fmrfamide

Summary

Summary: A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)

Top Publications

  1. Predel R, Neupert S, Wicher D, Gundel M, Roth S, Derst C. Unique accumulation of neuropeptides in an insect: FMRFamide-related peptides in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:1499-513 pubmed
    ..were structurally elucidated, and sequence information was used for subsequent cloning of the cockroach FMRFamide gene...
  2. Liu T, Kim K, Li C, Barr M. FMRFamide-like neuropeptides and mechanosensory touch receptor neurons regulate male sexual turning behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Neurosci. 2007;27:7174-82 pubmed
    ..neuropeptides are important neural regulators of many complex animal behaviors, we explored the function of the FMRFamide-like neuropeptide (flp) gene family in regulating male copulation...
  3. Brownlee D, Walker R. Actions of nematode FMRFamide-related peptides on the pharyngeal muscle of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;897:228-38 pubmed
    The endogenous nematode peptides known as FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) and various "classical" transmitters have a range of effects on nematodes that result in changes in behavior, particularly locomotion, including ..
  4. Kubiak T, Larsen M, Bowman J, Geary T, Lowery D. FMRFamide-like peptides encoded on the flp-18 precursor gene activate two isoforms of the orphan Caenorhabditis elegans G-protein-coupled receptor Y58G8A.4 heterologously expressed in mammalian cells. Biopolymers. 2008;90:339-48 pubmed
    ..The matching of the FLP-18 peptides with their receptor(s) allows for the evaluation of the pharmacology of this system in the worm in vivo. ..
  5. Rogers C, Reale V, Kim K, Chatwin H, Li C, Evans P, et al. Inhibition of Caenorhabditis elegans social feeding by FMRFamide-related peptide activation of NPR-1. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:1178-85 pubmed
    ..Here we identify FMRFamide-related neuropeptides (FaRPs) encoded by the flp-18 and flp-21 genes as NPR-1 ligands and show that these ..
  6. Papaioannou S, Marsden D, Franks C, Walker R, Holden Dye L. Role of a FMRFamide-like family of neuropeptides in the pharyngeal nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans. J Neurobiol. 2005;65:304-19 pubmed
    The nervous system of C. elegans has a remarkable abundance of flp genes encoding FMRFamide-like (FLP) neuropeptides...
  7. McCormick J, Lim I, Nichols R. Neuropeptide precursor processing detected by triple immunolabeling. Cell Tissue Res. 1999;297:197-202 pubmed
    ..The peptides are encoded in the FMRFamide gene and have a common C-terminal FMRFamide but different N-terminal extensions...
  8. Husson S, Clynen E, Baggerman G, Janssen T, Schoofs L. Defective processing of neuropeptide precursors in Caenorhabditis elegans lacking proprotein convertase 2 (KPC-2/EGL-3): mutant analysis by mass spectrometry. J Neurochem. 2006;98:1999-2012 pubmed
    ..This differential peptidomic approach unambiguously provides evidence for the role of PC2/EGL-3 in the processing of FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) precursors and neuropeptide-like protein (NLP) precursors in nematodes.
  9. Dalzell J, McMaster S, Fleming C, Maule A. Short interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing in Globodera pallida and Meloidogyne incognita infective stage juveniles. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:91-100 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents, to our knowledge for the first time, gene-specific knockdown of FMRFamide-like peptide (flp) transcripts, using discrete 21bp siRNAs in potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida, and root ..

More Information

Publications88

  1. Kimber M, Fleming C, Prior A, Jones J, Halton D, Maule A. Localisation of Globodera pallida FMRFamide-related peptide encoding genes using in situ hybridisation. Int J Parasitol. 2002;32:1095-105 pubmed
    The present study employed an in situ hybridisation technique to detect the expression of a number of FMRFamide-like peptide encoding (flp) genes, previously identified from Globodera pallida, in whole-mount preparations of the J(2) ..
