galanin like peptide


Summary: A neuropeptide that is highly homologous to GALANIN. It is produced by proteolytic processing of a larger protein that is unrelated to prepro-galanin and preferentially binds to GALANIN-2 RECEPTOR.

Top Publications

  1. Gundlach A. Galanin/GALP and galanin receptors: role in central control of feeding, body weight/obesity and reproduction?. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;440:255-68 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a direct stimulatory action of endogenous GALP on gonadotropin secretion via actions within the hypothalamus/basal forebrain, with leptin actions linking this system to body adipose levels. ..
  2. Lawrence C, Baudoin F, Luckman S. Centrally administered galanin-like peptide modifies food intake in the rat: a comparison with galanin. J Neuroendocrinol. 2002;14:853-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, similar to galanin, GALP has an acute orexigenic effect on feeding. However, GALP also has an anorectic action, which is apparent at a later time. Therefore, GALP has complex opposing actions on energy homeostasis. ..
  3. Seth A, Stanley S, Dhillo W, Murphy K, Ghatei M, Bloom S. Effects of galanin-like peptide on food intake and the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis. Neuroendocrinology. 2003;77:125-31 pubmed
    ..Both GALP (100 nM) and galanin (100 nM) inhibited the release thyrotrophin-releasing hormone. These data suggest that in the PVN, GALP may play a role in energy homeostasis by stimulating food intake and suppressing TSH release. ..
  4. Fraley G, Shimada I, Baumgartner J, Clifton D, Steiner R. Differential patterns of Fos induction in the hypothalamus of the rat following central injections of galanin-like peptide and galanin. Endocrinology. 2003;144:1143-6 pubmed
  5. Kumano S, Matsumoto H, Takatsu Y, Noguchi J, Kitada C, Ohtaki T. Changes in hypothalamic expression levels of galanin-like peptide in rat and mouse models support that it is a leptin-target peptide. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2634-43 pubmed
    ..The result supports the hypothesis that the hypothalamic GALP gene expression is controlled by leptin signals and suggests possible involvement of GALP in the reproductive abnormalities of the Zucker obese rat. ..
  6. Cunningham M. Galanin-like peptide as a link between metabolism and reproduction. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004;16:717-23 pubmed
    ..Based on current evidence, GALP neurones may serve as a hypothalamic relay, transmitting information from the periphery to circuits within the brain involved in the physiological control of metabolism and reproduction. ..
  7. Gottsch M, Clifton D, Steiner R. Galanin-like peptide as a link in the integration of metabolism and reproduction. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2004;15:215-21 pubmed
    ..In this article, we describe the involvement of GALP in metabolism and reproduction, and in the coupling between these two processes. ..
  8. Mensah E, Blanco A, Donini A, Unniappan S. Brain and intestinal expression of galanin-like peptide (GALP), galanin receptor R1 and galanin receptor R2, and GALP regulation of food intake in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Neurosci Lett. 2017;637:126-135 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations form the first report on the presence of GALP in the fish brain and gut, and also on its modulatory role on fish feeding behavior. GALP, as in mammals, appears to be a functional neuropeptide in goldfish. ..
  9. Wagner L, Kaestner F, Wolf R, Stiller H, Heiser U, Manhart S, et al. Identifying neuropeptide Y (NPY) as the main stress-related substrate of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) in blood circulation. Neuropeptides. 2016;57:21-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The decline of soluble DPP4 in acute depression could be reversed upon anti-depressive treatment. Peptidases from three functional compartments regulate the bioactivity of NPY in blood. ..

More Information


  1. Celik O, Aydin S, Celik N, Yilmaz M. Peptides: Basic determinants of reproductive functions. Peptides. 2015;72:34-43 pubmed publisher
    ..summarize the participation of leptin, kisspeptin, ghrelin, NPY, orexin, urocortin, VIP, insulin, galanin, galanin like peptide, oxytocin, agouti gene-related peptide, and POMC neurons in this process and their possible interactions to ..
  2. Kastin A, Akerstrom V, Hackler L. Food deprivation decreases blood galanin-like peptide and its rapid entry into the brain. Neuroendocrinology. 2001;74:423-32 pubmed
  3. Schmidhuber S, Santic R, Tam C, Bauer J, Kofler B, Brain S. Galanin-like peptides exert potent vasoactive functions in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:716-21 pubmed
    ..These results indicate functional activity of GALP in the periphery in vivo and suggest a potential role as an inflammatory modulator. ..
