pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide


Summary: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.

Top Publications

  1. Atlasz T, Szabadfi K, Kiss P, Racz B, Gallyas F, Tamas A, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in the retina: focus on the retinoprotective effects. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1200:128-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide that has been shown to exert protective effects against different neuronal injuries, such as traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, ..
  2. Nakamachi T, Ohtaki H, Yofu S, Dohi K, Watanabe J, Mori H, et al. Endogenous pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide is involved in suppression of edema in the ischemic brain. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2010;106:43-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide is a pleiotropic neuropeptide...
  3. Borzsei R, Mark L, Tamas A, Bagoly T, Bay C, Csanaky K, et al. Presence of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-38 in human plasma and milk. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;160:561-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic and multifunctional neuropeptide widely distributed throughout the body...
  4. Latini S, Chiarpotto M, Muciaccia B, Vaccari S, Barberi M, Guglielmo M, et al. Inhibitory effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide on the initial stages of rat follicle development. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;320:34-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is transiently expressed in preovulatory follicles of different species and positively affects parameters correlated with the ovulatory process...
  5. Hammack S, Cheung J, Rhodes K, Schutz K, Falls W, Braas K, et al. Chronic stress increases pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST): roles for PACAP in anxiety-like behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009;34:833-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its specific G protein-coupled PAC(1) receptor have been associated with many of ..
  6. Hashimoto H, Hashimoto R, Shintani N, Tanaka K, Yamamoto A, Hatanaka M, et al. Depression-like behavior in the forced swimming test in PACAP-deficient mice: amelioration by the atypical antipsychotic risperidone. J Neurochem. 2009;110:595-602 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that alterations in PACAP signaling might contribute to the pathogenesis of certain depressive conditions amenable to atypical antipsychotic drugs. ..
  7. Horvath G, Mark L, Brubel R, Szakaly P, Racz B, Kiss P, et al. Mice deficient in pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide display increased sensitivity to renal oxidative stress in vitro. Neurosci Lett. 2010;469:70-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide, showing widespread occurrence in the nervous system and also in peripheral organs...
  8. Hawke Z, Ivanov T, Bechtold D, Dhillon H, Lowell B, Luckman S. PACAP neurons in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus are targets of central leptin signaling. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14828-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it appears that PACAP is an important mediator of central leptin effects on energy balance. ..
  9. Boronkai A, Brubel R, Racz B, Tamas A, Kiss P, Horvath G, et al. Effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide on the survival and signal transduction pathways in human choriocarcinoma cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1163:353-7 pubmed publisher
    The pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has several effects in endocrine and reproductive organs, including the placenta...

More Information


  1. Vaudry D, Falluel Morel A, Bourgault S, Basille M, Burel D, Wurtz O, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors: 20 years after the discovery. Pharmacol Rev. 2009;61:283-357 pubmed publisher
    ..The present report reviews the current knowledge concerning the pleiotropic actions of PACAP and discusses its possible use for future therapeutic applications. ..
  2. Atlasz T, Szabadfi K, Reglodi D, Kiss P, Tamas A, Toth G, et al. Effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and its fragments on retinal degeneration induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1163:348-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the growing family of neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors playing important roles during neuronal development and protection against different types of ..
  3. Germano P, Lieu S, Xue J, Cooke H, Christofi F, Lu Y, et al. PACAP induces signaling and stimulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release and growth in neuroendocrine tumor cells. J Mol Neurosci. 2009;39:391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), released from the enteric neurons in the gastrointestinal tract by binding to its ..
  4. Bourgault S, Vaudry D, Dejda A, Doan N, Vaudry H, Fournier A. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: focus on structure-activity relationships of a neuroprotective Peptide. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16:4462-80 pubmed
    ..The applicability of PACAP analogs as therapeutic agents for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is also discussed. ..
