carnosine

Summary

Summary: A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.

Top Publications

  1. Renner C, Asperger A, Seyffarth A, Meixensberger J, Gebhardt R, Gaunitz F. Carnosine inhibits ATP production in cells from malignant glioma. Neurol Res. 2010;32:101-5 pubmed publisher
    Recently, it was revealed that carnosine inhibits growth of cells isolated from human malignant glioma...
  2. Hipkiss A. Energy metabolism, proteotoxic stress and age-related dysfunction - protection by carnosine. Mol Aspects Med. 2011;32:267-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible mechanisms by which the endogenous dipeptide, carnosine, which, by way of its putative aldehyde-scavenging activity, may control age-related proteotoxicity, cellular ..
  3. Jappar D, Hu Y, Keep R, Smith D. Transport mechanisms of carnosine in SKPT cells: contribution of apical and basolateral membrane transporters. Pharm Res. 2009;26:172-81 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the transport properties of carnosine in kidney using SKPT cell cultures as a model of proximal tubular transport, and to isolate the functional activities of renal apical and basolateral ..
  4. Kilis Pstrusinska K. [Carnosine, carnosinase and kidney diseases]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2012;66:215-21 pubmed
    b>Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is an endogenously synthesized dipeptide which is present in different human tissues, including the kidney. Carnosine is hydrolyzed by the enzyme carnosinase...
  5. Sale C, Saunders B, Harris R. Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentrations and exercise performance. Amino Acids. 2010;39:321-33 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a cytoplasmic dipeptide found in high concentrations in the skeletal muscle of both ..
  6. Babizhayev M, Deyev A, Yermakova V, Brikman I, Bours J. Lipid peroxidation and cataracts: N-acetylcarnosine as a therapeutic tool to manage age-related cataracts in human and in canine eyes. Drugs R D. 2004;5:125-39 pubmed
    ..topically to the eye in the form of Can-C, N-acetylcarnosine functions as a time-release prodrug form of L-carnosine resistant to hydrolysis with carnosinase...
  7. Baguet A, Reyngoudt H, Pottier A, Everaert I, Callens S, Achten E, et al. Carnosine loading and washout in human skeletal muscles. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:837-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is present in high concentrations in human skeletal muscles...
  8. Gaunitz F, Hipkiss A. Carnosine and cancer: a perspective. Amino Acids. 2012;43:135-42 pubmed publisher
    The application of carnosine in medicine has been discussed since several years, but many claims of therapeutic effects have not been substantiated by rigorous experimental examination...
  9. Hipkiss A. On the enigma of carnosine's anti-ageing actions. Exp Gerontol. 2009;44:237-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) has described as a forgotten and enigmatic dipeptide...

More Information

Publications97

  1. Boldyrev A. Carnosine: new concept for the function of an old molecule. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2012;77:313-26 pubmed publisher
    In this review, the development of understanding of the biological functions of carnosine is briefly discussed. Carnosine was first described as a component of meat in 1900 by V. S. Gulevitch...
  2. Park Y, Volpe S, Decker E. Quantitation of carnosine in humans plasma after dietary consumption of beef. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:4736-9 pubmed
    b>Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide found in the muscle foods that has been postulated to be a bioactive food component...
  3. Derave W, Everaert I, Beeckman S, Baguet A. Muscle carnosine metabolism and beta-alanine supplementation in relation to exercise and training. Sports Med. 2010;40:247-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine is a dipeptide with a high concentration in mammalian skeletal muscle...
  4. Drozak J, Chrobok L, Poleszak O, Jagielski A, Derlacz R. Molecular identification of carnosine N-methyltransferase as chicken histamine N-methyltransferase-like protein (hnmt-like). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64805 pubmed publisher
    Anserine (beta-alanyl-N(Pi)-methyl-L-histidine), a naturally occurring derivative of carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), is an abundant constituent of skeletal muscles and brain of many vertebrates...
  5. Guiotto A, Calderan A, Ruzza P, Borin G. Carnosine and carnosine-related antioxidants: a review. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12:2293-315 pubmed
    First isolated and characterized in 1900 by Gulewitsch, carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-hystidine) is a dipeptide commonly present in mammalian tissue, and in particular in skeletal muscle cells; it is responsible for a variety of activities ..
