Summary: An oligopeptide produced by various bacteria which acts as a protease inhibitor.

Top Publications

  1. Nguyen Q, Knapp W, Humphreys R. Inhibition by leupeptin and antipain of the intracellular proteolysis of Ii. Hum Immunol. 1989;24:153-63 pubmed
    ..of Ii was evaluated in immunoprecipitates of radiolabeled Raji cells treated with protease inhibitors (leupeptin, antipain, chymostatin, and pepstatin) or blockers of endosomal function (chloroquine and monensin)...
  2. Streit A, Fan Y, Masullo L, Baines R. Calcium Imaging of Neuronal Activity in Drosophila Can Identify Anticonvulsive Compounds. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0148461 pubmed publisher
    ..we use the measure of synchronicity to evaluate the effectiveness of known and novel anticonvulsive compounds (antipain, isethionate, etopiside rapamycin and dipyramidole) to reduce seizure-like CNS activity...
  3. Vaccari M, Argnani A, Horn W, Silingardi P, Giungi M, Mascolo M, et al. Effects of the protease inhibitor antipain on cell malignant transformation. Anticancer Res. 1999;19:589-96 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the effect of antipain (AP), a natural protease inhibitor, on chemically induced BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation, on invasion and ..
  4. Bhunia B, Basak B, Mandal T, Bhattacharya P, Dey A. Effect of pH and temperature on stability and kinetics of novel extracellular serine alkaline protease (70 kDa). Int J Biol Macromol. 2013;54:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition kinetic showed that enzyme is serine protease because enzyme was competitively inhibited by antipain and aprotinin as these compounds are known to be competitive inhibitors of serine protease...
  5. Belenky A, Smith A, Zhang B, Lin S, Despres N, Wu A, et al. The effect of class-specific protease inhibitors on the stabilization of B-type natriuretic peptide in human plasma. Clin Chim Acta. 2004;340:163-72 pubmed
    ..Use of these compounds offers a simple method of extending sample handling and storage of plasma samples containing BNP. ..
  6. Suzuki N, Suzuki H. Suppression of saccharin-induced mutagenicity by interferon-alpha in human RSa cells. Cancer Res. 1995;55:4253-6 pubmed
    ..The suppressive effect was lessened by transient treatment with antipain immediately after sodium saccharin treatment...
  7. Nilsen Hamilton M, Jang Y, Alvarez Azaustre E, Hamilton R. Regulation of the production of a prolactin-like protein (MRP/PLF) in 3T3 cells and in the mouse placenta. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1988;56:179-90 pubmed
    ..chloride, the carboxylic ionophores, monensin and nigericin, and two thiol protease inhibitors, leupeptin and antipain. MRP that has already been secreted is not degraded by 3T3 cells...
  8. Gaitanaki C, Papazafiri P, Beis I. The calpain-calpastatin system and the calcium paradox in the isolated perfused pigeon heart. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2003;13:173-80 pubmed
    ..All the above data suggest that this system may be involved in the induction of the calcium paradox in pigeon heart. ..
  9. Takeuchi K, Sakaue T, Yamamoto Y, Nishi K, Ohkubo I. Shedding of gACE from residual body membrane of rat sperm. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2009;11 Suppl 1:S309-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The shedding activity was inhibited by AEBSF and antipain, and not by EDTA and E-64. Accordingly, it is thought that Sheddase is an endo-type of serine peptidase.

More Information


  1. Gordon S, DeMoss J. Exposure to lysosomotropic amines and protease inhibitors retard corneal endothelial cell migration along the natural basement membrane during wound repair. Exp Cell Res. 1999;246:233-42 pubmed
    ..In addition, two serine/thio protease inhibitors, leupeptin and antipain, were both able to impede cell translocation during wound repair by 85 and 52%, respectively, whereas soybean ..
  2. Aguda A, Lavallee V, Cheng P, Bott T, Meimetis L, Law S, et al. Affinity Crystallography: A New Approach to Extracting High-Affinity Enzyme Inhibitors from Natural Extracts. J Nat Prod. 2016;79:1962-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The traditional approach resulted in the identification of the known inhibitor antipain (1) and its new but lower potency dehydration product 2, while the affinity crystallography approach led to the ..
