glutathione disulfide


Summary: A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.

Top Publications

  1. Hall M, Niedzwiecki M, Liu X, Harper K, Alam S, Slavkovich V, et al. Chronic arsenic exposure and blood glutathione and glutathione disulfide concentrations in Bangladeshi adults. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:1068-74 pubmed publisher
    ..the primary intracellular antioxidant; it donates an electron to reactive oxygen species, thus producing glutathione disulfide (GSSG)...
  2. Catarzi S, Favilli F, Romagnoli C, Marcucci T, Picariello L, Tonelli F, et al. Oxidative state and IL-6 production in intestinal myofibroblasts of Crohn's disease patients. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17:1674-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The present data shed light on the pathogenesis of inflammatory chronic processes and relapses that occur in this pathology. ..
  3. Dringen R, Koehler Y, Derr L, Tomba G, Schmidt M, Treccani L, et al. Adsorption and reduction of glutathione disulfide on ?-Al2O3 nanoparticles: experiments and modeling. Langmuir. 2011;27:9449-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Glutathione disulfide (GSSG; ?-GluCysGly disulfide) was used as a physiologically relevant model molecule to investigate the fundamental adsorption mechanisms of polypeptides onto ?-alumina nanoparticles...
  4. Lima C, Pereira Wilson C, Rattan S. Curcumin induces heme oxygenase-1 in normal human skin fibroblasts through redox signaling: relevance for anti-aging intervention. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:430-42 pubmed publisher
  5. Huang Y, Wang L, Sun L, Wu Y, Lu J, Zhao S, et al. Elevated peroxidative glutathione redox status in atherosclerotic patients with increased thickness of carotid intima media. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009;122:2827-32 pubmed
    ..Elevated peroxidative glutathione redox status was deeply implicated in atherosclerosis progressing, and it may be a sensitive and reliable index for monitoring oxidative status in atherosclerosis. ..
  6. Tan S, Greetham D, Raeth S, Grant C, Dawes I, Perrone G. The thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system can function in vivo as an alternative system to reduce oxidized glutathione in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:6118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system can function as an alternative system to reduce GSSG in S. cerevisiae in vivo. ..
  7. Morgan B, Ezerina D, Amoako T, Riemer J, Seedorf M, Dick T. Multiple glutathione disulfide removal pathways mediate cytosolic redox homeostasis. Nat Chem Biol. 2013;9:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Using these probes in yeast, we show that even during severe oxidative stress, the cytosolic glutathione disulfide (GSSG) concentration is much more tightly regulated than expected and provides a mechanistic explanation ..
  8. Cao L, Waldon D, Teffera Y, Roberts J, Wells M, Langley M, et al. Ratios of biliary glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to glutathione (GSH): a potential index to screen drug-induced hepatic oxidative stress in rats and mice. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:2635-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) pair, as one of the major intracellular redox regulating couples, plays an important role in ..
  9. Diaz Montero C, Wang Y, Shao L, Feng W, Zidan A, Pazoles C, et al. The glutathione disulfide mimetic NOV-002 inhibits cyclophosphamide-induced hematopoietic and immune suppression by reducing oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52:1560-8 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Pramanik K, Boreddy S, Srivastava S. Role of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes in capsaicin mediated oxidative stress leading to apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20151 pubmed publisher
  2. Zhu P, Oe T, Blair I. Determination of cellular redox status by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of glutathione and glutathione disulfide. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2008;22:432-40 pubmed publisher
    Oxidation of glutathione (GSH) to glutathione disulfide (GSSG) occurs during cellular oxidative stress...
  3. Dalle Donne I, Rossi R, Giustarini D, Colombo R, Milzani A. S-glutathionylation in protein redox regulation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;43:883-98 pubmed
    ..In this review, we describe recent breakthroughs in our understanding of the potential role of protein S-glutathionylation in the redox regulation of signal transduction. ..
  4. Wang W, Ma J, Zhang P, Luo A. Redox reaction modulates transient and persistent sodium current during hypoxia in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Pflugers Arch. 2007;454:461-75 pubmed
    ..P) and I (Na.T). That was when one of them was increased, the other was decreased, and vice versa. ..