  2. Zajac J, Mollereau C. RFamide peptides. Introduction. Peptides. 2006;27:941-2 pubmed
  3. Voronezhskaya E, Elekes K. Expression of FMRFamide gene encoded peptides by identified neurons in embryos and juveniles of the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Cell Tissue Res. 2003;314:297-313 pubmed
    Immunoreactivity to antibodies (ABs) against FMRFamide, CARP, and three FMRFamide gene encoded peptides, i.e...
  4. Askwith C, Cheng C, Ikuma M, Benson C, Price M, Welsh M. Neuropeptide FF and FMRFamide potentiate acid-evoked currents from sensory neurons and proton-gated DEG/ENaC channels. Neuron. 2000;26:133-41 pubmed
    ..We found that neuropeptide FF (Phe-Leu-Phe-Gln-Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe amide) and FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe amide) generated no current on their own but potentiated H+-gated currents from cultured ..
  5. Miguel Aliaga I, Allan D, Thor S. Independent roles of the dachshund and eyes absent genes in BMP signaling, axon pathfinding and neuronal specification. Development. 2004;131:5837-48 pubmed
    In the Drosophila nerve cord, a subset of neurons expresses the neuropeptide FMRFamide related (Fmrf). Fmrf expression is controlled by a combinatorial code of intrinsic factors and an extrinsic BMP signal...
  6. Down R, Matthews H, Audsley N. Oral activity of FMRFamide-related peptides on the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and degradation by enzymes from the aphid gut. Regul Pept. 2011;171:11-8 pubmed publisher
    ..No toxicity was observed when the analogues ?R(9) LMS and citrolline(9) Acypi-MS or FMRFamide were fed to the pea aphid...
  7. Day T, Maule A, Shaw C, Pax R. Structure-activity relationships of FMRFamide-related peptides contracting Schistosoma mansoni muscle. Peptides. 1997;18:917-21 pubmed
    This study reports the potent myoactivity of flatworm FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) on isolated muscle fibers of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni...
  8. Kimber M, McKinney S, McMaster S, Day T, Fleming C, Maule A. flp gene disruption in a parasitic nematode reveals motor dysfunction and unusual neuronal sensitivity to RNA interference. FASEB J. 2007;21:1233-43 pubmed
    The potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a serious pest of potato crops. Nematode FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) are one of the most diverse neuropeptide families known, and modulate sensory and motor functions...
  9. Soehler S, Neupert S, Predel R, Stengl M. Examination of the role of FMRFamide-related peptides in the circadian clock of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;332:257-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these neuropeptides are the FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs), which generally share the C-terminal RFamide...
  10. Li C, Timbers T, Rose J, Bozorgmehr T, McEwan A, Rankin C. The FMRFamide-related neuropeptide FLP-20 is required in the mechanosensory neurons during memory for massed training in C. elegans. Learn Mem. 2013;20:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that a FMRFamide-related peptide (FMRF = Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2)), FLP-20, is critical for memory lasting 12 h following massed ..
  11. Di Cristo C, Paolucci M, Iglesias J, Sanchez J, Di Cosmo A. Presence of two neuropeptides in the fusiform ganglion and reproductive ducts of Octopus vulgaris: FMRFamide and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). J Exp Zool. 2002;292:267-76 pubmed
    We have found evidence of FMRFamide-like and cGnRH-I-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the reproductive ducts of both female and male cephalopod Octopus vulgaris...
  12. McVeigh P, Leech S, Mair G, Marks N, Geary T, Maule A. Analysis of FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) diversity in phylum Nematoda. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:1043-60 pubmed
    ..Moreover, individual FLPs and FLP motifs are highly conserved across the nematodes with little evidence for inter-clade or inter-lifestyle variation, supporting their fundamental role in free-living and parasitic species. ..
  13. Schanuel S, Bell K, Henderson S, McQuiston A. Heterologous expression of the invertebrate FMRFamide-gated sodium channel as a mechanism to selectively activate mammalian neurons. Neuroscience. 2008;155:374-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe the heterologous expression of the invertebrate FMRFamide (H-phenylalanine-methionine-arginine-phenylalanine-NH2) -gated sodium channel from Helix aspersa (HaFaNaC) in ..