  3. Takahashi S, Zhang H, Hasegawa R, Karata K, Kita K, Wano C, et al. Increased levels of UV-induced protease activity in human UVAP-1 cells exposed to gravity-changing stress: involvement of E-64-sensitive proteases in suppression of UV mutagenicity. Cell Biol Int. 2003;27:53-60 pubmed
    Under the 1G condition, the increase in antipain-sensitive protease activity promptly after UV (mainly 254 nm wavelength) irradiation in cultured human cells is detected and found to be one of the intriguing events involved in suppression ..
  4. Akbar S, Sharma H. Alkaline serine proteases from Helicoverpa armigera: potential candidates for industrial applications. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2017;94: pubmed publisher
    ..The proteases were inhibited by synthetic inhibitors such as PMSF, aprotonin, leupeptin, pefabloc, and antipain. TLCK and TPCK inhibited about 94 and 90% of trypsin and chymotrypsin activity, respectively, while EDTA, EGTA, ..
  5. Ionov M, Gordiyenko N, Zukowska I, Tokhtaeva E, Mareninova O, Baram N, et al. Stability and antioxidant activity of gossypol derivative immobilized on N-polyvinylpyrrolidone. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012;51:908-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus we present that the conjugation of megosin to PVP increase its stability and remain antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro. ..
  6. Moreira C, Schmaier A, Mahdi F, da Motta G, Nader H, Shariat Madar Z. Identification of prolylcarboxypeptidase as the cell matrix-associated prekallikrein activator. FEBS Lett. 2002;523:167-70 pubmed
    ..PK activation on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) matrix is inhibited by antipain (IC(50)=50 microM) but not anti-factor XIIa antibody, 3 mM benzamidine, 5 mM iodoacetic acid or iodoacetamide, or ..
  7. Puri R, Zhou F, Bradford H, Hu C, Colman R, Colman R. Thrombin-induced platelet aggregation involves an indirect proteolytic cleavage of aggregin by calpain. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989;271:346-58 pubmed
    ..In contrast to serine protease inhibitors, calpain inhibitors including leupeptin, antipain, and ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N'-tetraacetic acid (chelator of Ca2+) inhibited platelet ..
  8. Uadia P, Blair A, Ghose T. Hydrolysis of methotrexate-immunoglobulin conjugates by liver homogenates and characterization of catabolites. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1988;22:175-7 pubmed
    ..Catabolism was optimal at pH 4.6, activated by dithiothreitol, and inhibited by antipain and N-alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone, thus implicating lysosomal enzymes...
  9. Miyoshi T, Tsuji N, Islam K, Kamio T, Fujisaki K. Enzymatic characterization of a cubilin-related serine proteinase from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:1195-8 pubmed
    ..The optimum pH for the enzyme was shown to be 4.0 to 5.0. Several inhibitors such as antipain, leupeptin and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), specific for serine proteinase were shown to inhibit enzyme ..
  10. Kogan T, Jadoun J, Mittelman L, Hirschberg K, Osherov N. Involvement of secreted Aspergillus fumigatus proteases in disruption of the actin fiber cytoskeleton and loss of focal adhesion sites in infected A549 lung pneumocytes. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:1965-73 pubmed
    ..These changes could be specifically blocked in wild-type strains of A. fumigatus by the addition of antipain, a serine and cysteine protease inhibitor, and were not induced by an alkaline serine protease-deficient strain ..
  11. Saleh Y, Sebzda T, Warwas M, Kopec W, Ziolkowska J, Siewinski M. Expression of cystatin C in clinical human colorectal cancer tissues. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2005;5:49-53 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that immunohistochemical detection of cystatin using anti-chicken cystatin antibodies could be useful in studying the prognostic significance of cystatin C expression in colorectal cancer. ..
  12. Sun C, Colman M, Redpath J. Suppression of the radiation-induced expression of a tumor-associated antigen in human cell hybrids by the protease inhibitor antipain. Carcinogenesis. 1988;9:2333-5 pubmed
    The effect of the protease inhibitor antipain (1.25 micrograms/ml) on the radiation-induced expression of a tumor-associated antigen in human cell hybrids has been investigated...