  5. Jones D, Liang Y. Measuring the poise of thiol/disulfide couples in vivo. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;47:1329-38 pubmed publisher
  6. Kibria F, Lees W. Balancing conformational and oxidative kinetic traps during the folding of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) with glutathione and glutathione disulfide. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:796-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Under traditional conditions, 0.125 mM glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and no glutathione (GSH), the folding pathway of BPTI proceeds through a nonproductive route via N* ..
  7. Rousar T, Kucera O, Krivakova P, Lotkova H, Kandar R, Muzakova V, et al. Evaluation of oxidative status in acetaminophen treated rat hepatocytes in culture. Physiol Res. 2009;58:239-46 pubmed
    ..The highest ROS production was measured after 12 h treatment. GR activity was decreased already after 3 h of incubation and remained also decreased in cells treated with 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mM AAP during further incubation. ..
  8. Spielberger J, Moody A, Watson W. Oxidation and nuclear localization of thioredoxin-1 in sparse cell cultures. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:1879-89 pubmed publisher
  9. Marty L, Siala W, Schwarzlander M, Fricker M, Wirtz M, Sweetlove L, et al. The NADPH-dependent thioredoxin system constitutes a functional backup for cytosolic glutathione reductase in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..oxidative stress conditions, the tripeptide glutathione can switch from its reduced form (GSH) to oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG), and thus, forms an important cellular redox buffer...
  10. Townsend D, He L, Hutchens S, Garrett T, Pazoles C, Tew K. NOV-002, a glutathione disulfide mimetic, as a modulator of cellular redox balance. Cancer Res. 2008;68:2870-7 pubmed publisher
    NOV-002 is a novel glutathione disulfide mimetic that when administered in combination with standard chemotherapeutic regimens has resulted in increased efficacy (survival, tumor response) and improved tolerance to chemotherapy (e.g...
  11. Circu M, Aw T. Glutathione and apoptosis. Free Radic Res. 2008;42:689-706 pubmed publisher
  12. Rahman I, Kode A, Biswas S. Assay for quantitative determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide levels using enzymatic recycling method. Nat Protoc. 2006;1:3159-65 pubmed
    ..The glutathione disulfide (GSSG) formed can be recycled to GSH by glutathione reductase in the presence of NADPH...
  13. Huang Z, Pinto J, Deng H, Richie J. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity and activation by protein glutathionylation. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;75:2234-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that glutathionylation of caspase can occur at physiologically relevant concentrations of GSSG and results in the inhibition of caspase activation and activity. ..
  14. New L, Chan E. Evaluation of BEH C18, BEH HILIC, and HSS T3 (C18) column chemistries for the UPLC-MS-MS analysis of glutathione, glutathione disulfide, and ophthalmic acid in mouse liver and human plasma. J Chromatogr Sci. 2008;46:209-14 pubmed
    Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), and ophthalmic acid (OA) are important biological oxidative stress biomarkers to be monitored in pathological and toxicological studies...
  15. Townsend D, Pazoles C, Tew K. NOV-002, a mimetic of glutathione disulfide. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008;17:1075-83 pubmed
    ..Clinical and non-clinical findings with NOV-002 (a mimetic of glutathione disulfide that represents such an approach) are reviewed and evaluated...
  16. Demasi M, Piassa Filho G, Castro L, Ferreira J, Rioli V, Ferro E. Oligomerization of the cysteinyl-rich oligopeptidase EP24.15 is triggered by S-glutathionylation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:1180-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Present results raise the possibility of an unconventional property of protein S-glutathionylation, inducing oligomerization by interprotein thiol-disulfide exchange. ..
  17. Park H, Khanna S, Rink C, Gnyawali S, Roy S, Sen C. Glutathione disulfide induces neural cell death via a 12-lipoxygenase pathway. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1167-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies directed at improving or arresting cellular GSSG clearance may be effective in minimizing oxidative stress-related tissue injury or potentiating the killing of tumor cells, respectively. ..
