Summary: A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.

Top Publications

  1. Zhang L, Lopez H, George N, Liu X, Pang X, Luo X. Selective involvement of BH3-only proteins and differential targets of Noxa in diverse apoptotic pathways. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:864-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results defined the critical Bcl-2 network during apoptosis and suggested that Noxa participated in triggering mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple apoptotic pathways through distinct mechanisms. ..
  2. Ono T, Mizutani E, Li C, Yamagata K, Wakayama T. Offspring from intracytoplasmic sperm injection of aged mouse oocytes treated with caffeine or MG132. Genesis. 2011;49:460-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it should be safe to use these chemicals in routine in vitro fertilization and offspring could be generated by ICSI of aged fertilization failed oocytes. ..
  3. Tatham M, Matic I, Mann M, Hay R. Comparative proteomic analysis identifies a role for SUMO in protein quality control. Sci Signal. 2011;4:rs4 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest multiple, proteasome-independent roles for SUMOs in the cellular response to the accumulation of misfolded proteins. ..
  4. Balasubramanian S, Kanade S, Han B, Eckert R. A proteasome inhibitor-stimulated Nrf1 protein-dependent compensatory increase in proteasome subunit gene expression reduces polycomb group protein level. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:36179-89 pubmed publisher
  5. Pan J, Ullman E, Dou Z, Zong W. Inhibition of protein degradation induces apoptosis through a microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-mediated activation of caspase-8 at intracellular membranes. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3158-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results unveiled a previously unknown mechanism through which disruption of protein homeostasis induces caspase-8 oligomerization, activation, and apoptosis...
  6. Saji C, Higashi C, Niinaka Y, Yamada K, Noguchi K, Fujimuro M. Proteasome inhibitors induce apoptosis and reduce viral replication in primary effusion lymphoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;415:573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that proteasome inhibitors may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of KSHV infection and KSHV-associated lymphomas. ..
  7. Singh M, Chaudhry P, Parent S, Asselin E. Ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation of COX-2 in TGF-? stimulated human endometrial cells is mediated through endoplasmic reticulum mannosidase I. Endocrinology. 2012;153:426-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies suggest that TGF-? promotes COX-2 degradation in a Smad-dependent manner by up-regulating the expression of ERManI and thereby enhancing ER-associated degradation and proteasomal degradation pathways. ..
  8. Tanaka A, Cleland M, Xu S, Narendra D, Suen D, Karbowski M, et al. Proteasome and p97 mediate mitophagy and degradation of mitofusins induced by Parkin. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:1367-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission, the proteasome, or p97 prevents Parkin-induced mitophagy. ..
  9. Zanotto Filho A, Braganhol E, Battastini A, Moreira J. Proteasome inhibitor MG132 induces selective apoptosis in glioblastoma cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt and NFkappaB pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction, and activation of p38-JNK1/2 signaling. Invest New Drugs. 2012;30:2252-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, MG132 exerted profound and selective toxicity in GBMs, being a potential agent for further testing in animal models of the disease. ..

More Information


  1. Sakairi T, Hiromura K, Takahashi S, Hamatani H, Takeuchi S, Tomioka M, et al. Effects of proteasome inhibitors on rat renal fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Nephrology (Carlton). 2011;16:76-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteasome inhibitors attenuate TGF-? signalling by blocking Smad signal transduction in vitro, but do not inhibit renal interstitial fibrosis in vivo. ..
  2. Sung E, Park K, Choi H, Kim C, Kim Y. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 potentiates TRAIL receptor agonist-induced apoptosis by stabilizing tBid and Bik in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:1564-76 pubmed publisher
  3. Luo Z, Qi W, Feng B, Mu J, Zeng W, Guo Y, et al. Prevention of diabetic nephropathy in rats through enhanced renal antioxidative capacity by inhibition of the proteasome. Life Sci. 2011;88:512-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present data suggest that inhibition of the proteasome by low-dose MG132 has a preventive effect on DN development and progression in rats through the up-regulation of antioxidant genes. ..