  4. Stoyanovitch A, Johnson M, Clifton D, Steiner R, Fraley G. Galanin-like peptide rescues reproductive function in the diabetic rat. Diabetes. 2005;54:2471-6 pubmed
    ..05). These observations demonstrate that endogenous GALP provides trophic support to the neuroendocrine reproductive axis, including sexual behavior. ..
  5. Fujio T, Fujihara H, Shibata M, Yamada S, Onaka T, Tanaka K, et al. Exaggerated response of arginine vasopressin-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion gene to salt loading without disturbance of body fluid homeostasis in rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006;18:776-85 pubmed
    ..The AVP-eGFP transgenic rat gives us a new opportunity to study the dynamics of the AVP system in vivo. ..
  6. Fraley G. ICV galanin-like peptide stimulates non-contact erections but not touch-based erections in adult, sexually experienced male rats. Neuropeptides. 2017;64:69-73 pubmed publisher
    ..GALP had no significant effect on touch-based erections compared to vehicle. These data suggest that GALP's activation of fos within the mPOA is indicative of its action to stimulate the appetitive aspects of male sexual behavior. ..
  7. Saito J, Ozaki Y, Kawasaki M, Ohnishi H, Okimoto N, Nakamura T, et al. Galanin-like peptide gene expression in the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary of the obese fa/fa rat. Peptides. 2004;25:967-74 pubmed
    ..Insulin treatment in hyperglycemic fa/fa rats partially reversed those changes. These results suggest that the GALP gene expression in fa/fa rats might be regulated in part by leptin-independent mechanisms. ..
  8. Dastmalchi S, Church W, Morris M, Iismaa T, Mackay J. Presence of transient helical segments in the galanin-like peptide evident from (1)H NMR, circular dichroism, and prediction studies. J Struct Biol. 2004;146:261-71 pubmed
    ..Secondary structure prediction methods also predict the presence of two helical regions in the sequence of GALP overlapping reasonably with those regions identified as nascent helical structures by experimental methods. ..
  9. Takenoya F, Funahashi H, Matsumoto H, Ohtaki T, Katoh S, Kageyama H, et al. Galanin-like peptide is co-localized with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone but not with neuropeptide Y in the rat brain. Neurosci Lett. 2002;331:119-22 pubmed
    ..3-11.8%) in the ARC. However, the co-existence of GALP and NPY was never demonstrated. These findings strongly suggest that GALP may participate in the regulation of feeding behavior in harmony with alpha-MSH. ..
  10. Fang P, He B, Shi M, Kong G, Dong X, Zhu Y, et al. The regulative effect of galanin family members on link of energy metabolism and reproduction. Peptides. 2015;71:240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This research line will further deepen our understanding of the physiological roles of the galanin family in regulating the link of energy metabolism and reproduction. ..
  11. Shobatake R, Takasawa K, Ota H, Itaya Hironaka A, Yamauchi A, Sakuramoto Tsuchida S, et al. Up-regulation of POMC and CART mRNAs by intermittent hypoxia via GATA transcription factors in human neuronal cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018;95:100-107 pubmed publisher
    ..IH can have an anorexigenic effect on SAS patients through the transcriptional activation of POMC and CART in the central nervous system. ..
  12. Gonkowski S, Burliński P, Skobowiat C, Majewski M, Całka J. Inflammation- and axotomy-induced changes in galanin-like immunoreactive (GAL-LI) nerve structures in the porcine descending colon. Acta Vet Hung. 2010;58:91-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Both these processes caused an increase in the number of GAL-LI nerve fibres in the circular muscle and mucosal layers as well as the appearance of a population of GAL-LI cells in the mucosa...
  13. Robinson J, Bartfai T, Langel U. Galanin/GALP receptors and CNS homeostatic processes. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2006;5:327-34 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological tools are emerging that will allow dissociation of specific roles for the peptides and their associated receptor subtypes in mediating the homeostatic processes of energy and fluid balance. ..