  6. Fonteh A, Harrington R, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington M. Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007;32:213-24 pubmed
    ..methyl-histidine), catecholamines (L-DOPA and dopamine), citrulline, ornithine, glycine and antioxidant DPs (carnosine and anserine) accounted for the major changes between CT and pAD...
  7. Balion C, Benson C, Raina P, Papaioannou A, Patterson C, Ismaila A. Brain type carnosinase in dementia: a pilot study. BMC Neurol. 2007;7:38 pubmed
    ..Carnosinase is a dipeptidase found almost exclusively in brain and serum. Carnosinase and its substrate carnosine have been linked to neuropathophysiological processes...
  8. Everaert I, Mooyaart A, Baguet A, Zutinic A, Baelde H, Achten E, et al. Vegetarianism, female gender and increasing age, but not CNDP1 genotype, are associated with reduced muscle carnosine levels in humans. Amino Acids. 2011;40:1221-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscles, where it is involved in several physiological functions. The muscle carnosine content measured within a population can vary by a factor 4...
  9. Lenney J, Peppers S, Kucera C, Sjaastad O. Homocarnosinosis: lack of serum carnosinase is the defect probably responsible for elevated brain and CSF homocarnosine. Clin Chim Acta. 1983;132:157-65 pubmed
    ..deficient in serum carnosinase, a dipeptidase which hydrolyzes homocarnosine about 5% as rapidly as it splits carnosine. Homocarnosinase could not be detected in normal human brain extracts after isoelectric focusing or DEAE-..
  10. Zhang X, Song L, Cheng X, Yang Y, Luan B, Jia L, et al. Carnosine pretreatment protects against hypoxia-ischemia brain damage in the neonatal rat model. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;667:202-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carnosine has been demonstrated to play a neuroprotective role in the adult brain injuries...
  11. Tomonaga S, Tachibana T, Takagi T, Saito E, Zhang R, Denbow D, et al. Effect of central administration of carnosine and its constituents on behaviors in chicks. Brain Res Bull. 2004;63:75-82 pubmed
    Even though their contents in the brain are high, the function of brain carnosine and its constituents has not been clarified...
  12. Yeum K, Orioli M, Regazzoni L, Carini M, Rasmussen H, Russell R, et al. Profiling histidine dipeptides in plasma and urine after ingesting beef, chicken or chicken broth in humans. Amino Acids. 2010;38:847-58 pubmed publisher
    The in vitro metabolic stability of histidine-dipeptides (HD), carnosine (CAR) and anserine (ANS), in human serum, and their absorption kinetics after ingesting pure carnosine or HD rich foods in humans have been investigated...
  13. Kawahara M, Konoha K, Nagata T, Sadakane Y. Protective substances against zinc-induced neuronal death after ischemia: carnosine as a target for drug of vascular type of dementia. Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. 2007;2:145-9 pubmed
    ..Among tested, we found that carnosine (beta-alanyl histidine) protected against zinc-induced death of cultured neurons, and have applied for the ..
  14. Goto K, Maemura H, Takamatsu K, Ishii N. Hormonal responses to resistance exercise after ingestion of carnosine and anserine. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:398-405 pubmed publisher
    Intramuscular carnosine buffers protons (H+) in skeletal muscle. We examined the effects of supplementation with chicken breast meat extract (CBEX) containing carnosine and anserine on hormonal responses to resistance exercise...
  15. Heck T, Limbach M, Geueke B, Zacharias M, Gardiner J, Kohler H, et al. Enzymatic degradation of beta- and mixed alpha,beta-oligopeptides. Chem Biodivers. 2006;3:1325-48 pubmed
    ..Astonishingly, DmpA exhibited much higher catalytical rates for the mixed dipeptide carnosine (H-betahGly-His-OH) than for any other substrate described until now.
  16. Zhu Y, Zhu Ge Z, Wu D, Wang S, Liu L, Ohtsu H, et al. Carnosine inhibits pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures by histaminergic mechanisms in histidine decarboxylase knock-out mice. Neurosci Lett. 2007;416:211-6 pubmed
    ..both histidine decarboxylase-deficient (HDC-KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice to elucidate the possible role of carnosine in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures...
  17. Smith A, Stout J, Kendall K, Fukuda D, Cramer J. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: the effects of ?-alanine supplementation in women. Amino Acids. 2012;43:77-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The ANOVA model demonstrated no significant treatment effects on oxidative stress. The chronic effects of BA supplementation demonstrated little antioxidant potential, in women, and little influence on aerobic performance assessments. ..