  13. Cox L, Motz J, Troll W, Garte S. Antipain-induced suppression of oncogene expression in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells. Cancer Res. 1991;51:4810-4 pubmed
    b>Antipain (AP; 50 micrograms/ml) inhibits transformation of NIH3T3 cells after transfection with an activated H-ras oncogene...
  14. San Blas G, Sorais F, Niño Vega G, Mendez C, San Blas F. Cytosolic neutral proteinases of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Curr Microbiol. 1998;37:141-3 pubmed
    ..Enzymatic activities were inhibited by antipain, phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), and chymostatin, suggestive of serine proteinases...
  15. Bacher A, Griebl K, Mackamul S, Mitreiter R, Muckter H, Ben Shaul Y. Protease inhibitors suppress the formation of tight junctions in gastrointestinal cell lines. Exp Cell Res. 1992;200:97-104 pubmed
    ..This process can be completely inhibited by the protease inhibitors leupeptin and antipain. The concentration for 50% inhibition was 32 microM leupeptin and 270 microM antipain, respectively...
  16. Ahsan M, Watabe S. Kinetic and structural properties of two isoforms of trypsin isolated from the viscera of Japanese anchovy, Engraulis japonicus. J Protein Chem. 2001;20:49-58 pubmed
    ..This was due mainly to a dramatic decrease of Km values for anchovy trypsins, which are indicative of an evolutionary response toward increased substrate binding at suboptimal temperatures in the marine environment. ..
  17. Zhao Y, Qiu Q, Mahdi F, Shariat Madar Z, Røjkjaer R, Schmaier A. Assembly and activation of HK-PK complex on endothelial cells results in bradykinin liberation and NO formation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H1821-9 pubmed
    ..08 +/- 0.26 x 10(7) sites/cell (means +/- SD). PK is activated to kallikrein by an antipain-sensitive mechanism in the presence of HK and Zn(2+) on HUVEC, human microvascular endothelial cells, umbilical ..
  18. Lyupina Y, Sudakov S, Yarygin V. Inhibitors of Ca(2+)-dependent endopeptidases modulate morphine-induced effects in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996;304:23-7 pubmed
    The effects of inhibitors of Ca(2+)-dependent endopeptidases (antipain and leupeptin) on morphine analgesia, reinforcing properties of morphine and on the development of opiate physical dependence were studied. Male Wistar rats were used...
  19. Caggana M, Kennedy A. c-fos mRNA levels are reduced in the presence of antipain and Bowman-Birk inhibitor. Carcinogenesis. 1989;10:2145-8 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the levels of c-fos message are significantly decreased in the presence of antipain and BBI...
  20. Kean W, Rainsford K, Kean I. Management of chronic musculoskeletal pain in the elderly: opinions on oral medication use. Inflammopharmacology. 2008;16:53-75 pubmed publisher
  21. Flick M, Kennedy A. Effect of protease inhibitors on DNA amplification in SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells. Cancer Lett. 1991;56:103-8 pubmed
    ..Addition of antipain or the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI) to the culture medium, either 75 min after X-..
  22. Davenport M, Clemmons D, Miles M, Camacho Hubner C, D Ercole A, Underwood L. Regulation of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding proteins during rat pregnancy. Endocrinology. 1990;127:1278-86 pubmed
    ..but not nonpregnant) rats degrade IGFBP-3 in vitro, and this degradation is prevented by the protease inhibitor antipain. Decreased serum IGF-I concentrations during pregnancy, therefore, may result from reduced IGFBP-3 concentrations ..
  23. Fluckiger J, Christen P. Degradation of the precursor of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in chicken embryo fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:4131-8 pubmed
    ..Fagan, J.M., Tanaka, K., and Goldberg, A. L. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 11994-12000). The rest of the precursor appears to be degraded by lysosomes. ..
  24. Richardson J, Woychik N, Ebert D, Dimond R, Cardelli J. Inhibition of early but not late proteolytic processing events leads to the missorting and oversecretion of precursor forms of lysosomal enzymes in Dictyostelium discoideum. J Cell Biol. 1988;107:2097-107 pubmed
    ..Cells exposed to the serine/cysteine proteinase inhibitors leupeptin and antipain and the cysteine proteinase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-alanine-diazomethyl ketone (Z-Phe-..
