Summary: Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.

Top Publications

  1. Galea C, Han M, Zhu Y, Roberts K, Wang J, Thompson P, et al. Characterization of the Polymyxin D Synthetase Biosynthetic Cluster and Product Profile of Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401. J Nat Prod. 2017;80:1264-1274 pubmed publisher
    The increasing prevalence of polymyxin-resistant bacteria has stimulated the search for improved polymyxin lipopeptides. Here we describe the sequence and product profile for polymyxin D nonribosomal peptide synthetase from Paenibacillus ..
  2. Yang F, Zhang L, Wakabayashi H, Myers J, Jiang Y, Cao Y, et al. Tolerance to Caspofungin in Candida albicans Is Associated with at Least Three Distinctive Mechanisms That Govern Expression of FKS Genes and Cell Wall Remodeling. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017;61: pubmed publisher
  3. Rosenberger K, Derkow K, Dembny P, Kr├╝ger C, Schott E, Lehnardt S. The impact of single and pairwise Toll-like receptor activation on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. J Neuroinflammation. 2014;11:166 pubmed publisher
    ..Sole and pairwise activation of TLRs modifies the pattern and extent of inflammation and neurodegeneration in the CNS, thereby enabling innate immunity to take account of the CNS diseases' diversity. ..
  4. Danielescu C, Cantemir A, Chiselita D. Successful treatment of fungal endophthalmitis using intravitreal caspofungin. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2017;80:196-198 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. ciferrii endophthalmitis and its successful treatment with intravitreal caspofungin. ..
  5. Hue N, Serani L, Laprevote O. Structural investigation of cyclic peptidolipids from Bacillus subtilis by high-energy tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2001;15:203-9 pubmed
    ..The complementary MS/MS data obtained from the protonated and cationised molecules prove to be of great interest for the structural characterisation of this type of compounds. ..
  6. Kluge B, Vater J, Salnikow J, Eckart K. Studies on the biosynthesis of surfactin, a lipopeptide antibiotic from Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332. FEBS Lett. 1988;231:107-10 pubmed
    ..This activation pattern is consistent with a peptide synthesizing multienzyme which activates its substrate amino acids simultaneously as reactive aminoacyl phosphates. ..
  7. Konno S, Ishikawa F, Suzuki T, Dohmae N, Kakeya H, Tanabe G. A Chemoproteomics Approach to Investigate Phosphopantetheine Transferase Activity at the Cellular Level. Chembiochem. 2017;18:1855-1862 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that this chemoproteomics platform should enable a precise interpretation of the cellular activities of Sfp-type PPTase inhibitors. ..
  8. Rizzetto M. Investigational drugs in development for Hepatitis D. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2017;26:999-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..NAP REP-2139 diminished both HDV-RNA and HBsAg in serum; a full report is awaited. In combination with Peg-Interferon, these new drugs may provide additional efficacy. ..
  9. Ernst E, Klepser M, Ernst M, Messer S, Pfaller M. In vitro pharmacodynamic properties of MK-0991 determined by time-kill methods. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999;33:75-80 pubmed
    ..albicans, two isolates of C. glabrata, and one isolate of C. tropicalis. MK-0991 displayed concentration-dependent activity, which was fungicidal or fungistatic depending on the isolate tested. ..

More Information


  1. Lawton S, Xu F, Tran A, Wong E, Prakash A, Schumacher M, et al. N-Arachidonoyl Dopamine Modulates Acute Systemic Inflammation via Nonhematopoietic TRPV1. J Immunol. 2017;199:1465-1475 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that NADA has novel TRPV1-dependent anti-inflammatory properties and suggest that the endovanilloid system might be targeted therapeutically in acute inflammation. ..
  2. Viscoli C, Bassetti M, Castagnola E, Cesaro S, Menichetti F, Ratto S, et al. Micafungin for the treatment of proven and suspected invasive candidiasis in children and adults: findings from a multicenter prospective observational study. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:725 pubmed publisher
    ..Micafungin was well tolerated in a heterogeneous real world population with a bimodal age distribution. A high rate of favorable response to micafungin treatment was reported in both proven and suspected IC. ..