  18. Drozak J, Veiga da Cunha M, Vertommen D, Stroobant V, van Schaftingen E. Molecular identification of carnosine synthase as ATP-grasp domain-containing protein 1 (ATPGD1). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:9346-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and homocarnosine (gamma-aminobutyryl-L-histidine) are abundant dipeptides in skeletal muscle and brain of most vertebrates and some invertebrates...
  19. Fouad A, Qureshi H, Yacoubi M, Al Melhim W. Protective role of carnosine in mice with cadmium-induced acute hepatotoxicity. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:2863-70 pubmed publisher
    The hepatoprotective effect of carnosine was investigated against cadmium-induced acute liver injury in mice. Hepatotoxicity was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (6.5mg/kg). Carnosine treatment (10mg/kg/day, i.p...
  20. Artioli G, Gualano B, Smith A, Stout J, Lancha A. Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42:1162-73 pubmed publisher
    In this narrative review, we present and discuss the current knowledge available on carnosine and beta-alanine metabolism as well as the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on exercise performance...
  21. Li Y, He R, Tsoi B, Li X, Li W, Abe K, et al. Anti-stress effects of carnosine on restraint-evoked immunocompromise in mice through spleen lymphocyte number maintenance. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33190 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine), a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been characterized as a putative neurotransmitter and serves as a reservoir for brain histamine, which could act on histaminergic neurons system to relieve stress-..
  22. Mahmood A, Fitzgerald A, Marchbank T, Ntatsaki E, Murray D, Ghosh S, et al. Zinc carnosine, a health food supplement that stabilises small bowel integrity and stimulates gut repair processes. Gut. 2007;56:168-75 pubmed
    Zinc carnosine (ZnC) is a health food product claimed to possess health-promoting and gastrointestinal supportive activity. Scientific evidence underlying these claims is, however, limited...
  23. Szwergold B. Carnosine and anserine act as effective transglycating agents in decomposition of aldose-derived Schiff bases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;336:36-41 pubmed
    There are numerous publications describing the positive effects of carnosine (beta-alanyl-histidine) and anserine (beta-alanyl-1-N-methyl-histidine) on cell and organ function...
  24. Fu Q, Dai H, Hu W, Fan Y, Shen Y, Zhang W, et al. Carnosine protects against Abeta42-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated rat PC12 cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008;28:307-16 pubmed
    1) The present study was designed to investigate whether histamine is involved in the protective effect of carnosine on Abeta42-induced impairment in differentiated PC12 cells...
  25. Bae O, Serfozo K, Baek S, Lee K, Dorrance A, Rumbeiha W, et al. Safety and efficacy evaluation of carnosine, an endogenous neuroprotective agent for ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2013;44:205-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook preclinical investigations of a novel therapeutic approach involving supplementation with carnosine, an endogenous pleiotropic dipeptide...
  26. Guney Y, Turkcu U, Hicsonmez A, Andrieu M, Guney H, Bilgihan A, et al. Carnosine may reduce lung injury caused by radiation therapy. Med Hypotheses. 2006;66:957-9 pubmed
    ..b>Carnosine is a dipeptide composed by the amino acids beta-histidine and l-alanine...
  27. Smith A, Moon J, Kendall K, Graef J, Lockwood C, Walter A, et al. The effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on neuromuscular fatigue and muscle function. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;105:357-63 pubmed publisher
    ..conclusion, HIIT appeared to be the primary stimulus effecting EMG(FT) or EEA, suggesting adaptations from HIIT may be more influential than increasing skeletal muscle carnosine levels on delaying fatigue in recreationally active men.
  28. Ueda K, Ueyama T, Oka M, Ito T, Tsuruo Y, Ichinose M. Polaprezinc (Zinc L-carnosine) is a potent inducer of anti-oxidative stress enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 - a new mechanism of gastric mucosal protection. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009;110:285-94 pubmed
    ..These data indicate for the first time that PZ is an effective inducer of HO-1 in the stomach. PZ-induced HO-1 functions as a part of the mucosal protective effects of PZ. ..