  14. Fang P, Yu M, Gu X, Shi M, Zhu Y, Zhang Z, et al. Circulating galanin and galanin like peptide concentrations are correlated with increased triglyceride concentration in obese patients. Clin Chim Acta. 2016;461:126-9 pubmed publisher
    ..GAL and GALP concentrations may be taken as potential biomarkers to predict development of obesity. ..
  15. Saito J, Ozaki Y, Ohnishi H, Nakamura T, Ueta Y. Induction of galanin-like peptide gene expression in the rat posterior pituitary gland during endotoxin shock and adjuvant arthritis. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;113:124-32 pubmed
    ..c. injection of heat-inactivated M. butyricum that induced adjuvant arthritis. These results suggested that inflammatory stresses may be a potent stimulant to induce the expression of the GALP gene in the PP...
  16. Kastin A, Pan W. Involvement of the Blood-Brain Barrier in Metabolic Regulation. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2016;15:1118-1128 pubmed
    ..Thus, the BBB plays a dynamic role in modulating the passage of ingestive peptides from blood to brain. ..
  17. Sergeant L, Rodriguez Dimitrescu C, Barney C, Fraley G. Injections of Galanin-Like Peptide directly into the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) reduces food intake and body weight but increases metabolic rate and plasma leptin. Neuropeptides. 2017;62:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..GALP appears to increase energy expenditure in addition to decreasing energy input by actions within the NTS and thus may play an important role in the hypothalamic regulation of body weight. ..
  18. Zhuang F, Li M, Gao X, Wang Y, Wang D, Ma X, et al. The antidepressant-like effect of alarin is related to TrkB-mTOR signaling and synaptic plasticity. Behav Brain Res. 2016;313:158-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings help advance the understanding of depression pathophysiology. ..
  19. Bendena W, Boudreau J, Papanicolaou T, Maltby M, Tobe S, Chin Sang I. A Caenorhabditis elegans allatostatin/galanin-like receptor NPR-9 inhibits local search behavior in response to feeding cues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1339-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that NPR-9 has inhibitory effects on the AIB interneuron to regulate foraging behavior, which, in turn, may affect metabolic rate and lipid storage. ..
  20. Fraley G. Immunolesions of glucoresponsive projections to the arcuate nucleus alter glucoprivic-induced alterations in food intake, luteinizing hormone secretion, and GALP mRNA, but not sex behavior in adult male rats. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;83:97-105 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the A1/C1 efferents to the ventromedial hypothalamus are involved in the glucostatic regulation of GALP mRNA, feeding behavior and LH secretion, but not sex behavior in the adult male rat. ..
  21. Wittmann G, Sarkar S, Hrabovszky E, Liposits Z, Lechan R, Fekete C. Galanin- but not galanin-like peptide-containing axon terminals innervate hypophysiotropic TRH-synthesizing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Brain Res. 2004;1002:43-50 pubmed
  22. Onaka T, Kuramochi M, Saito J, Ueta Y, Yada T. Galanin-like peptide stimulates vasopressin, oxytocin and adrenocorticotropic hormone release in rats. Neuroreport. 2005;16:243-7 pubmed
    ..It is possible that galanin-like peptide is involved in vasopressin, oxytocin and adrenocorticotropic hormone release from the pituitary during stress. ..
  23. Rich N, Reyes P, Reap L, Goswami R, Fraley G. Sex differences in the effect of prepubertal GALP infusion on growth, metabolism and LH secretion. Physiol Behav. 2007;92:814-23 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that GALP may be involved with the prepubertal increase in circulating leptin, LH, and GH resulting in an increase in metabolic rate and lean growth associated with puberty. ..
  24. Man P, Lawrence C. The effects of galanin-like peptide on energy balance, body temperature and brain activity in the mouse and rat are independent of the GALR2/3 receptor. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:128-37 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that GALP induces differential effects on energy balance and brain activity in mice compared to rats, which are unlikely to be due to activation of the GALR2 or GALR3 receptor. ..