  18. Jenderny S, Lin H, Garrett T, Tew K, Townsend D. Protective effects of a glutathione disulfide mimetic (NOV-002) against cisplatin induced kidney toxicity. Biomed Pharmacother. 2010;64:73-6 pubmed publisher
    NOV-002 is a glutathione disulfide (GSSG) mimetic with chemoprotective activity...
  19. Han J, Alvarez J, Staitieh B, Tangpricha V, Hao L, Ziegler T, et al. Oxidative stress in critically ill ventilated adults: effects of vitamin D3 and associations with alveolar macrophage function. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018;72:744-751 pubmed publisher
    ..for determination of alveolar phagocytosis index (PI) and for concentrations of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), cysteine (Cys), cystine (CySS), and their respective redox potentials (EhGSSG and EhCySS)...
  20. Serra D, Almeida L, Dinis T. Anti-inflammatory protection afforded by cyanidin-3-glucoside and resveratrol in human intestinal cells via Nrf2 and PPAR-?: Comparison with 5-aminosalicylic acid. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;260:102-109 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, both polyphenols might be interesting as nutraceuticals, giving complementary benefits to conventional drugs against intestinal inflammation, typically present in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. ..
  21. Ozsarlak Sozer G, Kerry Z, Gokce G, Oran I, Topcu Z. Oxidative stress in relation to telomere length maintenance in vascular smooth muscle cells following balloon angioplasty. J Physiol Biochem. 2011;67:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also showed that both variables had a significant influence on mean telomeric length distribution. ..
  22. Neuser J, Fraccarollo D, Wick M, Bauersachs J, Widder J. Multidrug resistance associated protein-1 (MRP1) deficiency attenuates endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. J Diabetes Complications. 2016;30:623-7 pubmed publisher
    ..MRP1 therefore may represent a therapeutic target in treatment of diabetes induced vascular dysfunction. ..
  23. Horak K, Bursian S, Ellis C, Dean K, Link J, Hanson Dorr K, et al. Toxic effects of orally ingested oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill on laughing gulls. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;146:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether survival effects in the gull study were associated with weight loss, physiologic effects of oil toxicity, or a behavioral response that led the birds to reject the dosed fish is unknown. ..
  24. Lazard M, Ha Duong N, Mounié S, Perrin R, Plateau P, Blanquet S. Selenodiglutathione uptake by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar ATP-binding cassette transporter Ycf1p. FEBS J. 2011;278:4112-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible mechanisms by which Ycf1p-mediated vacuolar uptake of selenodiglutathione and oxidized glutathione enhances selenite toxicity are discussed...
  25. Smith I, Vigna C, Levy A, Denniss S, Rush J, Tupling A. The effects of buthionine sulfoximine treatment on diaphragm contractility and SERCA pump function in adult and middle aged rats. Physiol Rep. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest an important role for redox regulation in both contractility and SERCA function which is influenced by aging. ..
  26. Ibrahim M, Jaafar H. Increased carbon dioxide concentration improves the antioxidative properties of the Malaysian herb kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume). Molecules. 2011;16:6068-81 pubmed publisher
    ..pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO?, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O?, H?O?, and OH radicals. ..
  27. Loureiro Vieira S, Costa V, Duarte J, Duarte Araújo M, Gonçalves Monteiro S, Maria de Lourdes B, et al. Methylphenidate clinically oral doses improved brain and heart glutathione redox status and evoked renal and cardiac tissue injury in rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;100:551-563 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed that clinically relevant oral MPH doses improve the GSH redox status in the brain and heart, but evoke heart and kidney tissue damage to adolescent rats. ..
  28. Mandal P, Schneider M, Kölle P, Kuhlencordt P, Forster H, Beck H, et al. Loss of thioredoxin reductase 1 renders tumors highly susceptible to pharmacologic glutathione deprivation. Cancer Res. 2010;70:9505-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings establish for the first time that a concomitant inhibition of the two major antioxidant systems is highly effective in killing tumor, highlighting a promising strategy to combat cancer. ..