  3. Zanette R, Kontoyiannis D. Paradoxical effect to caspofungin in Candida species does not confer survival advantage in a Drosophila model of candidiasis. Virulence. 2013;4:497-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Fan H, Ru J, Zhang Y, Wang Q, Li Y. Fengycin produced by Bacillus subtilis 9407 plays a major role in the biocontrol of apple ring rot disease. Microbiol Res. 2017;199:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..dothidea mycelial growth. Furthermore, fengycin-like lipopeptides (retention factor 0.1-0.2) that exhibited antifungal activity against B...
  5. Park J, Gallagher T. Lipidation increases antiviral activities of coronavirus fusion-inhibiting peptides. Virology. 2017;511:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike lipid-free peptides, the lipopeptides suppressed CoV S protein-directed virus entry taking place within endosomes...
  6. Sharma R, Ghasparian A, Robinson J, McCullough K. Dendritic Cell Sensing of Hydrophobic Di- and Triacylated Lipopeptides Self-Assembled within Synthetic Virus-like Particles. J Immunol. 2017;199:734-749 pubmed publisher
    ..molecular patterns (PAMPs)/danger-associated molecular patterns, including di- and triacylated lipopeptides. Isolated or synthetic lipopeptides are potent vaccine adjuvants, interacting with cell surface TLR2 ..
  7. Al Rashed F, Kochumon S, Usmani S, Sindhu S, Ahmad R. Pam3CSK4 Induces MMP-9 Expression in Human Monocytic THP-1 Cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:1993-2003 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Pam3CSK4 induces MMP-9 production in THP-1 cells through the TLR-2/MyD88-dependent mechanism involving MEK/ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-?B/AP-1 activation. ..
  8. Lee C, Lin J, Ho C, Sun M, Yen W, Lin C. Efficacy and safety of micafungin versus extensive azoles in the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infections for neutropenia patients with hematological malignancies: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180050 pubmed publisher
    ..However, additional clinical trials should be conducted on specific drug-related mortality and AEs to gather sufficient evidence on these matters. ..
  9. Armstrong James D, Stebbing J, John L, Murungi A, Bower M, Gazzard B, et al. A trial of caspofungin salvage treatment in PCP pneumonia. Thorax. 2011;66:537-8 pubmed publisher
  10. Victorio G, Bourdon L, Benavides L, Huerta Olvera S, Plascencia A, Villanueva J, et al. Antifungal activity of caspofungin in experimental infective endocarditis caused by Candida albicans. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2017;112:370-375 pubmed publisher
    ..The antifungal activity of caspofungin is similar to that of liposomal amphotericin B in an experimental model of infective endocarditis caused by C. albicans. ..
  11. Konishi M, Sugawara K, Tomita K, Matsumoto K, Miyaki T, Fujisawa K, et al. Bu-2470, a new peptide antibiotic complex. I. Production, isolation and properties of Bu-2470 A, B1 and B2. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1983;36:625-33 pubmed
    ..The physicochemical and biological properties of Bu-2470 B1 and B2 are very similar to those of the octapeptin group of antibiotics. ..
  12. Nakano M, Marahiel M, Zuber P. Identification of a genetic locus required for biosynthesis of the lipopeptide antibiotic surfactin in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:5662-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the sfp locus, which is responsible for surfactin production, alters the transcriptional regulation of srf in JH642 cells. ..
  13. Parzych K, Zetterqvist A, Wright W, Kirkby N, Mitchell J, Paul Clark M. Differential role of pannexin-1/ATP/P2X7 axis in IL-1? release by human monocytes. FASEB J. 2017;31:2439-2445 pubmed publisher
    ..Parzych, K., Zetterqvist, A. V., Wright, W. R., Kirkby, N. S., Mitchell, J. A., Paul-Clark, M. J. Differential role of pannexin-1/ATP/P2X7 axis in IL-1? release by human monocytes. ..
