunez G, Salter R. Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins induce rapid release of mature IL-1beta from murine macrophages in a NLRP3 inflammasome and cathepsin B-dependent manner. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:1227-38 pubmed publisher
  42. Fujinaga M, Chernaia M, Tarasova N, Mosimann S, James M. Crystal structure of human pepsin and its complex with pepstatin. Protein Sci. 1995;4:960-72 pubmed
    ..At the S3 site, the smaller volume that is accessible in pepsin compared to the other enzymes is consistent with its preference for smaller residues at the P3 position. ..
  43. da Silva Gomes R, Batista R, Costa de Almeida A, da Fonseca D, Juliano L, Hial V. A fluorimetric method for the determination of pepsin activity. Anal Biochem. 2003;316:11-4 pubmed
  44. Bennett K, Levine T, Ellis J, Peanasky R, Samloff I, Kay J, et al. Antigen processing for presentation by class II major histocompatibility complex requires cleavage by cathepsin E. Eur J Immunol. 1992;22:1519-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, cathepsin E, whose function was hitherto unknown, may play a major role in antigen processing. ..
  45. Fejfarova K, Kádek A, Mrázek H, Hausner J, Tretyachenko V, Koval T, et al. Crystallization of nepenthesin I using a low-pH crystallization screen. Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun. 2016;72:24-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Matthews coefficient and solvent-content calculations suggest the presence of two molecules of rNep1 in the asymmetric unit. Here, the details of the crystallization experiment and analysis of the X-ray data are reported. ..
  46. Castino R, Bellio N, Nicotra G, Follo C, Trincheri N, Isidoro C. Cathepsin D-Bax death pathway in oxidative stressed neuroblastoma cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;42:1305-16 pubmed
    ..The present study identifies the lysosome as the primary target and the axis cathepsin D-Bax as the effective pathway of hydrogen peroxide lethal activity in neuroblastoma cells. ..
  47. Mancini F, Naldi M, Cavrini V, Andrisano V. Development and characterization of beta-secretase monolithic micro-immobilized enzyme reactor for on-line high-performance liquid chromatography studies. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1175:217-26 pubmed
    ..The main advantages of the hrBACE-1-micro-IMER approach over the conventional methods were found to be the increased enzyme efficiency, stability and the decreased time of analysis. ..
  48. Bewley M, Pham T, Marriott H, Noirel J, Chu H, Ow S, et al. Proteomic evaluation and validation of cathepsin D regulated proteins in macrophages exposed to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2011;10:M111.008193 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that cathepsin D regulates multiple proteins controlling the mitochondrial pathway of macrophage apoptosis or competing death processes, facilitating intracellular bacterial killing. ..
  49. Laslop A, Fischer Colbrie R, Kirschke H, Hogue Angeletti R, Winkler H. Chromogranin A-processing proteinases in purified chromaffin granules: contaminants or endogenous enzymes?. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1033:65-72 pubmed
    ..Two enzymes with low activity (a Ca2+ activated proteinase and a trypsin-like enzyme) are, apparently, true constituents of chromaffin granules. ..
  50. Kluve Beckerman B, Liepnieks J, Wang L, Benson M. A cell culture system for the study of amyloid pathogenesis. Amyloid formation by peritoneal macrophages cultured with recombinant serum amyloid A. Am J Pathol. 1999;155:123-33 pubmed
    ..The macrophage culture model presented here offers a new approach to the study of AA amyloid pathogenesis. ..
  51. Nagahama K, Yamato M, Nishio H, Takeuchi K. Essential role of pepsin in pathogenesis of acid reflux esophagitis in rats. Dig Dis Sci. 2006;51:303-9 pubmed
    ..It is assumed that pepsin plays a major pathogenic role in the development of acid reflux esophagitis. ..
  52. Borelli C, Ruge E, Lee J, Schaller M, Vogelsang A, Monod M, et al. X-ray structures of Sap1 and Sap5: structural comparison of the secreted aspartic proteinases from Candida albicans. Proteins. 2008;72:1308-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Determination of the isoenzymes' structures can contribute to the development of new Sap-specific inhibitors for the treatment of superficial infections with a structure-based drug design program. ..
  53. Nagasawa T, Sano K, Kawaguchi M, Kobayashi K, Yasumasu S, Inokuchi T. Purification and molecular cloning of aspartic proteinases from the stomach of adult Japanese fire belly newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster. J Biochem. 2016;159:449-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the enzymological characters that distinguish A- and C-type pepsins appear to be conserved in mammals and amphibians. ..