  25. Takenoya F, Hirayama M, Kageyama H, Funahashi H, Kita T, Matsumoto H, et al. Neuronal interactions between galanin-like-peptide- and orexin- or melanin-concentrating hormone-containing neurons. Regul Pept. 2005;126:79-83 pubmed
  26. Shen J, Larm J, Gundlach A. Galanin-like peptide mRNA in neural lobe of rat pituitary. Increased expression after osmotic stimulation suggests a role for galanin-like peptide in neuron-glial interactions and/or neurosecretion. Neuroendocrinology. 2001;73:2-11 pubmed
  27. Kuramochi M, Onaka T, Kohno D, Kato S, Yada T. Galanin-like peptide stimulates food intake via activation of neuropeptide Y neurons in the hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus of the rat. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1744-52 pubmed
    ..These data show that icv GALP injection induces a potent short-term stimulation of food intake mainly via activation of NPY-containing neurons in the DMN. ..
  28. Takenoya F, Aihara K, Funahashi H, Matsumoto H, Ohtaki T, Tsurugano S, et al. Galanin-like peptide is target for regulation by orexin in the rat hypothalamus. Neurosci Lett. 2003;340:209-12 pubmed
    ..6 % neurons (range 4.2-14.6%) in the ARC. These findings strongly suggest that GALP may participate in the regulation of feeding behavior under the influence of leptin and OX. ..
  29. Lawrence C, Williams T, Luckman S. Intracerebroventricular galanin-like peptide induces different brain activation compared with galanin. Endocrinology. 2003;144:3977-84 pubmed
    ..Double immunohistochemistry indicated that small cells expressing c-fos in the periventricular hypothalamic region after GALP were astrocytes and not microglia. ..
  30. Johansson A, Fredriksson R, Winnergren S, Hulting A, Schioth H, Lindblom J. The relative impact of chronic food restriction and acute food deprivation on plasma hormone levels and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression. Peptides. 2008;29:1588-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the latter neuropeptides--although previously known to be involved in body weight homeostasis--may be of unexpected importance in states of negative energy balance. ..
  31. Takenoya F, Guan J, Kato M, Sakuma Y, Kintaka Y, Kitamura Y, et al. Neural interaction between galanin-like peptide (GALP)- and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-containing neurons. Peptides. 2006;27:2885-93 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that GALP-containing neurons provide direct input to LHRH-containing neurons and that GALP plays a crucial role in the regulation of LH secretion via LHRH. ..
  32. Kageyama H, Takenoya F, Kita T, Hori T, Guan J, Shioda S. Galanin-like peptide in the brain: effects on feeding, energy metabolism and reproduction. Regul Pept. 2005;126:21-6 pubmed
  33. Matsumoto H, Noguchi J, Takatsu Y, Horikoshi Y, Kumano S, Ohtaki T, et al. Stimulation effect of galanin-like peptide (GALP) on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-mediated luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in male rats. Endocrinology. 2001;142:3693-6 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest a role for GALP in the control of gonadotropin secretion through a hypothalamic mechanism involving the release of LHRH. ..
  34. Cunningham M, Cunnningham M, Krasnow S, Gevers E, Chen P, Thompson C, et al. Regulation of galanin-like peptide gene expression by pituitary hormones and their downstream targets. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004;16:10-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the induction of GALP gene expression in pituicytes is physiologically associated with activation of oxytocin and vasopressin secretion during lactation. ..
  35. Heiman M, Statnick M. Galanin-like peptide functions more like leptin than like galanin. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4707-8 pubmed
  36. Lang R, Gundlach A, Kofler B. The galanin peptide family: receptor pharmacology, pleiotropic biological actions, and implications in health and disease. Pharmacol Ther. 2007;115:177-207 pubmed
  37. Uenoyama Y, Tsukamura H, Kinoshita M, Yamada S, Iwata K, Pheng V, et al. Oestrogen-dependent stimulation of luteinising hormone release by galanin-like peptide in female rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:626-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that hypothalamic GALP is likely involved in stimulating GnRH/LH release, and that the stimulatory effect of GALP on LH release is oestrogen-dependent in female rats. ..
  38. Fujiwara K, Adachi S, Usui K, Maruyama M, Matsumoto H, Ohtaki T, et al. Immunocytochemical localization of a galanin-like peptide (GALP) in pituicytes of the rat posterior pituitary gland. Neurosci Lett. 2002;317:65-8 pubmed
    ..Both studies clearly indicated that the GALP-ir cells in the PP are pituicytes...