  14. Wang X, Hu W, Zhu L, Yang Q. Bacillus subtilis and surfactin inhibit the transmissible gastroenteritis virus from entering the intestinal epithelial cells. Biosci Rep. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that B. subtilis OKB105 and its surfactin can antagonize TGEV entry in vitro and may serve as promising new candidates for TGEV prevention. ..
  15. Oosenbrug T, van de Graaff M, Ressing M, van Kasteren S. Chemical Tools for Studying TLR Signaling Dynamics. Cell Chem Biol. 2017;24:801-812 pubmed publisher
  16. Winther M, Holdfeldt A, Sundqvist M, Rajabkhani Z, Gabl M, Bylund J, et al. Formyl peptide derived lipopeptides disclose differences between the receptors in mouse and men and call the pepducin concept in question. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185132 pubmed publisher
  17. Vollmer S, Strickson S, Zhang T, Gray N, Lee K, Rao V, et al. The mechanism of activation of IRAK1 and IRAK4 by interleukin-1 and Toll-like receptor agonists. Biochem J. 2017;474:2027-2038 pubmed publisher
  18. Stivers N, Pelisch N, Orem B, Williams J, Nally J, Stirling D. The toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam3CSK4 is neuroprotective after spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol. 2017;294:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data suggest that by providing a second "sterile" activation signal to microglia through TLR2/TLR1 signaling, the microglial response to injury can be modulated in situ and is highly neuroprotective. ..
  19. Chandorkar G, Zhan Q, Donovan J, Rege S, Patino H. Pharmacokinetics of surotomycin from phase 1 single and multiple ascending dose studies in healthy volunteers. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017;18:24 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of these phase 1 studies support the continued clinical development of surotomycin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. NCT02835118 and NCT02835105 . Retrospectively registered, July 13 2016. ..
  20. Vincent J, De Backer D. Saline versus balanced solutions: are clinical trials comparing two crystalloid solutions really needed?. Crit Care. 2016;20:250 pubmed publisher
  21. Tavano R, Malachin G, De Zotti M, Peggion C, Biondi B, Forrnaggio F, et al. The peculiar N- and (-termini of trichogin GA IV are needed for membrane interaction and human cell death induction at doses lacking antibiotic activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1848:134-44 pubmed
    ..Replacement of one Gly with Lys plus the simultaneous esterification of the (-terminus, strongly increased trichogin GA IV anti-Gram+ activity (MIC 1-4 ~ ). but further mitigated its cytotoxicity on human cells. ..
  22. Vollenbroich D, Ozel M, Vater J, Kamp R, Pauli G. Mechanism of inactivation of enveloped viruses by the biosurfactant surfactin from Bacillus subtilis. Biologicals. 1997;25:289-97 pubmed
    ..Surfactin may be useful for application in virus safety enhancement of biotechnological and pharmaceutical products. ..
  23. Weir G, Karkada M, Hoskin D, Stanford M, Macdonald L, Mansour M, et al. Combination of poly I:C and Pam3CSK4 enhances activation of B cells in vitro and boosts antibody responses to protein vaccines in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180073 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that combinations of TLR adjuvants promote more effective B cell activation in vitro and can be used to augment antibody responses to vaccines in vivo. ..
  24. Al Hatmi A, Bonifaz A, de Hoog G, Vazquez Maya L, Garcia Carmona K, Meis J, et al. Keratitis by Fusarium temperatum, a novel opportunist. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:588 pubmed publisher
    ..25 ?g/ml) and amphotericin B (0.5 ?g/ml). The present case extends the significance of the genus Fusarium as agents of keratitis and underscores the utility of molecular verification of these emerging fungi in the human host. ..
  25. Maximova N, Schillani G, Simeone R, Maestro A, Zanon D. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Caspofungin Versus Micafungin in Pediatric Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients: A Retrospective Analysis. Adv Ther. 2017;34:1184-1199 pubmed publisher
    ..However, better results with respect to the incidence and resolution of fever in the micafungin group may suggest its use in preference to that of caspofungin. ..