  25. Wan H, Winton H, Soeller C, Tovey E, Gruenert D, Thompson P, et al. Der p 1 facilitates transepithelial allergen delivery by disruption of tight junctions. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:123-33 pubmed
    ..Cleavage was attenuated by antipain, but not by inhibitors of serine, aspartic, or matrix metalloproteinases...
  26. Isogai E, Ishijima S, Sonoda T, Kita K, Suzuki H, Hasegawa R, et al. Protease activation following UV irradiation is linked to hypomutability in human cells selected for resistance to combination of UV and antipain. Mutat Res. 1998;403:215-22 pubmed
    In order to examine the relationship between activation of an antipain-sensitive protease and suppression of mutability in UV (UVC)-irradiated human cells, a human cell variant with the high protease activity induced by UV was established ..
  27. Mandai M, Das S, Chakraborti T, Chakraborti S. Matrix metalloprotease 2-mediated activation of Ca(2+)-ATPase by superoxide radical (O2*-) in plasma membrane of bovine pulmonary vascular smooth muscle. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2002;39:390-6 pubmed phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), Bowman Birk inhibitor (BBI), chymostatin, N-ethylmaleimide, leupeptin, antipain and pepstatin...
  28. Virgin I, Salter A, Ghanotakis D, Andersson B. Light-induced D1 protein degradation is catalyzed by a serine-type protease. FEBS Lett. 1991;287:125-8 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that the D1 protein is degraded by a serine-type of proteolytic activity that is an integral part of photosystem II. ..
  29. Gordon V, Benz R, Fujii K, Leppla S, Tweten R. Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin is proteolytically activated by furin. Infect Immun. 1997;65:4130-4 pubmed
    ..assessed by propidium iodide uptake, was partially prevented by leupeptin (5 mM) and completely prevented by antipain (2.5 mM)...
  30. Mukorah F, Razunguzwa B, Masola B. Stabilization of rat liver mitochondrial alanine aminotransferase with ethanol and trehalose. Cryobiology. 1998;37:300-8 pubmed
    ..In the presence of 36.5% trehalose, the half-life of mALT was 85 h. Of the protease inhibitors tested only antipain and chymostatin slowed down the inactivation of mALT but only within the first 24 h following preparation of the ..
  31. Umans R, Kennedy A. Effects of activators and inhibitors of protein kinase C on X-ray induced malignant transformation in vitro. Eur J Cancer. 1992;28A:732-5 pubmed
    ..transformation enhancement was found to be reversed by the presence of the anticarcinogenic protease inhibitors antipain or the Bowman-Birk inhibitor...
  32. Varga S, Martonosi A. Giant sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles: a study of membrane morphogenesis. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 1992;13:497-510 pubmed
    ..1 M KCl, 10 mM Tris-maleate, pH 7.0, 10 micrograms ml-1 antipain, 10 micrograms ml-1 leupeptin, 25 IU per ml Trasylol, 3 mM NaN3, 3...
  33. Alfieri S, Ramazeilles C, Zilberfarb V, Galpin I, Norman S, Rabinovitch M. Proteinase inhibitors protect Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes from destruction by amino acid esters. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1988;29:191-201 pubmed
    ..We show here that, in agreement with this model, the proteinase inhibitors antipain and chymostatin prevented the killing of intracellular and isolated parasites by L-leucine methyl ester (Leu-OMe)...
  34. Petrusevska R, Furstenberger G, Marks F, Fusenig N. Cytogenetic effects caused by phorbol ester tumor promoters in primary mouse keratinocyte cultures: correlation with the convertogenic activity of TPA in multistage skin carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1988;9:1207-15 pubmed
    ..This conclusion is supported by experiments with substances such as antipain and eicosa-5,8,11,14-tetraynoic acid which inhibit both tumor induction in initiated skin and the cytogenetic ..