  4. Takiyama Y, Harumi T, Watanabe J, Fujita Y, Honjo J, Shimizu N, et al. Tubular injury in a rat model of type 2 diabetes is prevented by metformin: a possible role of HIF-1? expression and oxygen metabolism. Diabetes. 2011;60:981-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that hypoxia-induced HIF-1? accumulation in diabetic nephropathy could be suppressed by the antidiabetes drug, metformin, through the repression of oxygen consumption. ..
  5. Choi C, Lee B, Ahn S, Oh S. Proteasome inhibition-induced p38 MAPK/ERK signaling regulates autophagy and apoptosis through the dual phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3?. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;418:759-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data show that proteasome inhibition regulates p38/GSK(Ser9)/p70S6K(Thr380) and ERK/GSK3?(Thr390)/p70S6K(Thr421/Ser424) kinase signaling, which is involved in cell survival and cell death. ..
  6. You B, Park W. Proteasome inhibition by MG132 induces growth inhibition and death of human pulmonary fibroblast cells in a caspase-independent manner. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:1705-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The growth inhibition and death of HPF cells by MG132 and/or each caspase inhibitor or apoptosis-related siRNA were not tightly related to the changes in ROS levels. ..
  7. Ma Y, Chen Y, Yang Y, Chen B, Liu D, Xiong Z, et al. Proteasome inhibition attenuates heart failure during the late stages of pressure overload through alterations in collagen expression. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013;85:223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteasome inhibition therefore could provide a new promising therapeutic strategy to prevent cardiac fibrosis and progression of heart failure even during the late-stages of pressure overload. ..
  8. Chen S, Cao W, Yue P, Hao C, Khuri F, Sun S. Celecoxib promotes c-FLIP degradation through Akt-independent inhibition of GSK3. Cancer Res. 2011;71:6270-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a novel mechanism through which the regulatory effects of c-FLIP on death receptor signaling are controlled by GSK3, which celecoxib acts at an upstream level to control independently of Akt. ..
  9. Nagyova E, Scsukova S, Nemcova L, Mlynarcikova A, Yi Y, Sutovsky M, et al. Inhibition of proteasomal proteolysis affects expression of extracellular matrix components and steroidogenesis in porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2012;42:50-62 pubmed publisher
  10. Park H, Jun D, Han C, Woo H, Kim Y. Proteasome inhibitor MG132-induced apoptosis via ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway and its potentiation by protein tyrosine kinase p56lck in human Jurkat T cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;82:1110-25 pubmed publisher
  11. You B, Park W. The enhancement of propyl gallate-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells by a proteasome inhibitor MG132. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:871-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusively, the inhibition of proteasome by MG132 plays a role as an enhancement factor in PG-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells via increasing ROS levels and GSH depletion...
  12. Duan W, Guo Y, Jiang H, Yu X, Li C. MG132 enhances neurite outgrowth in neurons overexpressing mutant TAR DNA-binding protein-43 via increase of HO-1. Brain Res. 2011;1397:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It was well known that HO-1 was regulated by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). However, MG132 increased the expression of HO-1 independent of the Nrf2 pathway. ..
  13. Shimizu S, Kadowaki M, Yoshioka H, Kambe A, Watanabe T, Kinyamu H, et al. Proteasome inhibitor MG132 induces NAG-1/GDF15 expression through the p38 MAPK pathway in glioblastoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;430:1277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the induction of NAG-1 by p38 MAPK is a potential contributor to the anti-glioblastoma activity of proteasome inhibitors. ..
  14. You J, Kim J, Lee H, Hyun S, Hansen P, Lee E. MG132 treatment during oocyte maturation improves embryonic development after somatic cell nuclear transfer and alters oocyte and embryo transcript abundance in pigs. Mol Reprod Dev. 2012;79:41-50 pubmed publisher
    ..8%) as compared to embryos from SCO (8.7%) or S0-22 oocytes (8.8%; P<0.05). Results demonstrate that treatment of oocytes with MG132 during the later stage of IVM improves embryonic development and alters gene expression in pigs...
  15. Park W, Kim S. MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, induces human pulmonary fibroblast cell death via increasing ROS levels and GSH depletion. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:1284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Both NAC and vitamin C attenuated HPF cell death by MG132, whereas BSO slightly enhanced the death. ..
