galanin

Summary

Summary: A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.

Top Publications

  1. Elliott Hunt C, Pope R, Vanderplank P, Wynick D. Activation of the galanin receptor 2 (GalR2) protects the hippocampus from neuronal damage. J Neurochem. 2007;100:780-9 pubmed
    Expression of the neuropeptide galanin is up-regulated in many brain regions following nerve injury and in the basal forebrain of patients with Alzheimer's disease...
  2. Page A, Slattery J, Brierley S, Jacoby A, Blackshaw L. Involvement of galanin receptors 1 and 2 in the modulation of mouse vagal afferent mechanosensitivity. J Physiol. 2007;583:675-84 pubmed
    It is established that the gut peptide galanin reduces neuronal excitability via galanin receptor subtypes GALR1 and GALR3 and increases excitability via subtype GALR2...
  3. Neugebauer N, Henehan R, Hales C, Picciotto M. Mice lacking the galanin gene show decreased sensitivity to nicotine conditioned place preference. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;98:87-93 pubmed publisher
    Previous work has indicated that the neuropeptide galanin decreases sensitivity to the rewarding effects of morphine and cocaine, but increases alcohol drinking...
  4. Thippeswamy T, Haddley K, Corness J, Howard M, McKay J, Beaucourt S, et al. NO-cGMP mediated galanin expression in NGF-deprived or axotomized sensory neurons. J Neurochem. 2007;100:790-801 pubmed
    Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are well characterized regulators of galanin expression...
  5. Hempson S, Matkowskyj K, Bansal A, Tsao E, Habib I, BENYA R, et al. Rotavirus infection of murine small intestine causes colonic secretion via age restricted galanin-1 receptor expression. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:2410-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent data suggest that colonic secretion postbacterial infection is mediated by galanin-1 receptors (Gal1-R)...
  6. Tortorella C, Neri G, Nussdorfer G. Galanin in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (Review). Int J Mol Med. 2007;19:639-47 pubmed
    b>Galanin is a regulatory 30- or 29-amino acid peptide, widely distributed in the nervous system and gut, that acts via three subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors, named GAL-R1, GAL-R2 and GAL-R3...
  7. Unschuld P, Ising M, Erhardt A, Lucae S, Kohli M, Kloiber S, et al. Polymorphisms in the galanin gene are associated with symptom-severity in female patients suffering from panic disorder. J Affect Disord. 2008;105:177-84 pubmed
    b>Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide, which is expressed primarily in limbic nuclei in the brain and mediates miscellaneous physiological processes and behaviors...
  8. Makwana M, Werner A, Acosta Saltos A, Gonitel R, Pararajasingam A, Pararajasingham A, et al. Peripheral facial nerve axotomy in mice causes sprouting of motor axons into perineuronal central white matter: time course and molecular characterization. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:699-721 pubmed publisher
    ..Axotomy was followed by the appearance of galanin(+) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)(+) sprouts peaking at day 14, matching both large, neuropeptide(+) ..
  9. Bacon A, Kerr N, Holmes F, Gaston K, Wynick D. Characterization of an enhancer region of the galanin gene that directs expression to the dorsal root ganglion and confers responsiveness to axotomy. J Neurosci. 2007;27:6573-80 pubmed
    b>Galanin expression markedly increases in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after sciatic nerve axotomy and modulates pain behavior and regeneration of sensory neurons...

More Information

Publications92

  1. Gutzler S, Karom M, Erwin W, Albers H. Seasonal regulation of social communication by photoperiod and testosterone: effects of arginine-vasopressin, serotonin and galanin in the medial preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus. Behav Brain Res. 2011;216:214-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of AVP and V1a receptors in the MPOA-AH to regulate flank marking is modulated by a number of factors including galanin (GAL), serotonin (5-HT) and gonadal hormones...
  2. Christiansen S, Woldbye D. Regulation of the galanin system by repeated electroconvulsive seizures in mice. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:3635-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuropeptide galanin exerts antiepileptic and antidepressant-like effects and has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of ..