  14. Lopez Vera E, Aguilar M, Heimer de la Cotera E. FMRFamide and related peptides in the phylum mollusca. Peptides. 2008;29:310-7 pubmed publisher
    b>FMRFamide is one of the well-known peptides studied within the phylum Mollusca. It was first isolated from the clam Macrocallista nimbosa during the end of the 1960s...
  15. Nichols R, Bendena W, Tobe S. Myotropic peptides in Drosophila melanogaster and the genes that encode them. J Neurogenet. 2002;16:1-28 pubmed
    ..Drosophila melanogaster allatostatin (AST), FMRFamide-containing, dromyosuppressin (DMS), and drosulfakinin (DSK) peptides represent four different myotropin families...
  16. Klose M, Dason J, Atwood H, Boulianne G, Mercier A. Peptide-induced modulation of synaptic transmission and escape response in Drosophila requires two G-protein-coupled receptors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14724-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, coincident detection of a peptide by two GPCRs modulates synaptic function through effects of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release, and we hypothesize that these mechanisms are involved in behavioral responses to environmental stress. ..
  17. Jacob T, Kaplan J. The EGL-21 carboxypeptidase E facilitates acetylcholine release at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions. J Neurosci. 2003;23:2122-30 pubmed
    ..elegans ortholog of PC type 2 (PC2), were defective for processing endogenously expressed FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2)-related peptides (FaRPs)...
  18. Whim M. Near simultaneous release of classical and peptide cotransmitters from chromaffin cells. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6637-42 pubmed
    ..Using amperometry and FMRFamide tagging, I simultaneously measure the secretion of the catecholamines and a neuropeptide from mouse chromaffin ..
  19. Chin A, Reynolds E, Scheller R. Organization and expression of the Drosophila FMRFamide-related prohormone gene. DNA Cell Biol. 1990;9:263-71 pubmed
    The Drosophila FMRFamide gene is comprised of two exons separated by a 2.8-kb intervening sequence. The first exon consists of the 5' untranslated region and is spliced to the initiator methionine codon...
  20. Li C, Nelson L, Kim K, Nathoo A, Hart A. Neuropeptide gene families in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;897:239-52 pubmed
    ..To date, 41 C. elegans neuropeptide genes have been identified. Of these genes, 20 genes, named flp (FMRFamide-like peptide) genes, encode FMRFamide-related proteins (FaRPs)...
  21. Lundquist T, Nässel D. Substance P-, FMRFamide-, and gastrin/cholecystokinin-like immunoreactive neurons in the thoraco-abdominal ganglia of the flies Drosophila and Calliphora. J Comp Neurol. 1990;294:161-78 pubmed
    ..of the flies Drosophila melanogaster and Calliphora vomitoria revealed neurons displaying substance P- (SPLI), FMRFamide-(FLI), and cholecystokinin-like (CCKLI) immunoreactivity...
  22. Maule A, Shaw C, Halton D, Thim L. GNFFRFamide: a novel FMRFamide-immunoreactive peptide isolated from the sheep tapeworm, Moniezia expansa. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;193:1054-60 pubmed
    The widespread distribution of FMRFamide-immunoreactivity in platyhelminth nervous systems has been demonstrated immunocytochemically...
  23. Cruz Bermudez N, Fu Q, Kutz Naber K, Christie A, Li L, Marder E. Mass spectrometric characterization and physiological actions of GAHKNYLRFamide, a novel FMRFamide-like peptide from crabs of the genus Cancer. J Neurochem. 2006;97:784-99 pubmed
    ..of the isolated CG and re-initiated bursting activity in non-bursting ganglia, effects also elicited by the FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) SDRNFLRFamide and TNRNFLRFamide...
  24. Forest D, Lindsay S. Observations of serotonin and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in palp sensory structures and the anterior nervous system of spionid polychaetes. J Morphol. 2008;269:544-51 pubmed
    ..In addition, the distribution of serotonin (5-HT) and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity was compared in the spionid polychaetes Dipolydora quadrilobata and Pygospio elegans...