  16. Ma Y, Chen B, Liu D, Yang Y, Xiong Z, Zeng J, et al. MG132 treatment attenuates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction following aortic banding in rats via the NF-?B/TGF?1 pathway. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;81:1228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Short- and long-term treatment with MG132 significantly attenuated hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, which may be mediated by the NF-?B/TGF?1 signaling pathway. ..
  17. Viiri J, Hyttinen J, Ryhanen T, Rilla K, Paimela T, Kuusisto E, et al. p62/sequestosome 1 as a regulator of proteasome inhibitor-induced autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Mol Vis. 2010;16:1399-414 pubmed
    ..Our findings open new avenues for understanding the mechanisms of proteolytic processes in retinal cells, and could be useful in the development of novel therapies targeting p62 and HSP70. ..
  18. Yuan B, Chapman J, Reynolds S. Proteasome inhibitors induce apoptosis in human lung cancer cells through a positive feedback mechanism and the subsequent Mcl-1 protein cleavage. Oncogene. 2009;28:3775-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study provides a basis for enhancing the efficacy of PIs in treating NSCLC. ..
  19. Cusimano A, Azzolina A, Iovanna J, Bachvarov D, McCubrey J, D Alessandro N, et al. Novel combination of celecoxib and proteasome inhibitor MG132 provides synergistic antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in human liver tumor cells. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:1399-410 pubmed
  20. You J, Lee J, Kim J, Park J, Lee E. Post-fusion treatment with MG132 increases transcription factor expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in pigs. Mol Reprod Dev. 2010;77:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that post-fusion treatment of SCNT oocytes with MG132 prevents MPF degradation and increases expression of transcription factors in SCNT embryos, which are necessary for normal development of SCNT embryos. ..
  21. Kimura K, Nishida T. Role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in downregulation of the gap-junction protein Connexin43 by TNF-{alpha} in human corneal fibroblasts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:1943-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The ubiquitin-proteasome system may thus play an important role in the disruption of corneal homeostasis associated with corneal inflammation. ..
  22. Jänen S, Chaachouay H, Richter Landsberg C. Autophagy is activated by proteasomal inhibition and involved in aggresome clearance in cultured astrocytes. Glia. 2010;58:1766-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the ability of astrocytes to upregulate autophagic degradation might contribute to their resistance against proteasomal stress situations and act as a compensatory mechanism when the proteasome is impaired. ..
  23. Wu H, Jiang W, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Zhao Z, Guo M, et al. Regulation of intracellular decorin via proteasome degradation in rat mesangial cells. J Cell Biochem. 2010;111:1010-9 pubmed publisher
  24. Xu J, Wang S, Wu Y, Song P, Zou M. Tyrosine nitration of PA700 activates the 26S proteasome to induce endothelial dysfunction in mice with angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Hypertension. 2009;54:625-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Ang II increases tyrosine nitration of PA700 resulting in accelerated GTP cyclohydrolase I degradation, BH4 deficiency, and consequent endothelial dysfunction in hypertension...
  25. Jiang X, Litkowski P, Taylor A, Lin Y, Snider B, Moulder K. A role for the ubiquitin-proteasome system in activity-dependent presynaptic silencing. J Neurosci. 2010;30:1798-809 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that modulation of the UPS by electrical activity contributes to persistent presynaptic silencing by promoting the degradation of key presynaptic proteins...
  26. Han Y, Kim S, Kim S, Park W. Treatment with p38 inhibitor intensifies the death of MG132-treated As4.1 juxtaglomerular cells via the enhancement of GSH depletion. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2010;33:367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusively, the p38 inhibitor strongly intensified cell death in MG132-treated As4.1 cells. The changes of GSH content by MG132 and/or MAPK inhibitors were closely related to the death of As4.1 cells. ..
  27. Han Y, Park W. MG132 as a proteasome inhibitor induces cell growth inhibition and cell death in A549 lung cancer cells via influencing reactive oxygen species and GSH level. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010;29:607-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present data provide important information on the anti-growth mechanisms of MG132 in A549 lung cancer cells in relation to ROS and GSH. ..
