Summary: Neuropeptide hormones that play a role in regulating a variety of behavioral and physiological processes in response to motivational stimuli.

Top Publications

  1. Sieminski M, Chwojnicki K, Sarkanen T, Partinen M. The relationship between orexin levels and blood pressure changes in patients with narcolepsy. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185975 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results do not support the hypothesis that in patients with narcolepsy type 1 residual orexin levels play a role in the control of nocturnal BP dipping. ..
  2. Ju Y, Ooms S, Sutphen C, Macauley S, Zangrilli M, Jerome G, et al. Slow wave sleep disruption increases cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-? levels. Brain. 2017;140:2104-2111 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects are specific to neuronally-derived proteins, which suggests they are likely driven by changes in neuronal activity during disrupted sleep. ..
  3. McGregor R, Shan L, Wu M, Siegel J. Diurnal fluctuation in the number of hypocretin/orexin and histamine producing: Implication for understanding and treating neuronal loss. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178573 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the function and dynamics of transmitter production within "non-visible" phenotypically defined cells has fundamental implications for our understanding of brain plasticity. ..
  4. Joshi D, Sarkar D, Singh S. Decreased expression of orexin 1 receptor in adult mice testes during alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus perturbs testicular steroidogenesis and glucose homeostasis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1346-1354 pubmed publisher
  5. Wan X, Liu Y, Zhao Y, Sun X, Fan D, Guo L. Orexin A affects HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells glucose metabolism via HIF-1?-dependent and -independent mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184213 pubmed publisher
    b>Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate feeding, reward, wakefulness and energy homeostasis...
  6. Clasadonte J, Scemes E, Wang Z, Boison D, Haydon P. Connexin 43-Mediated Astroglial Metabolic Networks Contribute to the Regulation of the Sleep-Wake Cycle. Neuron. 2017;95:1365-1380.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings propose a novel regulatory mechanism critical for maintaining normal daily cycle of wakefulness and involving astrocyte-neuron metabolic interactions. ..
  7. Peyron C, Tighe D, Van den Pol A, de Lecea L, Heller H, Sutcliffe J, et al. Neurons containing hypocretin (orexin) project to multiple neuronal systems. J Neurosci. 1998;18:9996-10015 pubmed
    The novel neuropeptides called hypocretins (orexins) have recently been identified as being localized exclusively in cell bodies in a subregion of the tuberal part of the hypothalamus...
  8. Boss C, Roch C. Orexin research: patent news from 2016. Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2017;27:1123-1133 pubmed publisher
    ..It might also influence the efforts in the identification of orexin receptor agonists. Being potential treatments for narcolepsy with cataplexy. ..
  9. Kornum B, Burgdorf K, Holm A, Ullum H, Jennum P, Knudsen S. Absence of autoreactive CD4+ T-cells targeting HLA-DQA1*01:02/DQB1*06:02 restricted hypocretin/orexin epitopes in narcolepsy type 1 when detected by EliSpot. J Neuroimmunol. 2017;309:7-11 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Drouot X, Moutereau S, Lefaucheur J, Palfi S, Covali Noroc A, Margarit L, et al. Low level of ventricular CSF orexin-A is not associated with objective sleepiness in PD. Sleep Med. 2011;12:936-7 pubmed publisher
  2. Moriguchi T, Sakurai T, Nambu T, Yanagisawa M, Goto K. Neurons containing orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area of the adult rat brain are activated by insulin-induced acute hypoglycemia. Neurosci Lett. 1999;264:101-4 pubmed
    ..b>Orexins are specifically localized in neurons within and around the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA)...
  3. Fujita I, Nobunaga M, Seki T, Kurauchi Y, Hisatsune A, Katsuki H. Cystamine-mediated inhibition of protein disulfide isomerase triggers aggregation of misfolded orexin-A in the Golgi apparatus and prevents extracellular secretion of orexin-A. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;489:164-170 pubmed publisher
    b>Orexins (orexin-A and orexin-B) are neuropeptides that are reduced in narcolepsy, a sleep disorder that is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden sleep attacks and cataplexy...
  4. Filardi M, Pizza F, Tonetti L, Antelmi E, Natale V, Plazzi G. Attention impairments and ADHD symptoms in adult narcoleptic patients with and without hypocretin deficiency. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182085 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians should carefully consider attentional deficits and psychopathological symptoms, including ADHD symptoms, in the clinical assessment and management of patients with narcolepsy. ..
  5. Liu K, Kim J, Kim D, Zhang Y, Bao H, Denaxa M, et al. Lhx6-positive GABA-releasing neurons of the zona incerta promote sleep. Nature. 2017;548:582-587 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies identify a GABAergic subpopulation of neurons in the ventral zona incerta that promote sleep. ..
  6. Pintwala S, Peever J. Circuit mechanisms of sleepiness and cataplexy in narcolepsy. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2017;44:50-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights the latest research concerning the normal function of the orexin system and how its dysfunction causes narcolepsy symptoms. ..
  7. Baba T, Nakashima I, Kanbayashi T, Konno M, Takahashi T, Fujihara K, et al. Narcolepsy as an initial manifestation of neuromyelitis optica with anti-aquaporin-4 antibody. J Neurol. 2009;256:287-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Kallweit U, Bassetti C. Pharmacological management of narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2017;18:809-817 pubmed publisher
    ..New symptomatic and causal treatment most probably will be completed by hypocretin-replacement and immune-modifying strategies. ..
  9. de Biase S, Nilo A, Gigli G, Valente M. Investigational therapies for the treatment of narcolepsy. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2017;26:953-963 pubmed publisher
    ..However, more information would be necessary to completely understand the autoimmune process and also how this process can be altered for therapeutic benefits. ..
  10. Qiao S, Zhou W, Liu L, Zhang D, Zhong Y. Orexin-A Suppresses Signal Transmission to Dopaminergic Amacrine Cells From Outer and Inner Retinal Photoreceptors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4712-4721 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigates whether and how orexins modulate signal transmission to dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs) from both outer retinal photoreceptors (rods ..
  11. Modi H, Wang Q, Gd S, Sherman D, Greenwald E, Savonenko A, et al. Intranasal post-cardiac arrest treatment with orexin-A facilitates arousal from coma and ameliorates neuroinflammation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182707 pubmed publisher
    ..Beneficial outcomes from intranasal ORXA treatment lay the groundwork for therapeutic clinical approach to treating post-CA coma. ..