  29. Aydin A, Küskü Kiraz Z, Dogru Abbasoglu S, Gulluoglu M, Uysal M, Kocak Toker N. Effect of carnosine against thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rat. Peptides. 2010;31:67-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide with antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress has been proposed to be involved in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats, that is similar to human disease...
  30. Baba S, Hoetker J, Merchant M, Klein J, Cai J, Barski O, et al. Role of aldose reductase in the metabolism and detoxification of carnosine-acrolein conjugates. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:28163-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These aldehydes form covalent adducts with histidine-containing dipeptides such as carnosine and anserine, which are present in high concentration in skeletal muscle, heart, and brain...
  31. Kendrick I, Harris R, Kim H, Kim C, Dang V, Lam T, et al. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Amino Acids. 2008;34:547-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine (Carn) occurs in high concentrations in skeletal muscle is a potent physico-chemical buffer of H+ over the physiological range. Recent research has demonstrated that 6...
  32. Bauer K. Carnosine and homocarnosine, the forgotten, enigmatic peptides of the brain. Neurochem Res. 2005;30:1339-45 pubmed
    b>Carnosine (beta-alanyl-histidine) and homocarnosine (gamma-aminobutyryl-histidine) are major constituents of excitable tissues, brain and skeletal muscles, but their physiological functions are yet unknown...
  33. Bellia F, Vecchio G, Rizzarelli E. Carnosine derivatives: new multifunctional drug-like molecules. Amino Acids. 2012;43:153-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) is an endogenous dipeptide widely and abundantly distributed in the muscle and nervous tissues of several animal species...
  34. Baguet A, Everaert I, Achten E, Thomis M, Derave W. The influence of sex, age and heritability on human skeletal muscle carnosine content. Amino Acids. 2012;43:13-20 pubmed publisher
    The dipeptide carnosine is found in high concentrations in human skeletal muscle and shows large inter-individual differences...
  35. Hobson R, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris R, Sale C. Effects of ?-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids. 2012;43:25-37 pubmed publisher
    Due to the well-defined role of ?-alanine as a substrate of carnosine (a major contributor to H+ buffering during high-intensity exercise), ?-alanine is fast becoming a popular ergogenic aid to sports performance...
  36. Jia H, Qi X, Fang S, Jin Y, Han X, Wang Y, et al. Carnosine inhibits high glucose-induced mesangial cell proliferation through mediating cell cycle progression. Regul Pept. 2009;154:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carnosine is an endogenously synthesized dipeptide that has been reported as a protective factor in diabetic nephropathy...
  37. Fouad A, El Rehany M, Maghraby H. The hepatoprotective effect of carnosine against ischemia/reperfusion liver injury in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;572:61-8 pubmed
    The potential protective effect of the natural antioxidant, carnosine was evaluated against ischemia/reperfusion liver injury in rats...
  38. Ma J, Xiong J, Hou W, Yan H, Sun Y, Huang S, et al. Protective effect of carnosine on subcortical ischemic vascular dementia in mice. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2012;18:745-53 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we found carnosine protects against N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) induced excitotoxicity through a histaminergic pathway...
  39. Pfister F, Riedl E, Wang Q, Vom Hagen F, Deinzer M, Harmsen M, et al. Oral carnosine supplementation prevents vascular damage in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2011;28:125-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the effect of the antioxidant and antiglycating dipeptide carnosine was studied on the development of experimental diabetic retinopathy...
  40. Dobrota D, Fedorova T, Stvolinsky S, Babusikova E, Likavcanova K, Drgova A, et al. Carnosine protects the brain of rats and Mongolian gerbils against ischemic injury: after-stroke-effect. Neurochem Res. 2005;30:1283-8 pubmed
    b>Carnosine, a specific constituent of excitable tissues of vertebrates, exhibits a significant antioxidant protecting effect on the brain damaged by ischemic-reperfusion injury when it was administered to the animals before ischemic ..
  41. Caruso J, Charles J, Unruh K, Giebel R, Learmonth L, Potter W. Ergogenic effects of ?-alanine and carnosine: proposed future research to quantify their efficacy. Nutrients. 2012;4:585-601 pubmed publisher
    alanine is an amino acid that, when combined with histidine, forms the dipeptide carnosine within skeletal muscle...