  29. Indran I, Hande M, Pervaiz S. hTERT overexpression alleviates intracellular ROS production, improves mitochondrial function, and inhibits ROS-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2011;71:266-76 pubmed publisher
  30. Viezeliene D, Jansen E, Rodovicius H, Kasauskas A, Ivanov L. Protective effect of selenium on aluminium-induced oxidative stress in mouse liver in vivo. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;31:302-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that Se did not have a protective effect on Al-linked liver toxicity, but did ameliorate intracellular oxidative stress processes mediated by glutathione. ..
  31. Muranaka A, Watanabe S, Sakamoto A, Shimada H. Arabidopsis cotyledon chloroplast biogenesis factor CYO1 uses glutathione as an electron donor and interacts with PSI (A1 and A2) and PSII (CP43 and CP47) subunits. J Plant Physiol. 2012;169:1212-5 pubmed publisher
    ..characteristics of CYO1, we analyzed the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) activity of CYO1 using dieosin glutathione disulfide (Di-E-GSSG) as a substrate...
  32. Lin S, Chiou C, Chu Y, Hsiao Y, Tseng Y, Chen Y, et al. Enhanced Ascorbate Regeneration Via Dehydroascorbate Reductase Confers Tolerance to Photo-Oxidative Stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Cell Physiol. 2016;57:2104-2121 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that increasing AsA regeneration via enhanced DHAR activity modulates the ascorbate-glutathione cycle activity in C. reinhardtii against photo-oxidative stress. ..
  33. Zarembinski T, Doty N, Erickson I, Srinivas R, Wirostko B, Tew W. Thiolated hyaluronan-based hydrogels crosslinked using oxidized glutathione: an injectable matrix designed for ophthalmic applications. Acta Biomater. 2014;10:94-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequent uses of the hydrogel include delivery of back of the eye treatments and eventually into other soft, hyaluronan-rich tissues such as those from the liver and brain. ..
  34. Ou J, Mizushina Y, Wang S, Chuang D, Nadar M, Hsu W. Structure-activity relationship analysis of curcumin analogues on anti-influenza virus activity. FEBS J. 2013;280:5829-40 pubmed publisher
  35. Taylor A, Maher W. Exposure-dose-response of Tellina deltoidalis to metal-contaminated estuarine sediments: 1. Cadmium spiked sediments. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;158:44-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Clear exposure-dose-response relationships have been demonstrated for T. deltoidalis exposed to cadmium-spiked sediments, supporting this organism's suitability for laboratory or in situ evaluation of sediment cadmium toxicity. ..
  36. Zhang Q, Sun X, Xiao X, Zheng J, Li M, Yu M, et al. Effects of Maternal Chromium Restriction on the Long-Term Programming in MAPK Signaling Pathway of Lipid Metabolism in Mice. Nutrients. 2016;8: pubmed publisher
    ..Our study highlights the importance of the MAPK signaling pathway in epigenetic changes involved in the lipid metabolism of the offspring from chromium-restricted dams. ..
  37. Yang X, Yao H, Chen Y, Sun L, Li Y, Ma X, et al. Inhibition of Glutathione Production Induces Macrophage CD36 Expression and Enhances Cellular-oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (oxLDL) Uptake. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:21788-99 pubmed publisher
    ..macrophages with l-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) decreased cellular GSH production and ratios of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) while increasing production of reactive oxygen species...
  38. Han Y, Xi Q, Dai W, Yang S, Gao L, Su Y, et al. Abnormal transsulfuration metabolism and reduced antioxidant capacity in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorders. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2015;46:27-32 pubmed publisher
    ..e., hyperhomocysteinemia and increased oxidative stress), and Hcy level appears to have a potentially negative impact on clinical severity of autistic disorder. ..
  39. Ding S, Wang L, Yang Z, Lu Q, Wen X, Lu C. Decreased glutathione reductase2 leads to early leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. J Integr Plant Biol. 2016;58:29-47 pubmed publisher
    Glutathione reductase (GR) catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) and participates in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which scavenges H2 O2 ...
  40. Yang X, Greenhaw J, Ali A, Shi Q, Roberts D, Hinson J, et al. Changes in mouse liver protein glutathionylation after acetaminophen exposure. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;340:360-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These temporal and zonal pattern changes in protein glutathionylation after APAP exposure indicate that protein glutathionylation may play a role in protein homeostasis during APAP-induced hepatocellular injury. ..