  28. Han Y, Park W. The changes of reactive oxygen species and glutathione by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor affect As4.1 juxtaglomerular cell growth and death. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;184:319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..1 cells. Conclusively, MG132 reduced the growth of As4.1 cells via apoptosis. The changes of ROS and GSH by MG132 were involved in As4.1 cell growth and death. ..
  29. Wang X, Fan H, Ying Z, Li B, Wang H, Wang G. Degradation of TDP-43 and its pathogenic form by autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Neurosci Lett. 2010;469:112-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data suggest that TDP-43 and TDP-25 are degraded by both proteasome and autophagy with TDP-25 being more regulated. ..
  30. Han Y, Kim S, Kim S, Park W. Reactive oxygen species and glutathione level changes by a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, partially affect calf pulmonary arterial endothelial cell death. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2010;33:403-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, MG132 inhibited the growth of ECs, especially CPAEC. The changes of ROS and GSH levels by MG132 partially affect CPAEC death. ..
  31. Chen B, Ma Y, Meng R, Xiong Z, Zhang C, Chen G, et al. MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, attenuates pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats by modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signals. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2010;42:253-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results suggested that long-term treatment with MG132 attenuates pressureoverload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and improves cardiac function in AAB rats through regulation of ERK1/2 and JNK1 signaling pathways. ..
  32. Chiu M, Chen I, Baulcombe D, Tsai C. The silencing suppressor P25 of Potato virus X interacts with Argonaute1 and mediates its degradation through the proteasome pathway. Mol Plant Pathol. 2010;11:641-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further support for this idea is provided by the observation that plants treated with MG132 are less susceptible to PVX and its relative Bamboo mosaic virus. ..
  33. Ge P, Zhang J, Wang X, Meng F, Li W, Luan Y, et al. Inhibition of autophagy induced by proteasome inhibition increases cell death in human SHG-44 glioma cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:1046-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This discovery may shed new light on the effect of autophagy on modulating the fate of SHG-44 glioma cells.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (2009) 30: 1046-1052; doi: 10.1038/aps.2009.71. ..
  34. Lupfer C, Pastey M. Decreased replication of human respiratory syncytial virus treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Virus Res. 2010;149:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..A combination of HRSV infection and MG-132 treatment may therefore provide sufficient signaling cues to induce inhibition of protein synthesis. ..
  35. Wu W, Cho C, Lee C, Wu Y, Yu L, Li Z, et al. Macroautophagy and ERK phosphorylation counteract the antiproliferative effect of proteasome inhibitor in gastric cancer cells. Autophagy. 2010;6:228-38 pubmed
    ..This discovery may have implications for the application of proteasome-directed therapy for the treatment of cancer. ..
  36. Latonen L, Moore H, Bai B, Jäämaa S, Laiho M. Proteasome inhibitors induce nucleolar aggregation of proteasome target proteins and polyadenylated RNA by altering ubiquitin availability. Oncogene. 2011;30:790-805 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that the nucleolus controls protein and RNA surveillance and export by the ubiquitin pathway in a previously unidentified manner, and provide mechanistic insight into the cellular effects of PIs. ..
  37. Van Geelen C, Pennarun B, Ek W, Le P, Spierings D, de Vries E, et al. Downregulation of active caspase 8 as a mechanism of acquired TRAIL resistance in mismatch repair-proficient colon carcinoma cell lines. Int J Oncol. 2010;37:1031-41 pubmed
    ..Proteasome inhibitors can effectively overcome acquired rhTRAIL resistance in mismatch repair-proficient colon cancer cells. ..
  38. Wang S, Zhang M, Liang B, Xu J, Xie Z, Liu C, et al. AMPKalpha2 deletion causes aberrant expression and activation of NAD(P)H oxidase and consequent endothelial dysfunction in vivo: role of 26S proteasomes. Circ Res. 2010;106:1117-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that AMPKalpha2 functions as a physiological suppressor of NAD(P)H oxidase and ROS production in endothelial cells. In this way, AMPK maintains the nonatherogenic and noninflammatory phenotype of endothelial cells. ..