  35. Mansat V, Bettaieb A, Levade T, Laurent G, Jaffrezou J. Serine protease inhibitors block neutral sphingomyelinase activation, ceramide generation, and apoptosis triggered by daunorubicin. FASEB J. 1997;11:695-702 pubmed
    ..Other cell-permeant protease inhibitors such as pepstatin, leupeptin, and antipain had no such effect...
  36. Yang X, Schnellmann R. Proteinases in renal cell death. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1996;48:319-32 pubmed
    ..ketone (TLCK) or 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin (DCS), the serine and cysteine proteinase inhibitors leupeptin or antipain, or the aspartic proteinase inhibitor pepstatin...
  37. Savory P, Rivett A. Leupeptin-binding site(s) in the mammalian multicatalytic proteinase complex. Biochem J. 1993;289 ( Pt 1):45-8 pubmed
    ..acid residues, can be selectively and completely inhibited by peptidyl arginine aldehydes (such as leupeptin and antipain), and is also the most sensitive to inhibition by thiol-reactive reagents...
  38. Miyata S, Yoshida Y, Kihara H. Purification and characterization of a protease from Xenopus embryos. Eur J Biochem. 1989;186:49-54 pubmed
    ..0. This proteolytic activity was inhibited by antipain, leupeptin and iodoacetic acid; it was not affected by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and pepstatin; and it was ..
  39. Afzal V, Wiencke J, Wolff S. Antipain-mediated suppression of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes. Carcinogenesis. 1989;10:1193-6 pubmed
    The protease inhibitor antipain is known to modulate the number of chromosomal aberrations induced by the S-phase-dependent alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine...
  40. Isogai E, Suzuki N. Involvement of antipain-sensitive protease activity in suppression of UV-mutagenicity by human interferon-alpha. Mutat Res. 1994;325:81-5 pubmed
    ..Of ten inhibitors tested, antipain showed the greatest inhibitory effect...
  41. Suzuki N, Suzuki H, Ishizuka T, Yamamori H, Takakubo Y. Hypomutable potential accompanying interferon-alpha resistance in a human cell line, IFr, derived from interferon-alpha-sensitive and hypermutable RSa cells. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 1996;16:733-8 pubmed
    ..However, IFr cells, when cultured with medium containing the protease inhibitor antipain after UV irradiation showed hypermutability to almost the same extent as RSa cells, as determined by both ..
  42. Suzuki Y, Nomura J, Koyama J, Horii I. The role of proteases in stratum corneum: involvement in stratum corneum desquamation. Arch Dermatol Res. 1994;286:249-53 pubmed
    ..Cell dissociation was inhibited strongly by antipain or aprotinin, but not at all by N-[N-(L-3-transcarboxyoxiran-2-carbonyl)-L-leucyl]-agmatin, N-ethylmaleimide or ..
  43. von Hofe E, Brent R, Kennedy A. Inhibition of X-ray-induced exencephaly by protease inhibitors. Radiat Res. 1990;123:108-11 pubmed
    ..Previous studies from this and other laboratories have demonstrated that protease inhibitors, in particular antipain and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor, are effective anticarcinogenic agents in a variety of in vivo systems and inhibit ..
  44. Kahyaoglu A, Haghjoo K, Guo F, Jordan F, Kettner C, Felfoldi F, et al. Low barrier hydrogen bond is absent in the catalytic triads in the ground state but Is present in a transition-state complex in the prolyl oligopeptidase family of serine proteases. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:25547-54 pubmed
  45. Anisuzzaman -, Islam M, Alim M, Miyoshi T, Hatta T, Yamaji K, et al. Longistatin is an unconventional serine protease and induces protective immunity against tick infestation. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012;182:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibited by various serine protease inhibitors such as phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), aprotinin, antipain, and leupeptin with the estimated IC(50) of 278.57 ?M, 0.35 ?M, 41.56 ?M and 198.86 ?M, respectively...
  46. Dick L, Moomaw C, DeMartino G, Slaughter C. Degradation of oxidized insulin B chain by the multiproteinase complex macropain (proteasome). Biochemistry. 1991;30:2725-34 pubmed
    ..or centers that cleave the other preferred bonds by its specific susceptibility to inhibition by leupeptin, antipain, chymostatin, and pentamidine, suggesting that macropain utilizes at least two distinct catalytic centers for the ..