  54. Mizuno K, Niimura S, Tani M, Haga H, Inagami T, Fukuchii S. Direct proof for local generation and release of angiotensin II in peripheral human vascular tissue. Am J Hypertens. 1991;4:67S-72S pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  55. Nisbet A, Billingsley P. Immunological control of scab mites: digestive enzymes as candidate compounds. Vet Parasitol. 1999;83:231-9 pubmed
  56. Junaid M, Clark G, Pullarkat R. A lysosomal pepstatin-insensitive proteinase as a novel biomarker for breast carcinoma. Int J Biol Markers. 2000;15:129-34 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a diagnostic and prognostic potential for this novel acid proteinase in breast cancer. ..
  57. Kotomski G, Wedrychowicz H. Preliminary analysis of the proteolytic enzymes in the excretory-secretory products of the adult stages of the dog hookworm Uncinaria stenocephala. Parasite. 2001;8:67-70 pubmed
    ..Quantitative analysis revealed maximum proteolytic activity of the polypeptides of 159 and 182 kDa at pH 7; 98 and 26 kDa at pH 8 while the 50 kDa and 39 kDa components showed the highest activity at pH 9. ..
  58. Nishioku T, Hashimoto K, Yamashita K, Liou S, Kagamiishi Y, Maegawa H, et al. Involvement of cathepsin E in exogenous antigen processing in primary cultured murine microglia. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:4816-22 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, CE is required for the generation of an antigenic epitope from OVA but not for the processing of Ii in microglia. ..
  59. Valiente P, Batista P, Pupo A, Pons T, Valencia A, Pascutti P. Predicting functional residues in Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsins by combining sequence and structural analysis with molecular dynamics simulations. Proteins. 2008;73:440-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results shed light on the role of V105 and T108 residues in plasmepsin specificities, and they should be useful in structure-based design of novel, selective inhibitors that may serve as antimalarial drugs. ..
  60. Sato K, Ozaki T, Ishiguro S, Nakazawa M. M-opsin protein degradation is inhibited by MG-132 in Rpe65?/? retinal explant culture. Mol Vis. 2012;18:1516-25 pubmed
    ..We used an explant culture system to evaluate whether posttranslational downregulation of M-opsin protein in Rpe65(-/-) mice is caused by proteolytic degradation...
  61. Chen Y, Liersch R, Detmar M. The miR-290-295 cluster suppresses autophagic cell death of melanoma cells. Sci Rep. 2012;2:808 pubmed publisher
  62. Lopez D, Gil Torregrosa B, Bergmann C, Del Val M. Sequential cleavage by metallopeptidases and proteasomes is involved in processing HIV-1 ENV epitope for endogenous MHC class I antigen presentation. J Immunol. 2000;164:5070-7 pubmed
    ..These results show that, in the classical TAP-dependent MHC class I pathway, endogenous Ag processing of viral proteins to yield the p18 10-mer epitope requires metallo-endopeptidases in addition to proteasomes...
  63. Zang Y, Beard R, Chandraratna R, Kang J. Evidence of a lysosomal pathway for apoptosis induced by the synthetic retinoid CD437 in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Cell Death Differ. 2001;8:477-85 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a novel lysosomal pathway for CD437-induced apoptosis, in which lysosomes are the primary target and cathepsin D and free radicals act as death mediators. ..
  64. Kienlen Campard P, Octave J. Correlation between beta-amyloid peptide production and human APP-induced neuronal death. Peptides. 2002;23:1199-204 pubmed
    ..This suggests that Abeta production is likely to be the critical event in the neurodegenerative process of AD. ..
  65. Backman D, Danielson U. Kinetic and mechanistic analysis of the association and dissociation of inhibitors interacting with secreted aspartic acid proteases 1 and 2 from Candida albicans. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1646:184-95 pubmed
    ..Differences in the number and distribution of charged nonactive site residues in Sap1 and Sap2 evidently result in different electrostatic properties of the binding sites, primarily influencing the association step. ..
  66. Petrescu G, Costuleanu M, Slatineanu S, Costuleanu N, Cernucan D. Pepstatin A is inducing contractile effects on isolated rat aorta rings. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2002;106:741-5 pubmed
    ..Further experiments are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms associated to pepstatin A-induced effects. ..