  25. Khan H, Price D, Doble K, Greenberg M, Saleuddin A. Osmoregulation and FMRFamide-related peptides in the salt marsh snail Melampus bidentatus (Say) (Mollusca: Pulmonata). Biol Bull. 1999;196:153-62 pubmed
    ..The content of their immunoreactive (IR)-FMRFamide-Related Peptides (FaRPs) was measured in various tissues by radioimmunoassay, and IR-FaRPs were found in every ..
  26. Perry S, Yi Kung Huang E, Cronk D, Bagust J, Sharma R, Walker R, et al. A human gene encoding morphine modulating peptides related to NPFF and FMRFamide. FEBS Lett. 1997;409:426-30 pubmed
    b>FMRFamide-related peptides have been isolated from both invertebrates and vertebrates and exhibit a wide range of biological effects in rats...
  27. Huybrechts J, Nusbaum M, Bosch L, Baggerman G, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Neuropeptidomic analysis of the brain and thoracic ganglion from the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;308:535-44 pubmed
    ..FDAFTTGFGHS, [Ala(13)]-orcokinin, and [Val(13)]-orcokinin, and two kinins, a tachykinin-related peptide and four FMRFamide-related peptides...
  28. Nichols R. Isolation and structural characterization of Drosophila TDVDHVFLRFamide and FMRFamide-containing neural peptides. J Mol Neurosci. 1992;3:213-8 pubmed
    ..Two Drosophila neural genes, dsk and FMRFamide, are known to encode -ArgPheNH2-containing peptides; however, neither encodes TDVDHVFLRFamide, indicating that ..
  29. Duttlinger A, Berry K, Nichols R. The different effects of three Drosophila melanogaster dFMRFamide-containing peptides on crop contractions suggest these structurally related peptides do not play redundant functions in gut. Peptides. 2002;23:1953-7 pubmed
  30. Nichols R, McCormick J, Cohen M, Howe E, Jean C, Paisley K, et al. Differential processing of neuropeptides influences Drosophila heart rate. J Neurogenet. 1999;13:89-104 pubmed
    ..The peptides are encoded in the FMRFamide gene and have a common C-terminal FMRFamide but different N-terminal extensions...
  31. Lange A. Feeding state influences the content of FMRFamide- and tachykinin-related peptides in endocrine-like cells of the midgut of Locusta migratoria. Peptides. 2001;22:229-34 pubmed
    ..migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, was found to contain endocrine-like cells that stained positively for FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity...
  32. Mitchell G, Wang Q, Ramamoorthy P, Whim M. A common single nucleotide polymorphism alters the synthesis and secretion of neuropeptide Y. J Neurosci. 2008;28:14428-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to SNPs in other prohormones, we could not find a phenotype until the prohormone was tracked at the single granule level. These results are consistent with studies showing the T1128C polymorphism has pleiotropic effects. ..
  33. Schneider L, Sun E, Garland D, Taghert P. An immunocytochemical study of the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene products in Drosophila. J Comp Neurol. 1993;337:446-60 pubmed
    We have mapped protein expression of the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene in Drosophila with polyclonal antisera against three small peptides whose sequences were derived from the Drosophila proFMRFamide precursor...
  34. Wollesen T, Cummins S, Degnan B, Wanninger A. FMRFamide gene and peptide expression during central nervous system development of the cephalopod mollusk, Idiosepius notoides. Evol Dev. 2010;12:113-30 pubmed publisher
    ..b>FMRFamide (Phe-Ile-Arg-Phe-NH(2))-related peptides (FaRPs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved and diverse group of ..
  35. Cummins S, Tollenaere A, Degnan B, Croll R. Molecular analysis of two FMRFamide-encoding transcripts expressed during the development of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:2043-59 pubmed publisher
    b>FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) are involved in numerous neural functions across the animal kingdom and serve as important models for understanding the evolution of neuropeptides...