  26. Benke S, Thulasiram H, Gopi H. Potent Antimicrobial Activity of Lipidated Short ?,?-Hybrid Peptides. ChemMedChem. 2017;12:1610-1615 pubmed publisher
    Herein we report the potent antimicrobial activity of ?,?-hybrid lipopeptides composed of 1:1 alternating ?- and ?-amino acids...
  27. Ding X, Zhang X, Chong H, Zhu Y, Wei H, Wu X, et al. Enfuvirtide (T20)-Based Lipopeptide Is a Potent HIV-1 Cell Fusion Inhibitor: Implications for Viral Entry and Inhibition. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..The binding modes of two classes of membrane-anchoring lipopeptides (LP-40 and LP-11) verify the current fusion model in which an extended prehairpin structure bridges the viral ..
  28. Nagayoshi Y, Miyazaki T, Shimamura S, Nakayama H, Minematsu A, Yamauchi S, et al. Unexpected effects of azole transporter inhibitors on antifungal susceptibility in Candida glabrata and other pathogenic Candida species. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180990 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that azole efflux pump inhibitors increase azole susceptibility but concurrently induce decreased susceptibility to other classes of antifungals independent of azole transporter functions. ..
  29. Sun Z, Chen P, Liu Y, Shi L, Zhang B, Wu J, et al. Self-Assembled Nano-Immunostimulant for Synergistic Immune Activation. Chembiochem. 2017;18:1721-1729 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, SANIs may be generally applied in cancer immunotherapy. This novel SANI strategy provides a new way for the development of both immunostimulants and -suppressants. ..
  30. Peypoux F, Bonmatin J, Labbe H, Das B, Ptak M, Michel G. Isolation and characterization of a new variant of surfactin, the [Val7]surfactin. Eur J Biochem. 1991;202:101-6 pubmed
    ..This new compound, [Val7]surfactin, differs from the known surfactin by the C-terminal amino acid residue which is valine instead of leucine. ..
  31. Mulligan C, Gibbs B. Recovery of biosurfactants by ultrafiltration. J Chem Technol Biotechnol. 1990;47:23-9 pubmed
    ..The YM 10 membrane was the most appropriate for rhamnolipid recovery. Ultrafiltration can play an important role in biosurfactant purification as large volumes of media can be processed rapidly at extremely low cost. ..
  32. Habe H, Taira T, Imura T. Screening of a Bacillus subtilis Strain Producing Multiple Types of Cyclic Lipopeptides and Evaluation of Their Surface-tension-lowering Activities. J Oleo Sci. 2017;66:785-790 pubmed publisher
    Sixty Bacillus subtilis strains were investigated for their ability to produce cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs). Among them, B...
  33. Chapman B, Slavin M, Marriott D, Halliday C, Kidd S, Arthur I, et al. Changing epidemiology of candidaemia in Australia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017;72:1103-1108 pubmed publisher
    ..7-fold proportional increase in C. glabrata candidaemia (26.7% versus 16% in 2004) in Australia. Antifungal resistance was generally uncommon, but azole resistance (16.7% of isolates) amongst C. tropicalis may be emerging. ..
  34. Chong H, Xue J, Xiong S, Cong Z, Ding X, Zhu Y, et al. A Lipopeptide HIV-1/2 Fusion Inhibitor with Highly Potent In Vitro, Ex Vivo, and In Vivo Antiviral Activity. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
  35. Yadav H, Thomas B, Thampy C, Panaknti T. Management of a case of Candida albicans endogenous endophthalmitis with intravitreal caspofungin. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:529-531 pubmed publisher
    ..The situation worsened after the injections were stopped necessitating a revitrectomy. The study demonstrates the clinical efficacy of intravitreal caspofungin for the first time in human eyes. ..