  42. Vistoli G, Orioli M, Pedretti A, Regazzoni L, Canevotti R, Negrisoli G, et al. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of carnosine derivatives as selective and efficient sequestering agents of cytotoxic reactive carbonyl species. ChemMedChem. 2009;4:967-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine aryl derivatives as sequestering agents of RCS: Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are cytotoxic mediators representing a novel drug target, as they are presumed to play a pathogenic role in several diseases...
  43. Kendrick I, Kim H, Harris R, Kim C, Dang V, Lam T, et al. The effect of 4 weeks beta-alanine supplementation and isokinetic training on carnosine concentrations in type I and II human skeletal muscle fibres. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;106:131-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carnosine was measured by HPLC. There was a significant increase in carnosine in both T and UT legs of the beta-ALG (9...
  44. Attanasio F, Convertino M, Magno A, Caflisch A, Corazza A, Haridas H, et al. Carnosine inhibits A?(42) aggregation by perturbing the H-bond network in and around the central hydrophobic cluster. Chembiochem. 2013;14:583-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used experimental techniques and atomistic simulations to investigate the influence of carnosine, a dipeptide naturally occurring in the brain, on A? aggregation...
  45. Bae O, Majid A. Role of histidine/histamine in carnosine-induced neuroprotection during ischemic brain damage. Brain Res. 2013;1527:246-54 pubmed publisher
    Urgent need exists for new therapeutic options in ischemic stroke. We recently demonstrated that carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide consisting of alanine and histidine, is robustly neuroprotective in ischemic brain injury and has a wide ..
  46. Boldyrev A, Fedorova T, Stepanova M, Dobrotvorskaya I, Kozlova E, Boldanova N, et al. Carnosine [corrected] increases efficiency of DOPA therapy of Parkinson's disease: a pilot study. Rejuvenation Res. 2008;11:821-7 pubmed publisher
    The addition of the neuropeptide carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) as a food additive to the basic protocol of Parkinson's disease treatment results in significant improvement of neurological symptoms, along with increase in red blood ..
  47. Chengappa K, Turkin S, DeSanti S, Bowie C, Brar J, Schlicht P, et al. A preliminary, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnosine to improve cognition in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2012;142:145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a preliminary study to test the hypothesis that L-carnosine, an antioxidant and anti-glycation agent which is co-localized and released with glutamate would improve ..
  48. Kozan R, Sefil F, Bagirici F. Anticonvulsant effect of carnosine on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Brain Res. 2008;1239:249-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine is a compound of naturally-occurring dipeptide that synthesized by the carnosine synthetase from beta-alanine and l-histidine...
  49. Begum G, Cunliffe A, Leveritt M. Physiological role of carnosine in contracting muscle. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15:493-514 pubmed
    ..The effect of carnosine on overcoming muscle fatigue appears to be related to its ability to buffer the increased H(+) concentration ..
  50. Bellia F, Vecchio G, Cuzzocrea S, Calabrese V, Rizzarelli E. Neuroprotective features of carnosine in oxidative driven diseases. Mol Aspects Med. 2011;32:258-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) is a natural dipeptide widely and abundantly distributed in excitable tissues of several animal tissues...
  51. Aydogan S, Yapislar H, Artis S, Aydogan B. Impaired erythrocytes deformability in H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress: protective effect of L-carnosine. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2008;39:93-8 pubmed
    ..An increase in free radicals causes a reduction in erythrocyte flexibility and deformability. Carnosine is a dipeptide abundant in skeletal muscle and brain of humans...
  52. Mora L, Sentandreu M, Toldra F. Hydrophilic chromatographic determination of carnosine, anserine, balenine, creatine, and creatinine. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:4664-9 pubmed
    ..based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of carnosine, anserine, balenine, creatine, and creatinine in meat...
  53. Ozdoğan K, Taşkın E, Dursun N. Protective effect of carnosine on adriamycin-induced oxidative heart damage in rats. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2011;11:3-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study examined the antioxidant protective effects of carnosine (CAR) on adriamycin-induced cardiac damage in rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups...
  54. Alhamdani M, Al Azzawie H, Abbas F. Decreased formation of advanced glycation end-products in peritoneal fluid by carnosine and related peptides. Perit Dial Int. 2007;27:86-9 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carnosine and its related peptides homocarnosine and anserine against the formation of AGEs in PD fluid. PD solutions (1...