  3. Stevenson L, Allen W, Turkington R, Jithesh P, Proutski I, Stewart G, et al. Identification of galanin and its receptor GalR1 as novel determinants of resistance to chemotherapy and potential biomarkers in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:5412-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The G-protein-coupled receptor galanin receptor 1 (GalR1) was identified as a novel regulator of drug resistance...
  4. Hobson S, Bacon A, Elliot Hunt C, Holmes F, Kerr N, Pope R, et al. Galanin acts as a trophic factor to the central and peripheral nervous systems. EXS. 2010;102:25-38 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin is widely, but not ubiquitously, expressed in the adult nervous system. Its expression is markedly up-regulated in many neuronal tissues after nerve injury or disease...
  5. Barreto S, Carati C, Schloithe A, Toouli J, Saccone G. The combination of neurokinin-1 and galanin receptor antagonists ameliorates caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Peptides. 2010;31:315-21 pubmed publisher
    Both galanin and substance P have been separately implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis...
  6. Sardella T, Polgár E, Garzillo F, Furuta T, Kaneko T, Watanabe M, et al. Dynorphin is expressed primarily by GABAergic neurons that contain galanin in the rat dorsal horn. Mol Pain. 2011;7:76 pubmed publisher
    ..neurochemical populations of inhibitory interneurons in this region, defined by the presence of neuropeptide Y, galanin, parvalbumin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase...
  7. Lerner J, Sankar R, Mazarati A. Galanin and epilepsy. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1864-71 pubmed publisher
    Neuroanatomical localization and physiological properties of galanin suggest that the peptide may be involved in the regulation of seizures...
  8. Nishii H, Nomura M, Aono H, Fujimoto N, Matsumoto T. Up-regulation of galanin and corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNAs in the key hypothalamic and amygdaloid nuclei in a mouse model of visceral pain. Regul Pept. 2007;141:105-12 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we examined the effects of CP-induced cystitis on the levels of mRNAs encoding galanin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), substance P, and enkephalins in the hypothalamic and limbic nuclei using ..
  9. Alier K, Chen Y, Sollenberg U, Langel U, Smith P. Selective stimulation of GalR1 and GalR2 in rat substantia gelatinosa reveals a cellular basis for the anti- and pro-nociceptive actions of galanin. Pain. 2008;137:138-46 pubmed
    b>Galanin modulates spinal nociceptive processing by interacting with two receptors, GalR1 and GalR2...
  10. LU W, Funkelstein L, Toneff T, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Hook V. Cathepsin H functions as an aminopeptidase in secretory vesicles for production of enkephalin and galanin peptide neurotransmitters. J Neurochem. 2012;122:512-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Cathepsin H deficient mice also show a substantial decrease in galanin peptide neurotransmitter levels in brain...
  11. Seta Y, Kataoka S, Toyono T, Toyoshima K. Expression of galanin and the galanin receptor in rat taste buds. Arch Histol Cytol. 2006;69:273-80 pubmed
    b>Galanin, a 29-amino-acid neuropeptide, was initially isolated from porcine intestine. It has a wide spread distribution in the central nervous system and is also present in the primary sensory neuron...
  12. Lu X, Sharkey L, Bartfai T. The brain galanin receptors: targets for novel antidepressant drugs. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2007;6:183-92 pubmed
    ..It is thus little surprising when the neuropeptide, galanin, is discovered to coexist with norepinephrine (NE) in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons and with serotonin (5-HT) in ..
  13. Reiss J, Dishman R, Boyd H, Robinson J, Holmes P. Chronic activity wheel running reduces the severity of kainic acid-induced seizures in the rat: possible role of galanin. Brain Res. 2009;1266:54-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Three weeks of voluntary, physical activity in rats upregulates prepro-galanin messenger RNA levels in the locus coeruleus...