  41. Majid N, Phang I, Darnis D. Characteristics of Pelargonium radula as a mercury bioindicator for safety assessment of drinking water. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:22827-22838 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in the tested characteristics of plant are closely related to the Hg-induced morphological changes on P. radula leaves, a potential bioindicator for detecting Hg in drinking water. ..
  42. Circu M, Aw T. Redox biology of the intestine. Free Radic Res. 2011;45:1245-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The thiol/disulfide redox systems comprising the glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) and reduced and oxidized thioredoxin (Trx/TrxSS) redox couples ..
  43. Radyuk S, Rebrin I, Klichko V, Sohal B, Michalak K, Benes J, et al. Mitochondrial peroxiredoxins are critical for the maintenance of redox state and the survival of adult Drosophila. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:1892-902 pubmed publisher
  44. Shim I, Choi K, Hirano S. Oxidative stress and cytotoxic effects of silver ion in mouse lung macrophages J774.1 cells. J Appl Toxicol. 2017;37:471-478 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the mode of cell death, the ratio of glutathione disulfide/glutathione, induction of metallothionein and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in J774...
  45. Hirrlinger J, Konig J, Keppler D, Lindenau J, Schulz J, Dringen R. The multidrug resistance protein MRP1 mediates the release of glutathione disulfide from rat astrocytes during oxidative stress. J Neurochem. 2001;76:627-36 pubmed
    The release of glutathione disulfide has been considered an important process for the maintenance of a reduced thiol redox potential in cells during oxidative stress...
  46. Nagato A, Bezerra F, Lanzetti M, Lopes A, Silva M, Porto L, et al. Time course of inflammation, oxidative stress and tissue damage induced by hyperoxia in mouse lungs. Int J Exp Pathol. 2012;93:269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge of the time course of inflammation and oxidative stress prior to histological evidence of acute lung injury can improve the safety of oxygen therapy in patients...
  47. Di Girolamo F, Mazzucco S, Situlin R, Mohorko N, Jenko Praznikar Z, Petelin A, et al. Roasting intensity of naturally low-caffeine Laurina coffee modulates glucose metabolism and redox balance in humans. Nutrition. 2016;32:928-36 pubmed publisher
    ..DRC compared to LRC improved redox balance and increased omega-3 fatty acids. Thus, we suggest greater metabolic benefits related to DRC. ..
  48. Kowalska K, Milnerowicz H. The Influence of Age and Gender on the Pro/Antioxidant Status in Young Healthy People. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2016;46:480-8 pubmed
    ..The detoxification being mediated through glutathione is weakened in women aged 32-39 years. ..
  49. Zhao C, Wang K, Cai Q, Tu H, Pan L, Yu L. Signal-on fluorescent sensor based on N-CQDs for the detection of glutathione in human serum and pharmaceutic preparation. Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2017;47:835-840 pubmed publisher
    ..001 to 0.1?mol/L and can be applied to detect GSH in the human serum. Therefore, the proposed method has a promising application for monitoring the blood drug concentration of GSH in clinical studies...
  50. Vizzarri F, Palazzo M, Bartollino S, Casamassima D, Parolini B, Troiano P, et al. Effects of an antioxidant protective topical formulation on eye exposed to ultraviolet-irradiation: a study in rabbit animal model. Physiol Res. 2018;67:457-464 pubmed
    ..Present findings demonstrate that topical treatment with the antioxidant formulation used herein protects ocular structures from oxidative stress induced by UV exposure in in vivo animal model. ..
  51. Ballesteros A, Summerfelt A, DU X, Jiang P, Chiappelli J, Tagamets M, et al. Electrophysiological intermediate biomarkers for oxidative stress in schizophrenia. Clin Neurophysiol. 2013;124:2209-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxidative stress was assessed by monomeric glutathione (GSH, reduced form) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG, oxidized form). Patients had reduced MMN (p=0...
  52. Wang W, Degroote J, Van Ginneken C, Van Poucke M, Vergauwen H, Dam T, et al. Intrauterine growth restriction in neonatal piglets affects small intestinal mucosal permeability and mRNA expression of redox-sensitive genes. FASEB J. 2016;30:863-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Redox status represented by the glutathione disulfide/glutathione ratio and malondialdehyde concentrations was determined, whereas mRNA expressions of some ..