  67. Starovoitova V, Velichko T, Baratova L, Filippova I, Lavrenova G. A comparative study of functional properties of calf chymosin and its recombinant forms. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2006;71:320-4 pubmed
    ..Perhaps this is associated with local conformational changes in the substrate binding site of recombinant chymosin occurring during the formation of the protein globule. ..
  68. Schestkowa O, Geisel D, Jacob R, Hasilik A. The catalytically inactive precursor of cathepsin D induces apoptosis in human fibroblasts and HeLa cells. J Cell Biochem. 2007;101:1558-66 pubmed
  69. Wu G, Sankaranarayanan S, Tugusheva K, Kahana J, Seabrook G, Shi X, et al. Decrease in age-adjusted cerebrospinal fluid beta-secretase activity in Alzheimer's subjects. Clin Biochem. 2008;41:986-96 pubmed publisher
    ..02). We have developed a robust assay to measure CSF BACE-1 activity which could serve as a potential biomarker in human Alzheimer's disease subjects. ..
  70. Guruprasad L, Tanneeru K, Guruprasad K. Structural rationale for the recognition of arginine at P? in PEXEL motif containing proteins of Plasmodium falciparum by plasmepsin V. Protein Pept Lett. 2011;18:634-41 pubmed
    ..Our analysis correlates the structure-function relationship of plasmepsin V. ..
  71. Suen S, Etzel M. Sorption kinetics and breakthrough curves for pepsin and chymosin using pepstatin A affinity membranes. J Chromatogr A. 1994;686:179-92 pubmed
    ..The performance of affinity-membrane separations was dominated by slow sorption kinetics. ..
  72. Marcinkeviciene J, Kopcho L, Yang T, Copeland R, Glass B, Combs A, et al. Novel inhibition of porcine pepsin by a substituted piperidine. Preference for one of the enzyme conformers. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28677-82 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the enzyme can readily interconvert between two conformers, one capable of binding substrate and pepstatin A and the other capable of binding the substituted piperidine. ..
  73. Follo C, Castino R, Nicotra G, Trincheri N, Isidoro C. Folding, activity and targeting of mutated human cathepsin D that cannot be processed into the double-chain form. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:638-49 pubmed
    ..The present work provides new insights on the aminoacid region involved in the terminal processing of human CD and on the function of the processing beta-hairpin loop. ..
  74. Cosgrove S, Rogers L, Hewage C, Malthouse J. NMR study of the inhibition of pepsin by glyoxal inhibitors: mechanism of tetrahedral intermediate stabilization by the aspartyl proteases. Biochemistry. 2007;46:11205-15 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the primary role of hydrogen bonding to catalytic tetrahedral intermediates in the aspartyl proteases is to correctly orientate the tetrahedral intermediate for catalysis. ..
  75. Staib P, Lermann U, Blass Warmuth J, Degel B, Wurzner R, Monod M, et al. Tetracycline-inducible expression of individual secreted aspartic proteases in Candida albicans allows isoenzyme-specific inhibitor screening. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:146-56 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the strain set can be used to test the activity of new protease inhibitors against individual C. albicans Sap isoenzymes by their ability to block the growth of the pathogen. ..
  76. Siala R, Frikha F, Mhamdi S, Nasri M, Kamoun A. Optimization of acid protease production by Aspergillus niger I1 on shrimp peptone using statistical experimental design. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:564932 pubmed publisher
    ..More interestingly, the optimization was accomplished using two cheap and local fermentation substrates, HGW and SP, which may result in a significant reduction in the cost of medium constituents. ..
  77. Smith R, Brereton I, Chai R, Kent S. Ionization states of the catalytic residues in HIV-1 protease. Nat Struct Biol. 1996;3:946-50 pubmed
    ..These direct observations of the chemical properties of the catalytic apparatus of the enzyme provide concrete information on which to base the design of improved HIV-1 protease inhibitors. ..
  78. Takashima T, Kawada N, Maeda N, Okuyama H, Uyama N, Seki S, et al. Pepstatin A attenuates the inhibitory effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on proliferation of hepatic myofibroblasts (stellate cells). Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;451:265-70 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that pepstatin A hampers the inhibitory effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on stellate cell growth by ameliorating growth factor receptor downregulation. ..
  79. Kim Y, Lee M, Piao T, Lee J, Kim J, Lee S, et al. Prodomain processing of recombinant plasmepsin II and IV, the aspartic proteases of Plasmodium falciparum, is auto- and trans-catalytic. J Biochem. 2006;139:189-95 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the processing of PM II and IV occurs via an intra- and inter-molecular autocatalytic event as well as via a transcatalytic event between them. ..