  14. Stergiou E, Diamanti E, Agakidis C, Sarafidis K, Mantzou E, Drossou V. Effect of gestational diabetes and intrauterine growth restriction on the offspring's circulating galanin at birth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..mellitus (GDM) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with altered expression of the offspring's hypothalamic galanin mRNA, possibly contributing to the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life...
  15. Xu X, Hokfelt T, Wiesenfeld Hallin Z. Galanin and spinal pain mechanisms: past, present, and future. EXS. 2010;102:39-50 pubmed
    Since the discovery of galanin in 1983, one of the most frequently suggested physiological function for this peptide is pain modulation at the level of the spinal cord...
  16. Cui J, Chen Q, Yue X, Jiang X, Gao G, Yu L, et al. Galanin protects against intracellular amyloid toxicity in human primary neurons. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;19:529-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin and galanin receptors are upregulated in the brain regions associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the consequence of this overexpression is still unknown, particularly in human neurons...
  17. Landry M, Bouali Benazzouz R, Andre C, Shi T, Léger C, Nagy F, et al. Galanin receptor 1 is expressed in a subpopulation of glutamatergic interneurons in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. J Comp Neurol. 2006;499:391-403 pubmed
    The 29/30 amino acid neuropeptide galanin has been implicated in pain processing at the spinal level and local dorsal horn neurons expressing the Gal(1) receptor may play a critical role...
  18. Unschuld P, Ising M, Roeske D, Erhardt A, Specht M, Kloiber S, et al. Gender-specific association of galanin polymorphisms with HPA-axis dysregulation, symptom severity, and antidepressant treatment response. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1583-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin (GAL) is an estrogen-inducible neuropeptide, highly expressed in brain regions reported to be involved in regulation of mood and anxiety...
  19. Bauer J, Lang R, Jakab M, Kofler B. Galanin family of peptides in skin function. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1820-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these mediators are neuropeptides, including members of the galanin peptide family--galanin, galanin-message-associated peptide, galanin-like peptide, and alarin--which are produced ..
  20. Counts S, He B, Che S, Ginsberg S, Mufson E. Galanin hyperinnervation upregulates choline acetyltransferase expression in cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in Alzheimer's disease. Neurodegener Dis. 2008;5:228-31 pubmed publisher
    Fibers containing galanin (GAL) enlarge and hyperinnervate cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) nucleus basalis (NB) neurons in late-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet the physiological consequences of this phenomenon are unclear...
  21. Narasimhaiah R, Kamens H, Picciotto M. Effects of galanin on cocaine-mediated conditioned place preference and ERK signaling in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;204:95-102 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide galanin and its receptors are expressed in brain regions implicated in the rewarding effects of natural stimuli and drugs of abuse...
  22. Pirondi S, Giuliani A, Del Vecchio G, Giardino L, Hokfelt T, Calza L. The galanin receptor 2/3 agonist Gal2-11 protects the SN56 cells against beta-amyloid 25-35 toxicity. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:1064-73 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide galanin is a modulator of cholinergic function and may play a role in A beta peptide-induced degeneration of cholinergic forebrain neurons...
  23. Dallos A, Kiss M, Polyanka H, Dobozy A, Kemeny L, Husz S. Effects of the neuropeptides substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and galanin on the production of nerve growth factor and inflammatory cytokines in cultured human keratinocytes. Neuropeptides. 2006;40:251-63 pubmed
    ..substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and galanin (GAL) on the inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1alpha, IL-8 and TNF-alpha) of the keratinocytes, and a study ..
  24. Hobson S, Bacon A, Elliot Hunt C, Holmes F, Kerr N, Pope R, et al. Galanin acts as a trophic factor to the central and peripheral nervous systems. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1806-12 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide galanin is widely, but not ubiquitously, expressed in the adult nervous system. Its expression is markedly upregulated in many neuronal tissues after nerve injury or disease...
  25. Man P, Lawrence C. The effects of galanin-like peptide on energy balance, body temperature and brain activity in the mouse and rat are independent of the GALR2/3 receptor. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:128-37 pubmed
    b>Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a neuropeptide that is thought to act on the galanin receptors GALR1, GALR2 and GALR3. In rats, i.c.v...