  39. Kageyama H, Takenoya F, Hori Y, Yoshida T, Shioda S. Morphological interaction between galanin-like peptide- and dopamine-containing neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus. Regul Pept. 2008;145:165-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GALP-containing neurons innervate tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons. ..
  40. Ruczyński J, Rekowski P. [Biological activity of galanin and its significance in physiologic and pathologic processes]. Postepy Biochem. 2002;48:306-16 pubmed
  41. Fraley G, Scarlett J, Shimada I, Teklemichael D, Acohido B, Clifton D, et al. Effects of diabetes and insulin on the expression of galanin-like peptide in the hypothalamus of the rat. Diabetes. 2004;53:1237-42 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GALP neurons are direct targets for regulation by insulin and implicate these cells for a role in the metabolic and behavioral sequelae of type 1 diabetes. ..
  42. Kawagoe R, Yamamoto Y, Kubo K, Dobashi K, Asayama K, Ueta Y, et al. Postnatal development of galanin-like peptide mRNA expression in rat hypothalamus. Regul Pept. 2008;145:133-40 pubmed
    ..The regulatory mechanism of GALP mRNA is different from that of the NPY and POMC genes during postnatal development. ..
  43. Van Der Kolk N, Madison F, Mohr M, Eberhard N, Kofler B, Fraley G. Alarin stimulates food intake in male rats and LH secretion in castrated male rats. Neuropeptides. 2010;44:333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrate that alarin, like other members of the galanin family, is a neuromediator of food intake and body weight. ..
  44. Shahab M, Cunningham M, Steiner R, Plant T. Galanin-Like peptide elicits a robust discharge of growth hormone in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Neuroendocrinology. 2005;81:254-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that in the monkey GALP is a potent secretagogue for GH and an inhibitor of PRL secretion and that GALP may, therefore, interact with the hypothalamic circuitry involved in the regulation of these pituitary hormones. ..
  45. Takatsu Y, Matsumoto H, Ohtaki T, Kumano S, Kitada C, Onda H, et al. Distribution of galanin-like peptide in the rat brain. Endocrinology. 2001;142:1626-34 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that GALP neurons, as leptin-responsive neurons, may participate in the regulation of feeding behavior and/or reproductive functions. ..
  46. Kauffman A, Buenzle J, Fraley G, Rissman E. Effects of galanin-like peptide (GALP) on locomotion, reproduction, and body weight in female and male mice. Horm Behav. 2005;48:141-51 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our sexual behavior and locomotor findings suggest species-specific differences in the mechanism and/or location of GALP action in the brains of rats and mice. ..
  47. Shen J, Gundlach A. Galanin-like peptide mRNA alterations in arcuate nucleus and neural lobe of streptozotocin-diabetic and obese zucker rats. Further evidence for leptin-dependent and independent regulation. Neuroendocrinology. 2004;79:327-37 pubmed
    ..Our data in STZ-DM rats also clearly demonstrate that GALP gene expression is differentially regulated in neurons and pituicytes. ..
  48. Jureus A, Cunningham M, Li D, Johnson L, Krasnow S, Teklemichael D, et al. Distribution and regulation of galanin-like peptide (GALP) in the hypothalamus of the mouse. Endocrinology. 2001;142:5140-4 pubmed
    ..These observations demonstrate that GALP mRNA is induced by leptin through a direct action on the brain. ..
  49. Dziedzic B, Szemraj J, Bartkowiak J, Walczewska A. Various dietary fats differentially change the gene expression of neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation in rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:364-73 pubmed
    ..The present study demonstrates that various forms of dietary fat differentially change the expression of neuropeptide genes involved in energy homeostasis. ..
  50. Matsumoto Y, Watanabe T, Adachi Y, Itoh T, Ohtaki T, Onda H, et al. Galanin-like peptide stimulates food intake in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2002;322:67-9 pubmed
    ..GALP had ten-fold the orexigenic activity of galanin. We also observed the anxiogenic-like behavior after the administration of 1 nmol GALP. These results suggest that GALP is a novel orexigenic and anxiogenic peptide. ..
  51. Hansen K, Krasnow S, Nolan M, Fraley G, Baumgartner J, Clifton D, et al. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system by galanin-like peptide--a possible link between leptin and metabolism. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4709-17 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that leptin's activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and ultimately thermogenesis, may be partially mediated by GALP through a melanocortin-independent mechanism. ..