  36. Mertens I, Clinckspoor I, Janssen T, Nachman R, Schoofs L. FMRFamide related peptide ligands activate the Caenorhabditis elegans orphan GPCR Y59H11AL.1. Peptides. 2006;27:1291-6 pubmed
    ..peptide (SFDRMGGTEFGLM), which could not activate the receptor, we hypothesized that one or some of the numerous FMRFamide related peptides (FaRPs) could be the cognate ligands for this receptor...
  37. Stay B, Zhang J, Kwok R, Tobe S. Localization and physiological effects of RFamides in the corpora allata of the cockroach Diploptera punctata in relation to allatostatins. Peptides. 2003;24:1501-10 pubmed
    The distribution of FMRFamide immunoreactivity in the brain-retrocerebral complex of adult female Diploptera punctata was examined. Immunoreactivity was observed in the brain and corpus allatum as well as in the corpus cardiacum...
  38. Hill S, Orchard I. The influence of diet and feeding state on FMRFamide-related peptides in the gut of Locusta migratoria L. Peptides. 2004;25:105-14 pubmed
    Gut tissues of 2-week post-ecdysis female Locusta migratoria L. were assayed for FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity (FLI) during various feeding states using both radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry...
  39. Taghert P, Schneider L. Interspecific comparison of a Drosophila gene encoding FMRFamide-related neuropeptides. J Neurosci. 1990;10:1929-42 pubmed
    ..The melanogaster gene encodes a precursor that contains 13 neuropeptides related to the molluscan tetrapeptide FMRFamide (Nambu et al., 1988; Schneider and Taghert, 1988)...
  40. Benveniste R, Thor S, Thomas J, Taghert P. Cell type-specific regulation of the Drosophila FMRF-NH2 neuropeptide gene by Apterous, a LIM homeodomain transcription factor. Development. 1998;125:4757-65 pubmed
    ..These findings show that, for a subset of neurons that share a common neurotransmitter phenotype, the Apterous LIM homeoprotein helps define neurotransmitter expression with very limited effects on other aspects of differentiation. ..
  41. Hill S, Orchard I. FMRFamide-related peptides in the gut of Locusta migratoria L.: a comprehensive map and developmental profile. Peptides. 2003;24:1511-24 pubmed
    ..tissues and associated nervous system of the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, were found to contain FMRFamide-like immunoreactive (FLI) material throughout the five larval instars and 2 weeks into the adult stage in both ..
  42. Moffett C, Beckett A, Mousley A, Geary T, Marks N, Halton D, et al. The ovijector of Ascaris suum: multiple response types revealed by Caenorhabditis elegans FMRFamide-related peptides. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:859-76 pubmed
    Caenorhabditis elegans possesses 22 FMRFamide-like peptide (flp) genes predicted to encode 60 different FMRFamide-related peptides with a range of C-terminal signatures...
  43. Franchini A. The distribution of cells containing FMRFamide- and 5-HT-related molecules in the embryonic development of Viviparus ater (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Eur J Histochem. 2005;49:301-8 pubmed
    The timing and spatial distribution of cells containing FMRFamide- and 5-HT-related molecules in the embryonic development of the mollusc Viviparus ater are examined using immunohistochemistry...
  44. Allan D, St Pierre S, Miguel Aliaga I, Thor S. Specification of neuropeptide cell identity by the integration of retrograde BMP signaling and a combinatorial transcription factor code. Cell. 2003;113:73-86 pubmed
    ..In the Drosophila ventral nerve cord, the six Tv neurons express the neuropeptide gene FMRFamide. Each Tv neuron resides within a neuronal cell group specified by the LIM-homeodomain gene apterous...
  45. Gallus L, Ferrando S, Bottaro M, Diaspro A, Girosi L, Faimali M, et al. Presence and distribution of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the cyprid of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia, Crustacea). Microsc Res Tech. 2009;72:101-9 pubmed publisher
    The presence and distribution of FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) in the cyprid larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite were investigated using immunohistochemical methods...