  26. Costa A, Bini P, Hamze Sinno M, Moglia A, Franciotta D, Sinforiani E, et al. Galanin and ?-MSH autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;240-241:114-20 pubmed publisher
    Neuropeptides galanin and ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) are involved in the regulation of memory and appetite...
  27. Kim A, Park T. Diet-induced obesity regulates the galanin-mediated signaling cascade in the adipose tissue of mice. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:1361-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin is a neuropeptide that regulates the food intake, neurogenesis, memory, and gut secretion...
  28. Rauch I, Kofler B. The galanin system in cancer. EXS. 2010;102:223-41 pubmed
    ..b>Galanin is a classical neuropeptide that functions in diverse physiological processes such as food intake, nociception, ..
  29. Hulse R, Wynick D, Donaldson L. Activation of the galanin receptor 2 in the periphery reverses nerve injury-induced allodynia. Mol Pain. 2011;7:26 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin is expressed at low levels in the intact sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia with a dramatic increase after peripheral nerve injury...
  30. Zhao X, Seese R, Yun K, Peng T, Wang Z. The role of galanin system in modulating depression, anxiety, and addiction-like behaviors after chronic restraint stress. Neuroscience. 2013;246:82-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of its role in both depressive and addictive behaviors, the galanin system is a strong candidate for such a mechanism...
  31. McCown T. Adeno-associated virus vector-mediated expression and constitutive secretion of galanin suppresses limbic seizure activity. Neurotherapeutics. 2009;6:307-11 pubmed publisher
    ..in front of the coding sequence for green fluorescent protein or the active portion of the neuroactive peptide galanin (GAL)...
  32. Picciotto M. Galanin and addiction. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1872-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, common stress-related pathways can modulate food intake, drug reward and symptoms of drug withdrawal. Galanin promotes food intake and the analgesic properties of opiates; thus it initially seemed possible that galanin ..
  33. Sharkey L, Madamba S, Siggins G, Bartfai T. Galanin alters GABAergic neurotransmission in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Neurochem Res. 2008;33:285-91 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin and its three receptor subtypes (Gal R1-3) are highly expressed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a region of the brain that contains a large population of serotonergic neurons...
  34. Levran O, Londono D, O Hara K, Nielsen D, Peles E, Rotrosen J, et al. Genetic susceptibility to heroin addiction: a candidate gene association study. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:720-9 pubmed publisher
    ..kappa (OPRK1; rs6473797) and delta (OPRD1; rs2236861, rs2236857 and rs3766951) opioid receptors; the neuropeptide galanin (GAL; rs694066); the serotonin receptor subtype 3B (HTR3B; rs3758987) and the casein kinase 1 isoform epsilon (..
  35. Wraith D, Pope R, Butzkueven H, Holder H, Vanderplank P, Lowrey P, et al. A role for galanin in human and experimental inflammatory demyelination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15466-71 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide galanin is widely expressed by many differing subsets of neurons in the nervous system...
  36. Diaz Cabiale Z, Parrado C, Narvaez M, Millón C, Puigcerver A, Fuxe K, et al. The Galanin N-terminal fragment (1-15) interacts with neuropeptide Y in central cardiovascular control: Involvement of the NPY Y2 receptor subtype. Regul Pept. 2010;163:130-6 pubmed publisher
    The interactions between neuropeptide Y (NPY), specifically through NPY Y1 and Y2 receptor subtypes and the Galanin N-terminal fragment (1-15) [GAL(1-15)] were analyzed at the cardiovascular level...
  37. Mechenthaler I. Galanin and the neuroendocrine axes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1826-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin has diverse physiological functions, including nociception, arousal/sleep regulation, cognition, and many aspects of neuroendocrine activities that are associated with feeding, energy metabolism, thermoregulation, osmotic and ..
  38. Mitsukawa K, Lu X, Bartfai T. Galanin, galanin receptors and drug targets. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1796-805 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin, a neuropeptide widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the endocrine system, has been shown to regulate numerous physiological and pathological processes through interactions with three G-protein-..