  39. Collins G, Gomez T, Deshaies R, Tansey W. Combined chemical and genetic approach to inhibit proteolysis by the proteasome. Yeast. 2010;27:965-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the contribution of the caspase-like and tryptic activities of the proteasome to its function, and provide a strategy to potently block proteasomal proteolysis in yeast that has practical applications...
  40. Han Y, Park W. Proteasome inhibitor MG132 reduces growth of As4.1 juxtaglomerular cells via caspase-independent apoptosis. Arch Toxicol. 2010;84:689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..1 cells. In conclusion, MG132 reduced the growth of As4.1 cells via caspase-independent apoptosis. The changes in ROS and GSH levels by MG132 and caspase inhibitors partially influenced the growth inhibition and death of As4.1 cells. ..
  41. Zanotto Filho A, Delgado Cañedo A, Schröder R, Becker M, Klamt F, Moreira J. The pharmacological NFkappaB inhibitors BAY117082 and MG132 induce cell arrest and apoptosis in leukemia cells through ROS-mitochondria pathway activation. Cancer Lett. 2010;288:192-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Data suggest that the NFkappaB inhibitors MG132 and BAY117082 are potential anti-leukemia agents. ..
  42. Han Y, Moon H, You B, Park W. The effect of MG132, a proteasome inhibitor on HeLa cells in relation to cell growth, reactive oxygen species and GSH. Oncol Rep. 2009;22:215-21 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, MG132 inhibited the growth of HeLa cells via inducing the cell cycle arrest as well as triggering apoptosis. The changes of ROS and GSH by MG132 were closely related to apoptosis in HeLa cells. ..
  43. Han Y, Park W. MG132, a proteasome inhibitor decreased the growth of Calu-6 lung cancer cells via apoptosis and GSH depletion. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:1237-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Z-VAD significantly decreased O(2)(-) levels and GSH-depleted cell numbers in MG132-treated Calu-6 cells. In conclusion, MG132 inhibited the growth of Calu-6 cells via apoptosis and GSH depletion. ..
  44. Radhakrishnan S, Lee C, Young P, Beskow A, Chan J, Deshaies R. Transcription factor Nrf1 mediates the proteasome recovery pathway after proteasome inhibition in mammalian cells. Mol Cell. 2010;38:17-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that Nrf1-mediated proteasome homeostasis could be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in cancer. ..
  45. Rakovic A, Grünewald A, Seibler P, Ramirez A, Kock N, Orolicki S, et al. Effect of endogenous mutant and wild-type PINK1 on Parkin in fibroblasts from Parkinson disease patients. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:3124-37 pubmed publisher
  46. Ebert B, Kisiela M, Wsol V, Maser E. Proteasome inhibitors MG-132 and bortezomib induce AKR1C1, AKR1C3, AKR1B1, and AKR1B10 in human colon cancer cell lines SW-480 and HT-29. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;191:239-49 pubmed publisher
    ..It remains to be investigated whether this enzyme induction may contribute to enhanced cell survival and thereby supporting the phenomenon of multidrug resistance upon cancer chemotherapy. ..
  47. Matsumoto Y, Miyamoto Y, Cabral H, Matsumoto Y, Nagasaka K, Nakagawa S, et al. Enhanced efficacy against cervical carcinomas through polymeric micelles physically incorporating the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Cancer Sci. 2016;107:773-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the use of MG132 incorporated into polymeric micelles as a safe and effective therapeutic strategy against cervical tumors. ..
  48. Irelan J, Wu M, Morgan J, Ke N, Xi B, Wang X, et al. Rapid and quantitative assessment of cell quality, identity, and functionality for cell-based assays using real-time cellular analysis. J Biomol Screen. 2011;16:313-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provide evidence that these impedance profile differences can be predictive of different outcomes in cell-based functional assays for the effects of small molecules on otherwise seemingly identical cell lines. ..
  49. Bradbury P, Mahmassani M, Zhong J, Turner K, Paul A, Verrills N, et al. PP2A phosphatase suppresses function of the mesenchymal invasion regulator NEDD9. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823:290-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data reveal that the tumour suppressor PP2A may act via S369 to regulated NEDD9-mediated cell spreading. ..