  5. Kuri B, Chan S, SMITH C. PACAP regulates immediate catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells in an activity-dependent manner through a protein kinase C-dependent pathway. J Neurochem. 2009;110:1214-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that PACAP acts as a primary secretagogue at the sympatho-adrenal synapse under the stress response. ..
  6. Giunta S, Castorina A, Adorno A, Mazzone V, Carnazza M, D Agata V. PACAP and VIP affect NF1 expression in rat malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells. Neuropeptides. 2010;44:45-51 pubmed publisher
  7. Habecker B, Sachs H, Rohrer H, Zigmond R. The dependence on gp130 cytokines of axotomy induced neuropeptide expression in adult sympathetic neurons. Dev Neurobiol. 2009;69:392-400 pubmed publisher
    ..cervical ganglion (SCG) begin to express vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), galanin, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), and cholecystokinin after axotomy...
  8. Schecterson L, Hudson M, Ko M, Philippidou P, Akmentin W, Wiley J, et al. Trk activation in the secretory pathway promotes Golgi fragmentation. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;43:403-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The capacity of transactivated TrkB to enhance neuronal Golgi fragmentation may represent a novel mechanism regulating neural plasticity. ..
  9. Stetler R, Gao Y, Zukin R, Vosler P, Zhang L, Zhang F, et al. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 is required for PACAP-induced neuroprotection against global cerebral ischemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3204-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the DNA repair function of APE1 was required for PACAP-mediated neuroprotection. Thus, induction of DNA repair enzymes may be a unique strategy for neuroprotection against hippocampal injury. ..
  10. Tompkins J, Lawrence Y, Parsons R. Enhancement of Ih, but not inhibition of IM, is a key mechanism underlying the PACAP-induced increase in excitability of guinea pig intrinsic cardiac neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R52-9 pubmed publisher
  11. Roth E, Weber G, Kiss P, Horvath G, Toth G, Gasz B, et al. Effects of PACAP and preconditioning against ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vitro. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1163:512-6 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors are widely expressed in the nervous system and various other tissues...
  12. Yamada K, Matsuzaki S, Hattori T, Kuwahara R, Taniguchi M, Hashimoto H, et al. Increased stathmin1 expression in the dentate gyrus of mice causes abnormal axonal arborizations. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8596 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that up-regulation of stathmin1 in the dentate gyrus, secondary to PACAP deficiency, may create abnormal neuronal circuits that cause abnormal behavior. ..
  13. Ferencz A, Racz B, Tamas A, Nedvig K, Nemeth J, Kalmar Nagy K, et al. Changes and effect of PACAP-38 on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion and autotransplantation. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:57-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings confirmed that I/R decreased endogenous PACAP-38 concentration. Administration of PACAP-38 to UW solution mitigated the oxidative injury during intestinal autotransplantation. ..
  14. Yi C, Sun N, Ackermans M, Alkemade A, Foppen E, Shi J, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide stimulates glucose production via the hepatic sympathetic innervation in rats. Diabetes. 2010;59:1591-600 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that PACAP-38 signaling via sympathetic preautonomic neurons located in the paraventricular nucleus is an important component in the hypothalamic control of hepatic glucose production. ..
  15. Tohei A, Ikeda M, Hokao R, Shinoda M. The different effects of i.c.v. injection of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on prolactin secretion in adult male and lactating rats. Exp Anim. 2009;58:489-95 pubmed
    ..These observed effects of PACAP on PRL release may be pharmacological responses rather than physiological responses. ..
  16. Mori H, Nakamachi T, Ohtaki H, Yofu S, Sato A, Endo K, et al. Cardioprotective effect of endogenous pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in mice. Circ J. 2010;74:1183-90 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that endogenous PACAP might attenuate Dox-induced myocardial damage and that its mechanism of action is likely to be associated with the reduction of oxidative stress and mediated via anti-apoptotic effects. ..