  39. Tiong S, Polgár E, van Kralingen J, Watanabe M, Todd A. Galanin-immunoreactivity identifies a distinct population of inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-III of the rat spinal cord. Mol Pain. 2011;7:36 pubmed publisher
    ..Some inhibitory interneurons contain galanin and the first aim of this study was to determine whether these form a different population from those containing ..
  40. Davidson S, Lear M, Shanley L, Hing B, Baizan Edge A, Herwig A, et al. Differential activity by polymorphic variants of a remote enhancer that supports galanin expression in the hypothalamus and amygdala: implications for obesity, depression and alcoholism. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:2211-21 pubmed publisher
    The expression of the galanin gene (GAL) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and in the amygdala of higher vertebrates suggests the requirement for highly conserved, but unidentified, regulatory sequences that are critical to allow the ..
  41. Kuteeva E, Hokfelt T, Wardi T, Ogren S. Galanin, galanin receptor subtypes and depression-like behaviour. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1854-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing evidence suggests that neuropeptides, including galanin, can be of relevance in mood disorders...
  42. Plaisier C, Kyttälä M, Weissglas Volkov D, Sinsheimer J, Huertas Vazquez A, Riba L, et al. Galanin preproprotein is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:147-52 pubmed publisher
    There is increasing physiological evidence in rodents connecting the neuropeptide galanin to triglyceride (TG) levels...
  43. Holmes P, Yoo H, Dishman R. Voluntary exercise and clomipramine treatment elevate prepro-galanin mRNA levels in the locus coeruleus in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2006;408:1-4 pubmed
    ..The physiological functions and behavioral actions of the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) suggest antidepressant activity...
  44. Yue H, Fujita T, Kumamoto E. Biphasic modulation by galanin of excitatory synaptic transmission in substantia gelatinosa neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices. J Neurophysiol. 2011;105:2337-49 pubmed publisher
    Although intrathecally administrated galanin modulates nociceptive transmission in a biphasic manner, this has not been fully examined previously...
  45. Lang R, Gundlach A, Kofler B. The galanin peptide family: receptor pharmacology, pleiotropic biological actions, and implications in health and disease. Pharmacol Ther. 2007;115:177-207 pubmed
    The galanin peptide family consists of the "parental" galanin, galanin-message-associated peptide (GMAP) which derives from the same peptide precursor gene product as galanin, galanin-like peptide (GALP) encoded by a different ..
  46. Xu X, Jiang H, Liu H, Zhang W, Xu X, Li Z. The effects of galanin on dorsal root ganglion neurons with high glucose treatment in vitro. Brain Res Bull. 2012;87:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The extracellular high concentration of glucose can cause neuronal cellular damage. Galanin (Gal) not only plays a role in processing of sensory information but also participates in energy homeostasis and ..
  47. Parrado C, Diaz Cabiale Z, García Coronel M, Agnati L, Covenas R, Fuxe K, et al. Region specific galanin receptor/neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor interactions in the tel- and diencephalon of the rat. Relevance for food consumption. Neuropharmacology. 2007;52:684-92 pubmed
    ..In contrast, a facilitatory interaction between GALR and Y1 receptors exists in the amygdala which may be of relevance for fear related behaviour. ..
  48. Zhang Z, Sheng S, Guo L, Li G, Zhang L, Zhang L, et al. Intracerebroventricular administration of galanin antagonist sustains insulin resistance in adipocytes of type 2 diabetic trained rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;361:213-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to investigate whether galanin (GAL) central receptors are involved in regulation of insulin resistance...
  49. Hook V, Toneff T, Baylon S, Sei C. Differential activation of enkephalin, galanin, somatostatin, NPY, and VIP neuropeptide production by stimulators of protein kinases A and C in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells. Neuropeptides. 2008;42:503-11 pubmed publisher
    ..chromaffin cells with stimulators of PKA and PKC on the production of the neuropeptides (Met)enkephalin, galanin, somatostatin, NPY, and VIP...