  55. Saada M, Montero J, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Winum J, Supuran C. Carbonic anhydrase activators: gold nanoparticles coated with derivatized histamine, histidine, and carnosine show enhanced activatory effects on several mammalian isoforms. J Med Chem. 2011;54:1170-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2.1.1). The obtained lipoic acid conjugates of histamine, L-histidine methyl ester, and L-carnosine methyl ester were attached to gold nanoparticles (NPs) by reaction with Au(III) salts in reducing conditions...
  56. Dutka T, Lamb G. Effect of carnosine on excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically-skinned rat skeletal muscle. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2004;25:203-13 pubmed
    This study investigated whether carnosine alters individual processes involved in normal excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in mammalian skeletal muscle fibres...
  57. Iovine B, Iannella M, Nocella F, Pricolo M, Bevilacqua M. Carnosine inhibits KRAS-mediated HCT116 proliferation by affecting ATP and ROS production. Cancer Lett. 2012;315:122-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine is a natural dipeptide that has generated particular interest for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially for its antiproliferative properties...
  58. Matsuu Matsuyama M, Shichijo K, Okaichi K, Nakayama T, Nakashima M, Uemura T, et al. Protection by polaprezinc against radiation-induced apoptosis in rat jejunal crypt cells. J Radiat Res. 2008;49:341-7 pubmed
    Polaprezinc, an anti-ulcer drug, is a chelate compound consisting of zinc and L-carnosine. Polaprezinc has been shown to prevent gastric mucosal injury...
  59. Nagai K, Tanida M, Niijima A, Tsuruoka N, Kiso Y, Horii Y, et al. Role of L-carnosine in the control of blood glucose, blood pressure, thermogenesis, and lipolysis by autonomic nerves in rats: involvement of the circadian clock and histamine. Amino Acids. 2012;43:97-109 pubmed publisher
    L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine; CAR) is synthesized in mammalian skeletal muscle...
  60. Lee Y, Hsu C, Lin M, Liu K, Yin M. Histidine and carnosine delay diabetic deterioration in mice and protect human low density lipoprotein against oxidation and glycation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;513:145-50 pubmed
    In vivo effects of histidine and carnosine against diabetic deterioration in diabetic Balb/cA mice were studied. Histidine and carnosine at 0.5, 1 g/l were added into drinking water...
  61. Kawahara M, Koyama H, Nagata T, Sadakane Y. Zinc, copper, and carnosine attenuate neurotoxicity of prion fragment PrP106-126. Metallomics. 2011;3:726-34 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carnosine (?-alanyl histidine) significantly inhibited both the ?-sheet formation and the neurotoxicity of PrP106-126...
  62. Chuang C, Hu M. L-carnosine inhibits metastasis of SK-Hep-1 cells by inhibition of matrix metaoproteinase-9 expression and induction of an antimetastatic gene, nm23-H1. Nutr Cancer. 2008;60:526-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of its antioxidant activity and the ability to chelate divalent cations, L-carnosine (LC) was tested for inhibition of MMP-9 in a highly invasive hepatocarcinoma, SK-Hep-1 cells...
  63. Ozdemir M, Reyngoudt H, De Deene Y, Sazak H, Fieremans E, Delputte S, et al. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Phys Med Biol. 2007;52:6781-94 pubmed
    b>Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear...
  64. Suzuki Y, Nakao T, Maemura H, Sato M, Kamahara K, Morimatsu F, et al. Carnosine and anserine ingestion enhances contribution of nonbicarbonate buffering. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:334-8 pubmed
    ..was to investigate the effect of supplementation with chicken breast extract (CBEX), which was a rich source of carnosine and anserine, on acid-base balance and performance during intense intermittent exercise...
  65. Kamei J, Ohsawa M, Miyata S, Tanaka S. Preventive effect of L-carnosine on changes in the thermal nociceptive threshold in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;600:83-6 pubmed publisher
    ..sensory abnormality is very few, the present study was then designed to investigate the effect of zinc L-carnosine on the changes of nociceptive threshold in diabetic mice. Zinc L-carnosine (75-300 mg/kg, p.o...
  66. Shao L, Li Q, Tan Z. L-carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;324:931-6 pubmed
    ..L-carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been reported to delay the replicative senescence, and extend the lifespan ..