  50. López T, Silva Ayala D, Lopez S, Arias C. Replication of the rotavirus genome requires an active ubiquitin-proteasome system. J Virol. 2011;85:11964-71 pubmed publisher
  51. Obata K, Kojima T, Masaki T, Okabayashi T, Yokota S, Hirakawa S, et al. Curcumin prevents replication of respiratory syncytial virus and the epithelial responses to it in human nasal epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70225 pubmed publisher
  52. Li M, Liu Y, Jin F, Sun X, Li Z, Liu Y, et al. Endothelin-1 induces hypoxia inducible factor 1? expression in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:3888-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells lacking RACK1 exhibited significant elevation of HIF1? protein level. Taken together, our study suggests that ET-1 suppressed proteasome-dependent HIF1? degradation by calcineurin-dependent RACK1 de-phosphorylation. ..
  53. Tanioka T, Tamura Y, Fukaya M, Shinozaki S, Mao J, Kim M, et al. Inducible nitric-oxide synthase and nitric oxide donor decrease insulin receptor substrate-2 protein expression by promoting proteasome-dependent degradation in pancreatic beta-cells: involvement of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29388-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that iNOS-mediated decreased IRS-2 expression may contribute to the progression and/or exacerbation of ?-cell failure in diabetes. ..
  54. Benavides M, Chow Tsang L, Zhang J, Zhong H. The novel interaction between microspherule protein Msp58 and ubiquitin E3 ligase EDD regulates cell cycle progression. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1833:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that both Msp58 and EDD are often aberrantly expressed in various human cancers, our findings open a new direction to elucidate Msp58 and EDD's roles in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. ..
  55. Fratelli M, Fisher J, Paroni G, Di Francesco A, Pierri F, Pisano C, et al. New insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying sensitivity/resistance to the atypical retinoid ST1926 in acute myeloid leukaemia cells: the role of histone H2A.Z, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and the proteasome. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:1491-500 pubmed publisher
    ..More importantly, they demonstrate a proactive role of the proteasome in the DNA damaging and ensuing apoptotic response observed upon the challenge of acute myeloid leukaemia cells with ST1926. ..
  56. Stadtmueller B, Kish Trier E, Ferrell K, Petersen C, Robinson H, Myszka D, et al. Structure of a proteasome Pba1-Pba2 complex: implications for proteasome assembly, activation, and biological function. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37371-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings extend understanding of proteasome interactions with HbYX motifs and suggest multiple roles for Pba1-Pba2 interactions throughout proteasome assembly and function. ..
  57. Pérez Pertejo Y, Alvarez Velilla R, Estrada C, Balaña Fouce R, Reguera R. Leishmania donovani: proteasome-mediated down-regulation of methionine adenosyltransferase. Parasitology. 2011;138:1082-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoprecipitated MAT cross-reacted with anti-Ub antibodies, which provides evidence of a proteasome-mediated down-regulation of the leishmanial MAT abundance. ..
  58. Izumi Y, Inoue H, Nakayama Y, Eguchi K, Yasuoka Y, Matsuo N, et al. TSS-Seq analysis of low pH-induced gene expression in intercalated cells in the renal collecting duct. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184185 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, metabolic acidosis can facilitate renal injury and fibrosis during kidney disease by locally activating various pathways in the renal tubules. ..
  59. Li S, Zhang H, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Zhang X, Zhang X, et al. ALLN hinders HCT116 tumor growth through Bax-dependent apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;437:325-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ALLN could become a novel agent for prevention of colon cancer. ..
  60. Cheng H, Wang B, Tang C, Feng G, Zhang C, Li L, et al. Infrasonic noise induces axonal degeneration of cultured neurons via a Ca²? influx pathway. Toxicol Lett. 2012;212:190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings revealed that axonal degeneration may be one of the important mechanisms underlying infrasound-induced CNS impairment, and Ca²? influx pathway is likely implicated in the process. ..
  61. Petsalaki E, Zachos G. Chk1 and Mps1 jointly regulate correction of merotelic kinetochore attachments. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Chk1 and Mps1 jointly regulate Aurora-B, MCAK, Kif2b and Hec1 to correct merotelic attachments. These results suggest a role for Chk1 and Mps1 in error correction. ..