  50. Karatayev O, Baylan J, Weed V, Chang S, Wynick D, Leibowitz S. Galanin knockout mice show disturbances in ethanol consumption and expression of hypothalamic peptides that stimulate ethanol intake. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34:72-80 pubmed publisher
    There is growing evidence suggesting that hypothalamic galanin (GAL), which is known to stimulate intake of a fat-rich diet, has a role in promoting the consumption of ethanol...
  51. Poritsanos N, Mizuno T, Lautatzis M, Vrontakis M. Chronic increase of circulating galanin levels induces obesity and marked alterations in lipid metabolism similar to metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33:1381-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin (GAL) has a role in the regulation of food intake by way of acting on the central nervous system in rodents...
  52. Matkowskyj K, Royan S, Blunier A, Hecht G, Rao M, Benya R. Age-dependent differences in galanin-dependent colonic fluid secretion after infection with Salmonella typhimurium. Gut. 2009;58:1201-6 pubmed publisher
    Epithelial cells lining the colon do not normally express galanin type 1 receptors (Gal1Rs)...
  53. Lang R, Kofler B. The galanin peptide family in inflammation. Neuropeptides. 2011;45:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The galanin peptide family is undoubtedly involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes, and the aim of this review is ..
  54. Ogren S, Kuteeva E, Hokfelt T, Kehr J. Galanin receptor antagonists : a potential novel pharmacological treatment for mood disorders. CNS Drugs. 2006;20:633-54 pubmed
    ..In this context, galanin is of particular interest, since it is co-localised with serotonin in the dorsal raphe nucleus and with ..
  55. Xu X, Yang X, Zhang P, Chen X, Liu H, Li Z. Effects of exogenous galanin on neuropathic pain state and change of galanin and its receptors in DRG and SDH after sciatic nerve-pinch injury in rat. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37621 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been demonstrated that neuropeptide galanin (Gal) is upregulated after injury in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn (SDH) where it plays a ..
  56. Koz owska A, Wojtkiewicz J, Majewski M, Jana B. Localization of substance P, calcitonin gene related peptide and galanin in the nerve fibers of porcine cystic ovaries. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2011;49:622-30 pubmed
    ..aimed at elucidating the distribution pattern of substance P- (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide CGRP- and/or galanin (GAL)-containing nerve fibers within porcine cystic ovaries...
  57. Skobowiat C, Calka J, Majewski M. Axotomy induced changes in neuronal plasticity of sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons supplying descending colon in the pig. Exp Mol Pathol. 2011;90:13-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Axotomy led to a significant decrease in TH/D?H production and a simultaneous increase in the neuropeptides Galanin (GAL) and Somatostatin (SOM), but not NPY or Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) expression in retrogradely ..
  58. Suarez V, Guntinas Lichius O, Streppel M, Ingorokva S, Grosheva M, Neiss W, et al. The axotomy-induced neuropeptides galanin and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide promote axonal sprouting of primary afferent and cranial motor neurones. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:1555-64 pubmed
    The neuropeptides galanin and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) are markedly up-regulated in response to peripheral nerve lesion...
  59. Porteous R, Petersen S, Yeo S, Bhattarai J, Ciofi P, de Tassigny X, et al. Kisspeptin neurons co-express met-enkephalin and galanin in the rostral periventricular region of the female mouse hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:3456-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Initially, the distribution of galanin, neurotensin, met-enkephalin (mENK), and cholecystokinin (CCK)-immunoreactive cells was determined within the ..
  60. Sachs H, Wynick D, Zigmond R. Galanin plays a role in the conditioning lesion effect in sensory neurons. Neuroreport. 2007;18:1729-33 pubmed
    ..Here, we asked whether galanin, a neuropeptide induced by these cytokines, plays a role in the conditioning lesion response...