  47. Miyata S, Shimazaki T, Okamoto Y, Motegi N, Kitagawa M, Kihara H. Inhibition of RNA synthesis in embryo of Xenopus laevis by protease inhibitor. J Exp Zool. 1988;246:150-5 pubmed
    ..When the activity of proteases was inhibited by antipain, an inhibitor of endopeptidase activity, RNA synthesis in the embryo was inhibited...
  48. Kakkar P, Mehrotra S, Viswanathan P. tBHP induced in vitro swelling of rat liver mitochondria. Mol Cell Biochem. 1996;154:39-45 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of phospholipase A2 by dibucaine and Ca2+ activated proteases by antipain and leupeptin also reduced t-BHP induced swelling...
  49. Brass L, Shattil S. Inhibition of thrombin-induced platelet activation by leupeptin. Implications for the participation of calpain in the initiation of platelet activation. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:5210-6 pubmed
    Inhibitors of calcium-dependent proteases (calpains) such as leupeptin and antipain have been shown to selectively inhibit platelet activation by thrombin...
  50. Kasuga N, Umazume Y. Deterioration induced by physiological concentration of calcium ions in skinned muscle fibres. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 1990;11:41-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that one of the causes for decrease in rigor tension is the proteolytic activity of CANP, and its inhibitors were shown to be quite useful in experiments on skinned fibre. ..
  51. Morimoto T, Oho C, Ueda M, Ogihara S, Takisawa H. Repression of serotonin secretion by an endogenous Ca2(+)-activated protease in electropermeabilized bovine platelets. J Biochem. 1990;108:311-20 pubmed
    ..Inhibitors of serine-thiol protease, such as leupeptin and antipain, suppressed the impairment of the secretion of serotonin by the preincubation with Ca2+...
  52. Elliget K, Phelps P, Trump B. Cytosolic Ca2+ elevation and calpain inhibitors in HgCl2 injury to rat kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells. Pathobiology. 1994;62:298-310 pubmed high and low extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]e) were performed using the calpain inhibitors antipain and leupeptin, and also trypsin inhibitor, methylamine, chloroquine, and ryanodine...
  53. Suzuki N. Suppression of UV- and interferon-alpha-refractoriness by antipain in human IFr cells established from RSa cells sensitive to both stimuli. J Cell Physiol. 1996;167:47-51 pubmed
    ..activity elevated after UV irradiation and after HuIFN-alpha treatment was inhibited to the greatest extent by antipain in vitro...
  54. Zhong X, Kolter R, Tai P. Processing of colicin V-1, a secretable marker protein of a bacterial ATP binding cassette export system, requires membrane integrity, energy, and cytosolic factors. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:28057-63 pubmed
    ..Moreover, ColV-1 processing is inhibited by antipain and N-ethylmaleimide. Furthermore, the processing requires energy in the form of nucleotide hydrolysis...
  55. Duthie S, Melvin W, Burke M. Bromobenzene detoxification in the human liver-derived HepG2 cell line. Xenobiotica. 1994;24:265-79 pubmed
    ..5. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of HepG2 cells in toxicity testing and highlights the importance of standardizing culture conditions. ..
  56. Santos A, D Ávila Levy C, Dias F, Ribeiro R, Pereira F, Elias C, et al. Phytomonas serpens: cysteine peptidase inhibitors interfere with growth, ultrastructure and host adhesion. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:47-56 pubmed
    ..Leupeptin and antipain induced the appearance of microvillar extensions and blebs on the cytoplasmic membrane, resembling a shedding ..
  57. Santos R, Takahashi C. Anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects of selenomethionine on doxorubicin-induced damage in vitro in human lymphocytes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:671-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore this study showed that SM is effective in reducing the genetic damage induced by the antitumoral agent DXR. ..
  58. Hamazaki H. Carboxy-terminal truncation of long-tailed amyloid beta-peptide is inhibited by serine protease inhibitor and peptide aldehyde. FEBS Lett. 1998;424:136-8 pubmed carbobenzoxy-Leu-leucinal, carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal, and carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-norvalinal, and weakly by antipain. The present data suggest that the serine carboxypeptidase contributes to the generation of short-tailed Abeta ..