  17. Yoshiyama M, de Groat W. Effects of intrathecal administration of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide on lower urinary tract functions in rats with intact or transected spinal cords. Exp Neurol. 2008;211:449-55 pubmed publisher
    Effects of intrathecally administered pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP-38, 0...
  18. Hardwick J, Baran C, Southerland E, Ardell J. Remodeling of the guinea pig intrinsic cardiac plexus with chronic pressure overload. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R859-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that congestive heart failure associated with chronic pressure overload induces a differential remodeling of intrinsic cardiac neurons and upregulation of neuronal responsiveness to specific neuromodulators. ..
  19. Reuss S, Disque Kaiser U, Antoniou Lipfert P, Gholi M, Riemann E, Riemann R. Neurochemistry of olivocochlear neurons in the hamster. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:461-71 pubmed publisher
    ..They further demonstrate that the medial olivocochlear system is partly nitrergic and use PACAP as neurotransmitter or modulator. ..
  20. Purwana I, Kanasaki H, Oride A, Mijiddorj T, Shintani N, Hashimoto H, et al. GnRH-induced PACAP and PAC1 receptor expression in pituitary gonadotrophs: a possible role in the regulation of gonadotropin subunit gene expression. Peptides. 2010;31:1748-55 pubmed publisher
    ..They subsequently affect the gonadotrophs in an autocrine manner and modulate the GnRH pulse-dependent specific regulation of gonadotropin subunits. ..
  21. Moore J, Villafuerte B, Unick C, Winters S. Developmental changes in pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide expression during the perinatal period: possible role in fetal gonadotroph regulation. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4802-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) can differentially regulate the gonadotropins in vitro by stimulating alpha-subunit ..
  22. Atlasz T, Szabadfi K, Kiss P, Tamas A, Toth G, Reglodi D, et al. Evaluation of the protective effects of PACAP with cell-specific markers in ischemia-induced retinal degeneration. Brain Res Bull. 2010;81:497-504 pubmed publisher
    b>Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide that has been shown to exert protective effects in different neuronal injuries, such as traumatic brain injury, models of ..
  23. Hoover D, Tompkins J, Parsons R. Differential activation of guinea pig intrinsic cardiac neurons by the PAC1 agonists maxadilan and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 27 (PACAP27). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;331:197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that maxadilan and PACAP27 differ in activating PAC1 receptors on cardiac neurons and/or stimulating downstream signaling mechanisms. ..
  24. Vuckovic A, Rondelet B, Brion J, Naeije R. Expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide and related receptors in overcirculation-induced pulmonary hypertension in piglets. Pediatr Res. 2009;66:395-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with the notion that abnormal VIP signaling takes part in PAH pathogenesis. ..
  25. Moore J, Winters S. Weaning and the developmental changes in follicle-stimulating hormone, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, and inhibin B in the male rat. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:752-60 pubmed
  26. Levy G, Jackson K, Degani G. Association between pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and reproduction in the blue gourami. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;166:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the effect of PACAP38 on pituitary hormone gene expression is different in females and males, indicating that PACAP38 is potentially a hypophysiotropic regulator of reproduction, which mediates pituitary hormone expression. ..
  27. Falktoft B, Georg B, Fahrenkrug J. Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells. Neuropeptides. 2009;43:387-96 pubmed publisher
  28. Pena F. PACAP modulates the respiratory rhythm generated in the brainstem slice preparation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;669:119-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PACAP is a neuromodulator of the PreBötC suggesting that alterations in such neuromodulation might be involved in the sudden infant death-like phenotype. ..
  29. Ferencz A, Reglo di D, Kalmar Nagy K, Horvath O, Ro Th E, Wéber G, et al. Influence of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on the activation of mitogen activated protein kinases following small bowel cold preservation. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:60-2 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, PACAP treatment induced signalling pathways protective against oxidative injury by MAP kinases in bowel tissue. ..