  61. Santic R, Fenninger K, Graf K, Schneider R, Hauser Kronberger C, Schilling F, et al. Gangliocytes in neuroblastic tumors express alarin, a novel peptide derived by differential splicing of the galanin-like peptide gene. J Mol Neurosci. 2006;29:145-52 pubmed
    In neuroblastic tumors a relationship of differentiation of the tumor to galanin receptor expression and antiproliferative and apoptotic effects upon activation of galanin receptors in neuroblastoma cells was reported...
  62. Juhasz G, Hullám G, Eszlari N, Gonda X, Antal P, Anderson I, et al. Brain galanin system genes interact with life stresses in depression-related phenotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E1666-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin is a stress-inducible neuropeptide and cotransmitter in serotonin and norepinephrine neurons with a possible role in stress-related disorders...
  63. Bulaj G, Green B, Lee H, Robertson C, White K, Zhang L, et al. Design, synthesis, and characterization of high-affinity, systemically-active galanin analogues with potent anticonvulsant activities. J Med Chem. 2008;51:8038-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin is an endogenous neuropeptide that modulates seizures in the brain...
  64. Coronel M, Musolino P, Brumovsky P, Hokfelt T, Villar M. Bone marrow stromal cells attenuate injury-induced changes in galanin, NPY and NPY Y1-receptor expression after a sciatic nerve constriction. Neuropeptides. 2009;43:125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have evaluated the effect of MSC administration on the expression of the neuropeptides galanin and NPY, as well as the NPY Y(1)-receptor (Y(1)R) in DRG neurons...
  65. Kuteeva E, Wardi T, Lundström L, Sollenberg U, Langel U, Hokfelt T, et al. Differential role of galanin receptors in the regulation of depression-like behavior and monoamine/stress-related genes at the cell body level. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33:2573-85 pubmed publisher
    The present study on rat examined the role of galanin receptor subtypes in regulation of depression-like behavior as well as potential molecular mechanisms involved in the locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe (DR)...
  66. Crawley J. Galanin impairs cognitive abilities in rodents: relevance to Alzheimer's disease. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1836-41 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide galanin and its receptors are localized in brain pathways mediating learning and memory. Central microinjection of galanin impairs performance of a variety of cognitive tasks in rats...
  67. Crawley J. Galanin impairs cognitive abilities in rodents: relevance to Alzheimer's disease. Exp Suppl. 2010;102:133-41 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin and its receptors are localized in brain pathways that mediate learning and memory. Central microinjection of galanin impairs performance of a variety of cognitive tasks in rats...
  68. Sugimoto T, Seki N, Shimizu S, Kikkawa N, Tsukada J, Shimada H, et al. The galanin signaling cascade is a candidate pathway regulating oncogenesis in human squamous cell carcinoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2009;48:132-42 pubmed publisher
    ..GAL, coding for the neuropeptide galanin, and GALR1, a galanin receptor, were identified as candidate genes of oncogenesis in SCC...
  69. Jung S, Chang J, Won R, Cha M, Nam T, Lee H, et al. Modulation of neuropathic pain by galanin and neuropeptide Y at the level of the medulla in rats. Int J Neurosci. 2009;119:1941-55 pubmed
    This study was conducted to examine the role of galanin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the modulation of neuropathic pain at the level of the medulla. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to neuropathic surgery...
  70. Radacs M, Molnár A, László F, Varga C, Laszlo F, Gálfi M. Inhibitory effect of galanin on adrenaline- and noradrenaline-induced increased oxytocin secretion in rat neurohypophyseal cell cultures. J Mol Neurosci. 2010;42:59-66 pubmed publisher
    The effects of the interactions between the 29 amino acid-containing peptide galanin and adrenaline or noradrenaline on the secretion of oxytocin were studied in 13- to 14-day cultures of isolated rat neurohypophyseal tissue...
  71. Simpson J, Sundler F, Humes D, Jenkins D, Wakelin D, Scholefield J, et al. Prolonged elevation of galanin and tachykinin expression in mucosal and myenteric enteric nerves in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid colitis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20:392-406 pubmed publisher
    Diverticulitis causes recurrent abdominal pain associated with increased mucosal expression of mucosal galanin and substance P (SP)...