  59. Kadowaki T, Kitano S, Baba A, Takii R, Hashimoto M, Katunuma N, et al. Isolation and characterization of a novel and potent inhibitor of Arg-gingipain from Streptomyces sp. strain FA-70. Biol Chem. 2003;384:911-20 pubmed
    ..This compound was found to be an antipain analog composed of phenylalanyl-ureido-citrullinyl-valinyl-cycloarginal (C27H43N9O7)...
  60. Sugita K, Suzuki N, Niimi H. Involvement of antipain-sensitive protease activity in the interferon-beta-induced UV-refractoriness of Cockayne syndrome fibroblasts. Mutat Res. 1996;357:177-81 pubmed
    ..A protease inhibitor, antipain, inhibited the induction of protease activity in lysates of the CS fibroblasts from these 3 cases after the ..
  61. Puri J, FActorovich Y. Selective inhibition of antigen presentation to cloned T cells by protease inhibitors. J Immunol. 1988;141:3313-7 pubmed
    ..The conclusion after these data suggests that each specific antigenic fragment is produced by a unique set of proteases. ..
  62. Togashi K, Magae J, Kataoka T, Nagai K. Thiol-protease inhibitors selectively inhibit presentation of antigen incorporated through B cell antigen receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;210:324-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that exogenous antigen taken up through surface IgM is presented by a pathway which involves proteolysis by thiol-proteases and distinct from that for the antigens taken up through non-specific endocytosis. ..
  63. Chen L, Tai P. Effects of inhibitors of membrane signal peptide peptidase on protein translocation into membrane vesicles. Arch Microbiol. 1989;153:90-4 pubmed
    ..of periplasmic alkaline phosphatase precursors was significantly inhibited by the protease inhibitors antipain, elastatinal and leupeptin...
  64. Tao J, Chou K. [The roles of monocytes and the interaction between monocyte and T cell in human immune suppression induced by trichosanthin]. Shi Yan Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 1993;26:127-31 pubmed
    ..the ability to mediate the suppression effect if they were pulsed with Trichosanthin together with monocytes; (c) Antipain, a blocking agent against antigen processing and presentation, could diminish the suppressive activity of the ..
  65. Bullock T, Breddam K, Remington S. Peptide aldehyde complexes with wheat serine carboxypeptidase II: implications for the catalytic mechanism and substrate specificity. J Mol Biol. 1996;255:714-25 pubmed
    ..The peptide aldehydes, antipain and chymostatin, form covalent adducts with the active-site serine 146...
  66. Forney J, Yang S, Du C, Healey M. Efficacy of serine protease inhibitors against Cryptosporidium parvum infection in a bovine fallopian tube epithelial cell culture system. J Parasitol. 1996;82:638-40 pubmed
    The anticryptosporidial potential of the protease inhibitors alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), antipain, aprotinin, leupeptin, methoxysuccinyl-ala-ala-pro-valine chloromethylketone (MAAPVCK), soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), and ..
  67. Sano M, Tsukimura T, Yamazaki A, Seto A. Protein breakdown in submandibular glands rendered hypertrophic by amputation of lower incisor teeth in rats. J Nihon Univ Sch Dent. 1990;32:181-6 pubmed
    ..fluoride), an inhibitor of serine protease, 10 microM pepstatin, an inhibitor of cathepsin D and 20 microM antipain, an inhibitor of cathepsin A and B...
  68. Fritz B, Lowe A. Polarized GP2 secretion in MDCK cells via GPI targeting and apical membrane-restricted proteolysis. Am J Physiol. 1996;270:G176-83 pubmed
  69. Witting J, Pouliott C, Catalfamo J, Fareed J, Fenton J. Thrombin inhibition with dipeptidyl argininals. Thromb Res. 1988;50:461-7 pubmed
    ..clotting activities, respectively) were inhibited in chromogenic substrate assays by the dipeptidyl argininals: antipain less than leupeptin less than H-D-Phe-Pro-argininal approximately Boc-D-Phe-Pro-argininal...