  53. Robitaille S, Mailloux R, Chan H. Methylmercury alters glutathione homeostasis by inhibiting glutaredoxin 1 and enhancing glutathione biosynthesis in cultured human astrocytoma cells. Toxicol Lett. 2016;256:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..that exposure to MeHg would lead to a depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and an accumulation of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) leading to alterations in S-glutathionylation of proteins...
  54. Ha Y, Chung S, Kim J, Kim D, Kim J, Lee E, et al. Molecular activation of NF-kappaB, pro-inflammatory mediators, and signal pathways in gamma-irradiated mice. Biotechnol Lett. 2010;32:373-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the exquisite sensitivity of NF-kappaB and other pro-inflammatory mediators to the redox status, we conclude that the activation of inflammatory processes by irradiation is likely initiated by increased oxidative stress. ..
  55. Aon M, Cortassa S, O ROURKE B. Redox-optimized ROS balance: a unifying hypothesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:865-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The continuum described by the model has the potential to account for many disparate experimental observations and also provides a rationale for graded physiological ROS signaling at redox potentials near the minimum. ..
  56. Picco S, Anchordoquy J, De Matos D, Anchordoquy J, Seoane A, Mattioli G, et al. Effect of increasing zinc sulphate concentration during in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes. Theriogenology. 2010;74:1141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We inferred that optimal embryo development to the blastocyst stage was partially dependent on the presence of adequate Zn concentrations. ..
  57. Cordes C, Bennett R, Siford G, Hamel F. Redox regulation of insulin degradation by insulin-degrading enzyme. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18138 pubmed publisher
  58. Jungsuwadee P, Zhao T, Stolarczyk E, Paumi C, Butterfield D, St Clair D, et al. The G671V variant of MRP1/ABCC1 links doxorubicin-induced acute cardiac toxicity to disposition of the glutathione conjugate of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012;22:273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In cells treated with 0.5 µmol/l of doxorubicin for 48 , glutathione and glutathione disulfide levels and the glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio were significantly decreased in HEKG671V versus ..
  59. Sheng L, Wang X, Sang X, Ze Y, Zhao X, Liu D, et al. Cardiac oxidative damage in mice following exposure to nanoparticulate titanium dioxide. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2013;101:3238-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, TiO2 NPs exposure may impair cardiovascular system in mice, and attention should be aroused on the application of nano-TiO2 and their potential long-term exposure effects especially on human beings. ..
  60. Wang J, Löfgren S, Dong X, Galichanin K, Söderberg P. Dose-response relationship for ?-tocopherol prevention of ultraviolet radiation induced cataract in rat. Exp Eye Res. 2011;93:91-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The protection is associated with an ?-tocopherol dose-dependent GSH depletion secondary to UVR exposure. UVR-induced light scattering only occurs if the GSH depletion exceeds a threshold. ..
  61. Majerczak J, Rychlik B, Grzelak A, Grzmil P, Karasinski J, Pierzchalski P, et al. Effect of 5-week moderate intensity endurance training on the oxidative stress, muscle specific uncoupling protein (UCP3) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) contents in vastus lateralis of young, healthy men. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;61:743-51 pubmed
  62. Kostyuk V, Potapovich A, Cesareo E, Brescia S, Guerra L, Valacchi G, et al. Dysfunction of glutathione S-transferase leads to excess 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and H(2)O(2) and impaired cytokine pattern in cultured keratinocytes and blood of vitiligo patients. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;13:607-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, we suggest a novel GST-HNE-H(2)O(2)-based mechanism of dysregulation of cytokine-mediated keratinocyte-melanocyte interaction in vitiligo. ..
  63. Priora R, Coppo L, Salzano S, Di Simplicio P, Ghezzi P. Measurement of mixed disulfides including glutathionylated proteins. Methods Enzymol. 2010;473:149-59 pubmed publisher
  64. El Sayed W. Upregulation of chemoprotective enzymes and glutathione by Nigella sativa (black seed) and thymoquinone in CCl4-intoxicated rats. Int J Toxicol. 2011;30:707-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This protection could be attributed to the induction of chemoprotective enzymes probably through increasing transcription. ..