  67. Babizhayev M. Rejuvenation of visual functions in older adult drivers and drivers with cataract during a short-term administration of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops. Rejuvenation Res. 2004;7:186-98 pubmed
    ..The developed ophthalmic drug NAC formula showed potential for the non-surgical treatment of age-related cataracts. ..
  68. Kamal M, Jiang H, Hu Y, Keep R, Smith D. Influence of genetic knockout of Pept2 on the in vivo disposition of endogenous and exogenous carnosine in wild-type and Pept2 null mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R986-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine (beta-alanyl-l-histidine), an endogenous dipeptide substrate of the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT2, plays an important role in many physiological processes...
  69. Aydin A, Kucukgergin C, Ozdemirler Erata G, Kocak Toker N, Uysal M. The effect of carnosine treatment on prooxidant-antioxidant balance in liver, heart and brain tissues of male aged rats. Biogerontology. 2010;11:103-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L: -histidine) is a dipeptide with antioxidant properties. Oxidative damage by free radicals is one of the mechanisms underlying the aging process...
  70. Guiotto A, Ruzza P, Babizhayev M, Calderan A. Malondialdehyde scavenging and aldose-derived Schiff bases' transglycation properties of synthetic histidyl-hydrazide carnosine analogs. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:6158-63 pubmed
    Second-generation carnosine analogs bearing the histidyl-hydrazide moiety have been synthesized and tested for their efficiency in scavenging malondialdehyde (MDA) derived from lipid peroxidation and for their ability to reverse the ..
  71. Murakami T, Furuse M. The impact of taurine- and beta-alanine-supplemented diets on behavioral and neurochemical parameters in mice: antidepressant versus anxiolytic-like effects. Amino Acids. 2010;39:427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Beta-alanine-supplemented diet also increased carnosine (beta-alanyl-L: -histidine) concentration in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, and brain-derived ..
  72. Cheng J, Wang F, Yu D, Wu P, Chen J. The cytotoxic mechanism of malondialdehyde and protective effect of carnosine via protein cross-linking/mitochondrial dysfunction/reactive oxygen species/MAPK pathway in neurons. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;650:184-94 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carnosine exhibited better protection against MDA-induced cell injury than antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) with its ..
  73. Everaert I, Stegen S, Vanheel B, Taes Y, Derave W. Effect of beta-alanine and carnosine supplementation on muscle contractility in mice. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45:43-51 pubmed publisher
    Enhanced carnosine levels have been shown to be ergogenic for high-intensity exercise performances, although the role of carnosine in the control of muscle function is poorly understood...
  74. Babizhayev M, Deyev A, Savel Yeva E, Lankin V, Yegorov Y. Skin beautification with oral non-hydrolized versions of carnosine and carcinine: Effective therapeutic management and cosmetic skincare solutions against oxidative glycation and free-radical production as a causal mechanism of diabetic complications. J Dermatolog Treat. 2012;23:345-84 pubmed publisher
    ..transglycating activity, inhibition of transition metal ions peroxidative catalysts, resistance to hydrolysis of carnosine mimetic peptide-based compounds with carnosinase and the protective effects of carnosine, carcinine and related ..
  75. Corona C, Frazzini V, Silvestri E, Lattanzio R, La Sorda R, Piantelli M, et al. Effects of dietary supplementation of carnosine on mitochondrial dysfunction, amyloid pathology, and cognitive deficits in 3xTg-AD mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17971 pubmed publisher
    ..Given these factors, the endogenous peptide carnosine may be potentially beneficial in the treatment of AD because of its free-radical scavenger and metal chelating ..
  76. Derave W, Ozdemir M, Harris R, Pottier A, Reyngoudt H, Koppo K, et al. beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;103:1736-43 pubmed
    b>Carnosine (beta-alanyl-l-histidine) is present in high concentrations in human skeletal muscle. The ingestion of beta-alanine, the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, has been shown to elevate the muscle carnosine content...
  77. Bhardwaj R, Herrera Ruiz D, Eltoukhy N, Saad M, Knipp G. The functional evaluation of human peptide/histidine transporter 1 (hPHT1) in transiently transfected COS-7 cells. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2006;27:533-42 pubmed
    ..plasmid and transiently transfected into COS-7 cells to investigate the uptake kinetics of [3H]histidine and [3H]carnosine. Time, pH and sodium-dependent uptake studies were performed in mock (empty vector) and hPHT1-COS-7 cells...