  80. Yamasaki R, Zhang J, Koshiishi I, Sastradipura Suniarti D, Wu Z, Peters C, et al. Involvement of lysosomal storage-induced p38 MAP kinase activation in the overproduction of nitric oxide by microglia in cathepsin D-deficient mice. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;35:573-84 pubmed
    ..The activated p38 MAP kinase cascade then promotes the expression of iNOS and CAT-2, thereby inducing the overproduction of NO. ..
  81. Chen W, Cao M, Yoshida A, Liu G, Weng W, Sun L, et al. Study on pepsinogens and pepsins from snakehead (Channa argus). J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:10972-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the three pepsinogens were determined to the 34th, 25th, and 28th amino acid residues, respectively. Western blot analysis of the three PGs exhibited different immunological reactions. ..
  82. Nascimento F, Minciotti C, Geraldeli S, Carrilho M, Pashley D, Tay F, et al. Cysteine cathepsins in human carious dentin. J Dent Res. 2011;90:506-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that, along with MMPs, cysteine cathepsins are important, especially in active and deep caries...
  83. Shoeman R, Höner B, Stoller T, Mothes E, Kesselmeier C, Traub P, et al. Cleavage of the intermediate filament subunit protein vimentin by HIV-1 protease: utilization of a novel cleavage site and identification of higher order polymers of pepstatin A. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;306:533-7 pubmed
  84. Wang Y, Lin H, Tang M. Collagen gel overlay induces two phases of apoptosis in MDCK cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;280:C1440-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, collagen gel overlay induces two phases of apoptosis; the first phase is dependent on proteolysis of focal adhesion complex proteins, and the second phase on activation of caspases. ..
  85. Holmdahl M, Grubb A, Holmdahl R. Cysteine proteases in Langerhans cells limits presentation of cartilage derived type II collagen for autoreactive T cells. Int Immunol. 2004;16:717-26 pubmed
  86. Celis Guerrero L, García Carreño F, del Toro M. Characterization of proteases in the digestive system of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus). Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2004;6:262-9 pubmed
    ..Also, such enzymes become alternative tools for use in biotechnologies. ..
  87. Sidrach L, García Cánovas F, Tudela J, Rodriguez Lopez J. Purification of cynarases from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.): enzymatic properties of cynarase A. Phytochemistry. 2005;66:41-9 pubmed
    ..The results indicate artichoke extract could also be used in the milk industry in the same way as the extract obtained from the flower of C. cardunculus. ..
  88. Oh S, Sohn Y, Park J, Park H, Jeon H, Kim T, et al. Selective cell death of oncogenic Akt-transduced brain cancer cells by etoposide through reactive oxygen species mediated damage. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:2178-87 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we show that etoposide might possess a novel therapeutic activity for oncogenic Akt-transduced cancer cells to kill preferentially through ROS-mediated damage. ..
  89. Trabocchi A, Mannino C, Machetti F, De Bernardis F, Arancia S, Cauda R, et al. Identification of inhibitors of drug-resistant Candida albicans strains from a library of bicyclic peptidomimetic compounds. J Med Chem. 2010;53:2502-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data demonstrate SAP2 as a valid C. albicans target for the development of new drugs against this important human pathogen...
  90. Gorodkiewicz E, Regulska E. SPR imaging biosensor for aspartyl cathepsins: sensor development and application for biological material. Protein Pept Lett. 2010;17:1148-54 pubmed
    ..In order to demonstrate the sensor's potential, Cat E was determined in human red blood cells, Cat D in human saliva, as well as total concentration of Cat D and Cat E in human nasal polyps. ..
  91. Alamir I, Boukhettala N, Aziz M, Breuille D, Dechelotte P, Coeffier M. Beneficial effects of cathepsin inhibition to prevent chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;162:298-305 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, a large broad inhibition of cathepsins could represent a new potential target to limit the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis as opposed to the inhibition of cathepsin D alone. ..
  92. Kubo T, Ibusuki T, Chiba S, Kambe T, Fukumori R. Mitogen-activated protein kinase activity regulation role of angiotensin and endothelin systems in vascular smooth muscle cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;411:27-34 pubmed
    ..It appears that renin or renin-like substances play the determining role in the regulation of renin-angiotensin system in vascular smooth muscle cells. ..