  65. He G. Electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry and redoximetry. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;594:85-105 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies have demonstrated that EPR oximetry and redoximetry techniques have advanced to a stage that enables in-depth insight in the process of ischemia reperfusion injury. ..
  66. Metere A, Iorio E, Scorza G, Camerini S, Casella M, Crescenzi M, et al. Carbon monoxide signaling in human red blood cells: evidence for pentose phosphate pathway activation and protein deglutathionylation. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2014;20:403-16 pubmed publisher
    ..CO-dependent GSH increase is a new RBC process linking a redox-inactive molecule, CO, to GSH redox signaling. This mechanism may be involved in the adaptive responses aimed to counteract stress conditions in mammalian tissues. ..
  67. Reinbold J, Koehler P, Rychlik M. Quantitation of glutathione and its oxidation products in erythrocytes by multiple-label stable-isotope dilution. Anal Biochem. 2014;445:41-8 pubmed publisher
    A multiple-label stable isotope dilution assay for quantifying glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), and glutathione sulfonic acid in erythrocytes was developed...
  68. Jihen E, Fatima H, Nouha A, Baati T, Imed M, Abdelhamid K. Cadmium retention increase: a probable key mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium-induced toxicity in the kidney. Toxicol Lett. 2010;196:104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that Zn increases Cd tissue retention in the kidney and that is probably the key mechanism of the protective effect of Zn. ..
  69. Jia X, Chen Y, Xu X, Shen F, Zheng Q, Du Z, et al. miR156 switches on vegetative phase change under the regulation of redox signals in apple seedlings. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14223 pubmed publisher
    ..MdMIR156a12, and as well miR156 were coordinated with reduced glutathione (GSH) contents and glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio but not H2O2 contents...
  70. Gloyne L, Grant G, Perkins A, Powell K, McDermott C, Johnson P, et al. Pyocyanin-induced toxicity in A549 respiratory cells is causally linked to oxidative stress. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011;25:1353-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This increased understanding of mechanisms underlying pyocyanin-induced cytotoxicity may ultimately lead to better strategies for reducing the virulence associated with chronic P. aeruginosa infection. ..
  71. Marcil V, Lavoie J, Emonnot L, Seidman E, Levy E. Analysis of the effects of iron and vitamin C co-supplementation on oxidative damage, antioxidant response and inflammation in THP-1 macrophages. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:873-83 pubmed publisher reflected by the formation of malondialdehyde and H(2)O(2) along with reduced PUFA levels and elevated glutathione disulfide/total glutathione ratio, a reliable index of cellular redox status...
  72. Pastrana Mena R, Dinglasan R, Franke Fayard B, VEGA RODRIGUEZ J, Fuentes Caraballo M, Baerga Ortiz A, et al. Glutathione reductase-null malaria parasites have normal blood stage growth but arrest during development in the mosquito. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:27045-56 pubmed publisher
    ..of total GSH levels required for blood stage survival is dependent on either de novo GSH synthesis or glutathione disulfide (GSSG) reduction by Plasmodium GR...
  73. Zhou Y, Shi H, Li X, Lv P, Li G, Liu Q, et al. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in aberrant activation of fluoride-treated osteoblasts. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;154:448-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Meantime, levels of glutathione and glutathione disulfide were tested by the ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry applications...
  74. Endo S, Fujimoto A, Kumada S, Matsunaga T, Ohno S, Mano J, et al. Modulation of activity and inhibitor sensitivity of rabbit aldose reductase-like protein (AKR1B19) by oxidized glutathione and SH-reagents. Chem Biol Interact. 2013;202:146-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a maximum of 3-fold activation of AKR1B19 was induced by incubation with glutathione disulfide (GSSG) for 1h...
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    ..Given these results, it can be concluded that C(60) can induce redox disruption via thiol/disulfide pathway, leading to oxidative damage (higher TBARS values) and loss of antioxidant competence. ..
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    ..These findings remain to be confirmed in chronic kidney disease patients. ..