  46. Clark J, Milakovic M, Cull A, Klose M, Mercier A. Evidence for postsynaptic modulation of muscle contraction by a Drosophila neuropeptide. Peptides. 2008;29:1140-9 pubmed publisher
    DPKQDFMRFamide, the most abundant FMRFamide-like peptide in Drosophila melanogaster, has been shown previously to enhance contractions of larval body wall muscles elicited by nerve stimulation and to increase excitatory junction ..
  47. Yasuda Kamatani Y, Yasuda A. Characteristic expression patterns of allatostatin-like peptide, FMRFamide-related peptide, orcokinin, tachykinin-related peptide, and SIFamide in the olfactory system of crayfish Procambarus clarkii. J Comp Neurol. 2006;496:135-47 pubmed
    ..To establish the functions of other related neuropeptides, we initially performed cDNA cloning of FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP) and allatostatin (AST)-like peptide from the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, followed by in ..
  48. Moffett S, Moffett D. Comparison of immunoreactivity to serotonin, FMRFamide and SCPb in the gut and visceral nervous system of larvae, pupae and adults of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. J Insect Sci. 2005;5:20 pubmed
    ..Axons immunoreactive to antibodies raised against molluscan FMRFamide (RF-I) constitute peptidergic innervation that anatomically parallels the serotonergic system...
  49. Hewes R, Snowdeal E, Saitoe M, Taghert P. Functional redundancy of FMRFamide-related peptides at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 1998;18:7138-51 pubmed
    The Drosophila FMRFamide gene encodes multiple FMRFamide-related peptides. These peptides are expressed by neurosecretory cells and may be released into the blood to act as neurohormones...
  50. Mühlfeld S, Schmitt Wrede H, Harder A, Wunderlich F. FMRFamide-like neuropeptides as putative ligands of the latrophilin-like HC110-R from Haemonchus contortus. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009;164:162-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigate 11 different FMRFamide-like neuropeptides as putative ligands by surface plasmon resonance with an immobilized recombinant 54kDa ..
  51. Nishimura M, Ohtsuka K, Takahashi H, Yoshimura M. Role of FMRFamide-activated brain sodium channel in salt-sensitive hypertension. Hypertension. 2000;35:443-50 pubmed
    b>FMRFamide, a cardioexcitatory neuropeptide, directly activates a newly cloned amiloride-sensitive sodium channel that is expressed specifically in the brain and blocked by benzamil hydrochloride...
  52. Schneider L, Taghert P. Isolation and characterization of a Drosophila gene that encodes multiple neuropeptides related to Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:1993-7 pubmed
    A Drosophila gene that encodes neuropeptides related to molluscan Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide) was isolated by screening a genomic library with a fragment of an Aplysia Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 cDNA and with synthetic oligonucleotides...
  53. Nelson L, Rosoff M, Li C. Disruption of a neuropeptide gene, flp-1, causes multiple behavioral defects in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science. 1998;281:1686-90 pubmed
    Neuropeptides serve as important signaling molecules in the nervous system. The FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide)-related neuropeptide gene family in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is composed of at least 18 genes that may encode 53 ..
  54. Wollesen T, Loesel R, Wanninger A. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the cephalopod mollusc, Idiosepius notoides. Acta Biol Hung. 2008;59 Suppl:111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents preliminary results on the distribution of FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons within the CNS of the pygmy squid Idiosepius notoides...
  55. Clements M, McDonald T, Wang R, Xie G, O Dowd B, George S, et al. FMRFamide-related neuropeptides are agonists of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:1189-93 pubmed
    ..Northern analysis of human GPR54 detected expression in several peripheral tissues and many regions of the central nervous system. ..
  56. White K, Hurteau T, Punsal P. Neuropeptide-FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in Drosophila: development and distribution. J Comp Neurol. 1986;247:430-8 pubmed
    Neuropeptide-FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity was characterized in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
  57. Pinelli C, D Aniello B, Polese G, Rastogi R. Extrabulbar olfactory system and nervus terminalis FMRFamide immunoreactive components in Xenopus laevis ontogenesis. J Chem Neuroanat. 2004;28:37-46 pubmed
    ..While a substantial overlapping of biocytin/FMRFamide immunoreactivity was observed along the olfactory pathways as well as in the telencephalon, FMRFamide ..