  78. Everaert I, Taes Y, De Heer E, Baelde H, Zutinic A, Yard B, et al. Low plasma carnosinase activity promotes carnosinemia after carnosine ingestion in humans. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;302:F1537-44 pubmed publisher
    A polymorphism in the carnosine dipeptidase-1 gene (CNDP1), resulting in decreased plasma carnosinase activity, is associated with a reduced risk for diabetic nephropathy...
  79. Del Favero S, Roschel H, Solis M, Hayashi A, Artioli G, Otaduy M, et al. Beta-alanine (Carnosyn™) supplementation in elderly subjects (60-80 years): effects on muscle carnosine content and physical capacity. Amino Acids. 2012;43:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on exercise capacity and the muscle carnosine content in elderly subjects...
  80. Gong Y, Wang H, Zhu Y, Zhang W, Dai H, Zhang S, et al. Carnosine ameliorates morphine-induced conditioned place preference in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2007;422:34-8 pubmed
    The histidine-containing dipeptide, carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), is present in high concentrations in mammalian brain of mammals...
  81. Cacciatore I, Cocco A, Costa M, Fontana M, Lucente G, Pecci L, et al. Biochemical properties of new synthetic carnosine analogues containing the residue of 2,3-diaminopropionic acid: the effect of N-acetylation. Amino Acids. 2005;28:77-83 pubmed
    Three novel carnosine analogues 7-9 containing the residue of L(+)2,3-diaminopropionic acid with different degree of N-acetylation instead of beta-alanine have been synthesized and characterized...
  82. Xiang J, Hu Y, Smith D, Keep R. PEPT2-mediated transport of 5-aminolevulinic acid and carnosine in astrocytes. Brain Res. 2006;1122:18-23 pubmed
    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and carnosine have important physiological and pathophysiological roles in the CNS. Both are substrates for the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT2...
  83. Omatsu T, Naito Y, Handa O, Mizushima K, Hayashi N, Qin Y, et al. Reactive oxygen species-quenching and anti-apoptotic effect of polaprezinc on indomethacin-induced small intestinal epithelial cell injury. J Gastroenterol. 2010;45:692-702 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the protective role of PZ and the possible mechanism of its effect on indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury were investigated...
  84. Decombaz J, Beaumont M, Vuichoud J, Bouisset F, Stellingwerff T. Effect of slow-release ?-alanine tablets on absorption kinetics and paresthesia. Amino Acids. 2012;43:67-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, ingesting 1.6 g ?A in slow-release tablets rather than pure in solution results in slower absorption kinetics, improved whole body retention and sensory side-effects that cannot be differentiated from PLA...
  85. Mikami K, Otaka M, Watanabe D, Goto T, Endoh A, Miura K, et al. Zinc L-carnosine protects against mucosal injury in portal hypertensive gastropathy through induction of heat shock protein 72. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21:1669-74 pubmed
    ..In this study, the effects of zinc L-carnosine, an anti-ulcer drug, were evaluated on expression of heat shock protein (hsp) 72 and cytoprotection in gastric ..
  86. Yan H, Guo Y, Zhang J, Ding Z, Ha W, Harding J. Effect of carnosine, aminoguanidine, and aspirin drops on the prevention of cataracts in diabetic rats. Mol Vis. 2008;14:2282-91 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of carnosine (CA), aminoguanidine (AG), and aspirin (ASA) drops, all inhibitors of glycation, on the development of diabetic cataract in rat.
  87. Drafi F, Bauerova K, Valachova K, Ponist S, Mihalova D, Juranek I, et al. Carnosine inhibits degradation of hyaluronan induced by free radical processes in vitro and improves the redox imbalance in adjuvant arthritis in vivo. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31 Suppl 2:96-100 pubmed
    ..study we investigated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of the endogenous natural compound carnosine (CARN) in vitro and in vivo...
  88. Aloisi A, Barca A, Romano A, Guerrieri S, Storelli C, Rinaldi R, et al. Anti-aggregating effect of the naturally occurring dipeptide carnosine on a?1-42 fibril formation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68159 pubmed publisher
    b>Carnosine is an endogenous dipeptide abundant in the central nervous system, where by acting as intracellular pH buffering molecule, Zn/Cu ion chelator, antioxidant and anti-crosslinking agent, it exerts a well-recognized multi-..