  52. Kageyama H, Kita T, Toshinai K, Guan J, Date Y, Takenoya F, et al. Galanin-like peptide promotes feeding behaviour via activation of orexinergic neurones in the rat lateral hypothalamus. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006;18:33-41 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that orexin/hypocretin-containing neurones in the lateral hypothalamus are targeted by GALP, and that GALP-induced hyperphagia is mediated via orexin/hypocretin neurones in the rat hypothalamus. ..
  53. Cunningham M, Shahab M, Grove K, Scarlett J, Plant T, Cameron J, et al. Galanin-like peptide as a possible link between metabolism and reproduction in the macaque. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1760-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that GALP neurons play a role of integrating metabolic signals, which are relayed to circuits controlling GnRH release in the macaque. ..
  54. Nonaka N, Farr S, Kageyama H, Shioda S, Banks W. Delivery of galanin-like peptide to the brain: targeting with intranasal delivery and cyclodextrins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;325:513-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that intranasal administration is an effective route of administration for the delivery of GALP to the brain and that targeting among brain regions may be possible with the use of various cyclodextrins. ..
  55. Bosi G, Shinn A, Giari L, Arrighi S, Domeneghini C. The presence of a galanin-like peptide in the gut neuroendocrine system of Lampetra fluviatilis and Acipenser transmontanus: an immunohistochemical study. Tissue Cell. 2004;36:283-92 pubmed
    ..The presence of a galanin-like immunoreactivity in the neuroendocrine system of these two ancient fishes confirms the hypothesis on the early occurrence of this regulative molecule in the gastro-enteric system of vertebrates. ..
  56. Patterson M, Murphy K, Thompson E, Smith K, Meeran K, Ghatei M, et al. Microinjection of galanin-like peptide into the medial preoptic area stimulates food intake in adult male rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006;18:742-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the mPOA and the PVN may have specific roles in mediating the orexigenic effect of GALP and galanin. ..
  57. Cunningham M, Scarlett J, Steiner R. Cloning and distribution of galanin-like peptide mRNA in the hypothalamus and pituitary of the macaque. Endocrinology. 2002;143:755-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that a leptin-GALP signaling pathway exists in a primate species...
  58. Whitelaw C, Robinson J, Chambers G, Hastie P, Padmanabhan V, Thompson R, et al. Expression of mRNA for galanin, galanin-like peptide and galanin receptors 1-3 in the ovine hypothalamus and pituitary gland: effects of age and gender. Reproduction. 2009;137:141-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The roles played by these systems in the sheep, however, may differ from other species, in particular the neuroendocrine link between nutrition and reproduction and GALR1's role in pituitary signalling...
  59. Castellano J, Navarro V, Fernandez Fernandez R, Roa J, Vigo E, Pineda R, et al. Effects of galanin-like peptide on luteinizing hormone secretion in the rat: sexually dimorphic responses and enhanced sensitivity at male puberty. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;291:E1281-9 pubmed
    ..This state of LH hyperresponsiveness may prove relevant for the mechanisms relaying metabolic status to the reproductive axis in male puberty. ..
  60. Dong Y, Tyszkiewicz J, Fong T. Galanin and galanin-like peptide differentially modulate neuronal activities in rat arcuate nucleus neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:3228-34 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these differential effects of galanin and GALP may provide a neurophysiological mechanism through which galanin and GALP differentially regulate energy balance, reproductive function, and other physiological processes. ..
  61. Bauer J, Lang R, Jakab M, Kofler B. Galanin family of peptides in skin function. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1820-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss these data in light of the role of the galanin peptide family in inflammation and cell proliferation. ..
  62. Fraley G, Thomas Smith S, Acohido B, Steiner R, Clifton D. Stimulation of sexual behavior in the male rat by galanin-like peptide. Horm Behav. 2004;46:551-7 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that GALP neurons are part of the hypothalamic circuitry controlling sexual behavior in the male rat. ..