  58. Mercier A, Friedrich R, Boldt M. Physiological functions of FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) in crustaceans. Microsc Res Tech. 2003;60:313-24 pubmed
    ..One of the largest families of neuropeptides is that of the FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs)...
  59. Rogers C, Franks C, Walker R, Burke J, Holden Dye L. Regulation of the pharynx of Caenorhabditis elegans by 5-HT, octopamine, and FMRFamide-like neuropeptides. J Neurobiol. 2001;49:235-44 pubmed
    More than fifty FMRFamide-like neuropeptides have been identified in nematodes. We addressed the role of a subset of these in the control of nematode feeding by electrophysiological recording of the activity of C. elegans pharynx...
  60. Brown M, Lea A. FMRFamide- and adipokinetic hormone-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. J Comp Neurol. 1988;270:606-14 pubmed
    ..cells and axons in the nervous system of female Aedes aegypti contain antigens immunologically related to FMRFamide (phenylalanine-methionine-arginine-phenylalanine-amide) and locust adipokinetic hormone I (AKH)...
  61. Chen J, Lee W, Chen P, Tseng C, Huang E. Rat NPFF(1) receptor-mediated signaling: functional comparison of neuropeptide FF (NPFF), FMRFamide and PFR(Tic)amide. Peptides. 2006;27:1005-14 pubmed
    ..We established a pheochromocytoma PC-12 cell line clone stably expressing rat NPFF1 receptors. Both NPFF and FMRFamide activated NPFF1 receptors to couple with Gi/o protein and inhibited adenylyl cyclase activity in PC-12/rNPFF1 ..
  62. Schneider L, O Brien M, Taghert P. In situ hybridization analysis of the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene in Drosophila. I. Restricted expression in embryonic and larval stages. J Comp Neurol. 1991;304:608-22 pubmed
    ..techniques to describe the cellular distribution of transcripts from a Drosophila gene that encodes multiple FMRFamide-related neuropeptides...
  63. Haselton A, Yin C, Stoffolano J. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and alimentary tract of the non-hematophagous blow fly, Phormia regina, and the hematophagous horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus. J Insect Sci. 2008;8:1-17 pubmed publisher
    b>FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) are a diverse and physiologically important class of neuropepeptides in the metazoa...
  64. Bowman J, Friedman A, Thompson D, Maule A, Alexander Bowman S, Geary T. Structure-activity relationships of an inhibitory nematode FMRFamide-related peptide, SDPNFLRFamide (PF1), on Ascaris suum muscle. Int J Parasitol. 2002;32:1765-71 pubmed
    b>FMRFamide-related peptides are widespread among the Nematoda. Among them is a family of extended PNFLRFamide peptides encoded on the flp-1 peptide precursor gene in Caenorhabditis elegans...
  65. Whim M, Moss G. A novel technique that measures peptide secretion on a millisecond timescale reveals rapid changes in release. Neuron. 2001;30:37-50 pubmed
    ..Using this method, we show that peptide secretion can be modulated on a millisecond time scale. This technique could be readily adapted to measure the secretion of any neuropeptide. ..
  66. Rankin S, Seymour S. FMRFamide-like material in the earwig, Euborellia annulipes, and its functional significance. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2001;47:189-97 pubmed
    The neurosecretory system of the earwig, Euborellia annulipes, contained material similar to that of FMRFamide, as shown by immunocytochemistry...
  67. Kim K, Li C. Expression and regulation of an FMRFamide-related neuropeptide gene family in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Comp Neurol. 2004;475:540-50 pubmed
    b>FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2) and related peptides (FaRPs) have been found throughout the animal kingdom, where they are involved in many behaviors...
  68. Linser P, Trapido Rosenthal H, Orona E. Glutamine synthetase is a glial-specific marker in the olfactory regions of the lobster (Panulirus argus) nervous system. Glia. 1997;20:275-83 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the GS immunostaining pattern with that for FMRFamide, a well characterized marker of neurons in invertebrate neural tissues, it became clear that GS is indeed glial-..