  30. Zaccone G, Mauceri A, Maisano M, Giannetto A, Parrino V, Fasulo S. Distribution and neurotransmitter localization in the heart of the ray-finned fish, bichir (Polypterus bichir bichir Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1802). Acta Histochem. 2009;111:93-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The adrenergic innervation of the heart of the bichir is similar to that of the teleosts, but further studies are required on nervous control of the heart. ..
  31. Xu M, Volkoff H. Cloning, tissue distribution and effects of food deprivation on pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide (PRP) and preprosomatostatin 1 (PPSS 1) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Peptides. 2009;30:766-76 pubmed publisher
    Full-length complementary deoxyribonucleic acid sequences encoding pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide (PRP) and preprosomatostatin 1 (PPSS 1) were cloned from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) ..
  32. Svensjo E, Saraiva E, Bozza M, Oliveira S, Lerner E, Scharfstein J. Salivary gland homogenates of Lutzomyia longipalpis and its vasodilatory peptide maxadilan cause plasma leakage via PAC1 receptor activation. J Vasc Res. 2009;46:435-46 pubmed publisher
    ..SGH of L. longipalpis and its vasodilatory peptide maxadilan caused long-lasting arteriolar dilation and plasma leakage in the cheek pouch via PAC1 receptor activation. ..
  33. Jolivel V, Basille M, Aubert N, de Jouffrey S, Ancian P, Le Bigot J, et al. Distribution and functional characterization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptors in the brain of non-human primates. Neuroscience. 2009;160:434-51 pubmed publisher
  34. Godlewski J, Łakomy I. Changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and neuropeptide Y-ergic structures of the enteric nervous system in the carcinoma of the human large intestine. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2010;48:208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Observed changes in the neural elements which are responsible for relaxation of the intestine may suggest dysfunction in the innervation of this part of the colon. ..
  35. Thakur M, Devadhas D, Zhang K, Pestell R, Wang C, McCue P, et al. Imaging spontaneous MMTVneu transgenic murine mammary tumors: targeting metabolic activity versus genetic products. J Nucl Med. 2010;51:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2 benign tumors that did not express the VPAC1 receptor were not imaged. (64)Cu-TP3805 promises to have the potential for the early and accurate imaging of primary and metastatic BC. ..
  36. Mutiara S, Kanasaki H, Oride A, Purwana I, Shimasaki S, Yamamoto H, et al. Follistatin gene expression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone: a role for cyclic AMP and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in clonal gonadotroph LbetaT2 cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;307:125-32 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the intracellular cAMP level, but not ERK activity, determined whether follistatin was induced following high frequency GnRH pulses. ..
  37. Kanasaki H, Mutiara S, Oride A, Purwana I, Miyazaki K. Pulse frequency-dependent gonadotropin gene expression by adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 in perifused mouse pituitary gonadotroph LbetaT2 cells. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:465-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This regulation may involve alteration in numbers of GnRH and ADCYAP1 receptors as well as FST expression. ..
  38. Somogyi I, Boros A, Engelmann P, Varhalmi E, Nemeth J, Lubics A, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-like compounds could modulate the activity of coelomocytes in the earthworm. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1163:521-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our results we hypothesize a link between PACAP and coelomocytes, suggesting that PACAP modulates the function of amebocytes and certain granulocytes that play a role in tissue remodeling of regenerating earthworms. ..
  39. Kageyama K, Suda T. Regulatory mechanisms underlying corticotropin-releasing factor gene expression in the hypothalamus. Endocr J. 2009;56:335-44 pubmed
    ..Both negative glucocorticoid regulatory element (nGRE) and serum response element (SRE) are involved in the repression of the CRF gene in the hypothalamic cells. ..
  40. Katayama T, Hattori T, Yamada K, Matsuzaki S, Tohyama M. Role of the PACAP-PAC1-DISC1 and PACAP-PAC1-stathmin1 systems in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: novel treatment mechanisms?. Pharmacogenomics. 2009;10:1967-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibility that the regulation of these two systems could lead to new treatments for schizophrenia is also discussed. ..