  72. Anselmi L, Stella S, Brecha N, Sternini C. Galanin inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) influx in rat cultured myenteric neurons is mediated by galanin receptor 1. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1107-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin activates three receptors, the galanin receptor 1 (GalR1), GalR2, and GalR3...
  73. Belloni A, Malendowicz L, Rucinski M, Guidolin D, Nussdorfer G. Galanin stimulates cortisol secretion from human adrenocortical cells through the activation of galanin receptor subtype 1 coupled to the adenylate cyclase-dependent signaling cascade. Int J Mol Med. 2007;20:859-64 pubmed
    Previous studies showed that galanin receptors are expressed in the rat adrenal, and galanin modulates glucocorticoid secretion in this species...
  74. Izdebska K, Ciosek J. Galanin influences on vasopressin and oxytocin release: in vitro studies. Neuropeptides. 2010;44:341-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin (Gal) acts in the central nervous system as the neuromodulator of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system function...
  75. Cheng Y, Yu L. Galanin protects amyloid-beta-induced neurotoxicity on primary cultured hippocampal neurons of rats. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20:1143-57 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide galanin and its receptors are found to be upregulated in brain associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), while the role of galanin in AD is still unclear...
  76. Yandek L, Pokorny A, Floren A, Knoelke K, Langel U, Almeida P. Mechanism of the cell-penetrating peptide transportan 10 permeation of lipid bilayers. Biophys J. 2007;92:2434-44 pubmed
  77. Holub B, Rauch I, Radner S, Sperl W, Hell M, Kofler B. Effects of galanin message-associated peptide and neuropeptide Y against various non-albicans Candida strains. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011;38:76-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuropeptides galanin message-associated peptide (GMAP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are both potent AMPs against certain microbes...
  78. Li J, Zhang J, Xu S, Yu L. Antinociceptive effects induced by injection of the galanin receptor 1 agonist M617 into central nucleus of amygdala in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2012;526:45-8 pubmed publisher
    The present study was performed to explore the antinociceptive effects of M617, a selective galanin receptor 1 agonist, in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) of rats. Intra-CeA injection of 0.1 nmol, 0...
  79. Lupi D, Oster H, Thompson S, Foster R. The acute light-induction of sleep is mediated by OPN4-based photoreception. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:1068-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings describe a previously unknown pathway in sleep regulation and identify the pRGC/OPN4 signaling system as a potentially new pharmacological target for the selective manipulation of sleep and arousal states. ..
  80. Picciotto M. Galanin and addiction. Exp Suppl. 2010;102:195-208 pubmed
    ..Similarly, common stress-related pathways can modulate food intake, drug reward and symptoms of drug withdrawal. Galanin promotes food intake and the analgesic properties of opiates, thus it initially seemed possible that galanin ..
  81. Whitelaw C, Robinson J, Chambers G, Hastie P, Padmanabhan V, Thompson R, et al. Expression of mRNA for galanin, galanin-like peptide and galanin receptors 1-3 in the ovine hypothalamus and pituitary gland: effects of age and gender. Reproduction. 2009;137:141-50 pubmed publisher
    The neurotransmitters/neuromodulators galanin (GAL) and galanin-like peptide (GALP) are known to operate through three G protein-coupled receptors, GALR1, GALR2 and GALR3...
  82. Xu S, Li J, Zhang J, Yu L. Antinociceptive effects of galanin in the nucleus accumbens of rats. Neurosci Lett. 2012;520:43-6 pubmed publisher
    It has been demonstrated that galanin plays important roles in the modulation of nociceptive information in rats...
  83. Pidsudko Z, Kaleczyc J, Wasowicz K, Sienkiewicz W, Majewski M, Zajac W, et al. Distribution and chemical coding of intramural neurons in the porcine ileum during proliferative enteropathy. J Comp Pathol. 2008;138:23-31 pubmed
    ..VIP), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin (SOM), neuropeptide Y (NPY) or galanin (GAL)...