  69. Cazzamali G, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the first insect FMRFamide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12073-8 pubmed
    b>FMRFamide and FMRFamide-related neuropeptides are extremely widespread and abundant in invertebrates and have numerous important functions...
  70. Dickinson A, Croll R, Voronezhskaya E. Development of embryonic cells containing serotonin, catecholamines, and FMRFamide-related peptides in Aplysia californica. Biol Bull. 2000;199:305-15 pubmed
    ..stage, two pairs of cells were observed to be reactive to antibodies raised against the neuropeptides FMRFamide and EFLRIamide...
  71. Nichols R. FMRFamide-related peptides and serotonin regulate Drosophila melanogaster heart rate: mechanisms and structure requirements. Peptides. 2006;27:1130-7 pubmed
    Drosophila melanogaster FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) include SDNFMRFamide, PDNFMRFamide, and TDVDHVFLRFamide (dromyosuppressin, DMS); each peptide contains a C-terminal FMRFamide but a different N-terminal extension...
  72. O Brien M, Roberts M, Taghert P. A genetic and molecular analysis of the 46C chromosomal region surrounding the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;137:121-37 pubmed
    We have analyzed the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene region of Drosophila melanogaster. This gene maps to the 46C region of chromosome 2R; this interval previously was not well characterized...
  73. Kimber M, Fleming C, Bjourson A, Halton D, Maule A. FMRFamide-related peptides in potato cyst nematodes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2001;116:199-208 pubmed
    This study presents data demonstrating the presence of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) in potato cyst nematodes (PCN). Five transcripts of FaRP encoding genes, designated gpflp-1 to gpflp-5, were characterised using RACE...
  74. Di Cristo C, Delli Bovi P, Di Cosmo A. Role of FMRFamide in the reproduction of Octopus vulgaris: molecular analysis and effect on visual input. Peptides. 2003;24:1525-32 pubmed
    ..of reproduction in Octopus vulgaris in particular, the presence, the molecular analysis and the effect of FMRFamide on the screening-pigment migration in the visual system have been analysed...
  75. Pyza E, Meinertzhagen I. The regulation of circadian rhythms in the fly's visual system: involvement of FMRFamide-like neuropeptides and their relationship to pigment dispersing factor in Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster. Neuropeptides. 2003;37:277-89 pubmed
    ..other neurotransmitters may modulate this effect we have: (1) examined optic lobe cell immunoreactivity to FMRFamide peptides and its co-immunolocalization to PDF in M...
  76. Nambu J, Murphy Erdosh C, Andrews P, Feistner G, Scheller R. Isolation and characterization of a Drosophila neuropeptide gene. Neuron. 1988;1:55-61 pubmed
    ..melanogaster. This peptide exhibits sequence homology to the molluscan bioactive tetrapeptide FMRFamide and is a novel member of the FMRFamide peptide family...
  77. Walker R, Papaioannou S, Holden Dye L. A review of FMRFamide- and RFamide-like peptides in metazoa. Invert Neurosci. 2009;9:111-53 pubmed publisher
    ..are classified into families according to similarities in their peptide sequence; and on this basis, the FMRFamide and RFamide-like peptides, first discovered in molluscs, are an example of a family that is conserved throughout ..
  78. Verleyen P, Huybrechts J, Sas F, Clynen E, Baggerman G, De Loof A, et al. Neuropeptidomics of the grey flesh fly, Neobellieria bullata. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;316:763-70 pubmed
    ..Most prominently present were the FMRFamide-related peptides: 7 FMRFamides, 1 FIRFamide, and Neb-myosuppressin...
  79. Fuse M, Orchard I. The muscular contractions of the midgut of the cockroach, Diploptera punctata: effects of the insect neuropeptides proctolin and leucomyosuppressin. Regul Pept. 1998;77:163-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, other FMRFamide-related peptides, as revealed by immunohistochemistry, have been found most abundantly in the posterior region ..