  41. Han B, Wu J. DcR3 protects islet beta cells from apoptosis through modulating Adcyap1 and Bank1 expression. J Immunol. 2009;183:8157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has revealed novel mechanisms by which DcR3 protects islet survival, and it has identified new therapeutic targets of diabetes. ..
  42. Chung J, Kubota H, Ozaki Y, Uda S, Kuroda S. Timing-dependent actions of NGF required for cell differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9011 pubmed publisher
  43. Shi G, Jin L, Andres D. Src-dependent TrkA transactivation is required for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated Rit activation and neuronal differentiation. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1597-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these observations expand upon the nature of PACR1-mediated transactivation and identify TrkA-Rit signaling as a key contributor to PACAP-dependent neuronal differentiation. ..
  44. Engelund A, Fahrenkrug J, Harrison A, Hannibal J. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is co-stored with PACAP in projections from the rat melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;340:243-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we conclude that VGLUT2 is the preferred subtype of vesicular transporter used by these cells. ..
  45. Le Mevel J, Lancien F, Mimassi N, Conlon J. Ventilatory and cardiovascular actions of centrally and peripherally administered trout pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the unanaesthetized trout. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:3919-27 pubmed publisher
  46. Koga M, Ishiguro H, Horiuchi Y, Inada T, Ujike H, Itokawa M, et al. Replication study of association between ADCYAP1 gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia. Psychiatr Genet. 2010;20:123-5 pubmed publisher
    ..53-0.86). It is concluded that single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including Asp54Gly, of the ADCYAP1 gene are unlikely to play a sizeable role in the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. ..
  47. Tominaga A, Sugawara H, Futagawa T, Inoue K, Sasaki K, Minamino N, et al. Characterization of the testis-specific promoter region in the human pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene. Genes Cells. 2010;15:595-606 pubmed publisher
    ..By using their siRNAs, the depletion of their proteins in F9 cells affected the potent promoter activity of the 80-bp fragment, suggesting that they might be involved in the testis-specific gene expression of PACAP. ..
  48. Dubin A, Herr D, Chun J. Diversity of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-mediated intracellular calcium signaling in early cortical neurogenesis. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7300-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with other known factors, lysophospholipids represent the major activator of calcium signaling identified within NPCs at this early stage in corticogenesis. ..
  49. Dejda A, Chan P, Seaborn T, Coquet L, Jouenne T, Fournier A, et al. Involvement of stathmin 1 in the neurotrophic effects of PACAP in PC12 cells. J Neurochem. 2010;114:1498-510 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that stathmin 1 is involved in the neurotrophic effect of PACAP in PC12 cells. ..
  50. Tuboly G, Horvath G. [Pain sensitivity changes in schizophrenic patients and animal models--Part II]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009;62:148-53 pubmed
    ..Data originated from complex chronic animal models indicate that they might be more adequate methods for studying the mechanisms of schizophrenia including the pain-sensitivity changes. ..
  51. Njaine B, Martins R, Santiago M, Linden R, Silveira M. Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide controls the proliferation of retinal progenitor cells through downregulation of cyclin D1. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;32:311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the data support the hypothesis that PACAP is a cell-extrinsic regulator with multiple roles during retinal development, including the regulation of proliferation in a subpopulation of retinal progenitor cells. ..
  52. Deguil J, Chavant F, Lafay Chebassier C, Perault Pochat M, Fauconneau B, Pain S. Neuroprotective effect of PACAP on translational control alteration and cognitive decline in MPTP parkinsonian mice. Neurotox Res. 2010;17:142-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we previously demonstrated that the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) could counteract the MPTP toxicity on TC factors in neuroblastoma cells...
  53. Garella R, Baccari M. Contribution of endogenous nitrergic and peptidergic influences to the altered neurally-induced gastric contractile responses in strips from dystrophic (mdx) mice. Regul Pept. 2010;160:57-63 pubmed publisher