  63. Dungan Lemko H, Clifton D, Steiner R, Fraley G. Altered response to metabolic challenges in mice with genetically targeted deletions of galanin-like peptide. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E605-12 pubmed publisher
  64. Kawasaki M, Saito J, Hashimoto H, Suzuki H, Otsubo H, Fujihara H, et al. Induction of the galanin-like peptide gene expression in the posterior pituitary gland after acute osmotic stimulus in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2007;419:125-30 pubmed
  65. Santic R, Fenninger K, Graf K, Schneider R, Hauser Kronberger C, Schilling F, et al. Gangliocytes in neuroblastic tumors express alarin, a novel peptide derived by differential splicing of the galanin-like peptide gene. J Mol Neurosci. 2006;29:145-52 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that alarin expression is a feature of ganglionic differentiation in neuroblastic tumor tissues. ..
  66. Krasnow S, Fraley G, Schuh S, Baumgartner J, Clifton D, Steiner R. A role for galanin-like peptide in the integration of feeding, body weight regulation, and reproduction in the mouse. Endocrinology. 2003;144:813-22 pubmed
    ..Although we cannot rule out possible nonspecific effects of GALP on FI, the present observations are consistent with the argument that GALP is a downstream effector of leptin's actions within the central nervous system. ..
  67. Santic R, Schmidhuber S, Lang R, Rauch I, Voglas E, Eberhard N, et al. Alarin is a vasoactive peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10217-22 pubmed
    ..Alarin adds another facet to the surprisingly high-functional redundancy of the galanin family of peptides. ..
  68. Seth A, Stanley S, Jethwa P, Gardiner J, Ghatei M, Bloom S. Galanin-like peptide stimulates the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in vitro and may mediate the effects of leptin on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Endocrinology. 2004;145:743-50 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that GALP may mediate the actions of leptin on the reproductive axis and provide a link between nutrition and fertility. ..
  69. Guan J, Kageyama H, Wang Q, Takenoya F, Kita T, Matsumoto H, et al. Electron microscopy examination of galanin-like peptide (GALP)-containing neurons in the rat hypothalamus. Regul Pept. 2005;126:73-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the physiological role of the GALP-containing neurons in the ARC is based on complex synaptic relationships between GALP-containing neurons and either GALP-immunopositive or -immunonegative neurons. ..
  70. Man P, Lawrence C. Galanin-like peptide: a role in the homeostatic regulation of energy balance?. Neuropharmacology. 2008;55:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we provide an insight into a potential novel role for GALP in inflammation, and discuss how this may relate to the non-homeostatic regulation of energy balance. ..
  71. Rodriguez M, Anadón R, Rodriguez Moldes I. Development of galanin-like immunoreactivity in the brain of the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), with some observations on sexual dimorphism. J Comp Neurol. 2003;465:263-85 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the distribution of GAL-ir elements observed throughout trout development indicates that galaninergic system maturation continues until sexual maturity. ..
  72. Tan H, Gundlach A, Morris M. Exaggerated feeding response to central galanin-like peptide administration in diet-induced obese rats. Neuropeptides. 2005;39:333-6 pubmed
    ..One possible explanation is an increased sensitivity and/or number of specific GALP receptors, although actions of exogenous GALP may also represent pharmacological actions at galanin receptors. ..
  73. Kuramochi M, Kohno D, Onaka T, Kato S, Yada T. Galanin-like peptide and ghrelin increase cytosolic Ca2+ in neurons containing growth hormone-releasing hormone in the arcuate nucleus. Regul Pept. 2005;126:85-9 pubmed
    ..The former action may be involved in the orexigenic effect of GALP and the latter in the GH-releasing and/or orexigenic effects ghrelin. ..
  74. Lawrence C. Galanin-like peptide modulates energy balance by affecting inflammatory mediators?. Physiol Behav. 2009;97:515-9 pubmed publisher
    ..I also describe a role for IL-1 in mediating the anorectic and febrile actions of GALP, and consider the possibility that GALP may act like an inflammatory mediator. ..
  75. Hawes J, Narasimhaiah R, Picciotto M. Galanin and galanin-like peptide modulate neurite outgrowth via protein kinase C-mediated activation of extracellular signal-related kinase. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:2937-46 pubmed
    ..This study identified a novel physiological role for galanin-induced ERK phosphorylation and identified ERK and protein kinase C as important signaling components in the galanin-mediated modulation of neurite outgrowth. ..