  36. Groll A, Gullick B, Petraitiene R, Petraitis V, Candelario M, Piscitelli S, et al. Compartmental pharmacokinetics of the antifungal echinocandin caspofungin (MK-0991) in rabbits. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:596-600 pubmed
  37. Feignier C, Besson F, Michel G. Studies on lipopeptide biosynthesis by Bacillus subtilis: isolation and characterization of iturin-, surfactin+ mutants. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995;127:11-5 pubmed
    ..The analysis of the incorporation of sodium [1-14C]acetate into cellular lipids and lipopeptides showed that M89 still synthesized beta-amino fatty acids, the lipid moiety of iturin.
  38. Jemil N, Manresa A, Rabanal F, Ben Ayed H, Hmidet N, Nasri M. Structural characterization and identification of cyclic lipopeptides produced by Bacillus methylotrophicus DCS1 strain. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1060:374-386 pubmed publisher
    ..The structural characterization of the isolated lipopeptides was studied by a variety of analytical techniques...
  39. Ou H, Lee T, Chen Y, Charbonneau C. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of antifungal therapy for primary treatment of invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:481 pubmed publisher
    ..Echinocandins, especially anidulafungin, appear to be cost-effective for invasive candidiasis caused by C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species in Taiwan. ..
  40. Estoppey D, Lee C, Janoschke M, Lee B, Wan K, Dong H, et al. The Natural Product Cavinafungin Selectively Interferes with Zika and Dengue Virus Replication by Inhibition of the Host Signal Peptidase. Cell Rep. 2017;19:451-460 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides an effective compound against the eukaryotic signal peptidase and independent confirmation of the recently identified critical role of the signal peptidase in the replicative cycle of flaviviruses. ..
  41. Almaliti J, Malloy K, Glukhov E, Spadafora C, Gutierrez M, Gerwick W. Dudawalamides A-D, Antiparasitic Cyclic Depsipeptides from the Marine Cyanobacterium Moorea producens. J Nat Prod. 2017;80:1827-1836 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative analysis of the Dhoya-containing class of lipopeptides reveals intriguing structure-activity relationship features of these NRPS-PKS-derived metabolites and their ..
  42. Slijepcevic D, Roscam Abbing R, Katafuchi T, Blank A, Donkers J, Van Hoppe S, et al. Hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids is mediated by both sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and organic anion transporting polypeptides and modulated by intestinal sensing of plasma bile acid levels in mice. Hepatology. 2017;66:1631-1643 pubmed publisher
    ..Enterocytes sense highly elevated levels of (conjugated) bile acids in the systemic circulation to induce FGF15/19, which modulates hepatic bile acid synthesis and uptake. (Hepatology 2017;66:1631-1643). ..
  43. Boikov D, Locke J, James K, Bartizal K, Sobel J. In vitro activity of the novel echinocandin CD101 at pH 7 and 4 against Candida spp. isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017;72:1355-1358 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support continued development of topical CD101 for the treatment of VVC/RVVC. ..
  44. Huang Z, Hu Y, Shou L, Song M. Isolation and partial characterization of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics produced by Paenibacillus ehimensis B7. BMC Microbiol. 2013;13:87 pubmed publisher
    ..ehimensis B7 and characterized. These two peptides showed broad antimicrobial activity against all tested human pathogens and are worthy of further study. ..
  45. Bartizal K, Gill C, Abruzzo G, Flattery A, Kong L, Scott P, et al. In vitro preclinical evaluation studies with the echinocandin antifungal MK-0991 (L-743,872). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41:2326-32 pubmed
    ..These favorable results of preclinical studies support further studies with MK-0991 with humans. ..
  46. Leshinsky J, McLachlan A, Foster D, Norris R, Barrs V. Pharmacokinetics of caspofungin acetate to guide optimal dosing in cats. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178783 pubmed publisher
    ..5 ?g/mL for 98% of the population. Based on the modeling data this dosing regimen is likely to achieve target therapeutic concentrations, meet the proposed Cmax: MEC window and provide consistent exposure between doses. ..
  47. Amarsaikhan N, Sands E, Shah A, Abdolrasouli A, Reed A, Slaven J, et al. Caspofungin Increases Fungal Chitin and Eosinophil and ?? T Cell-Dependent Pathology in Invasive Aspergillosis. J Immunol. 2017;199:624-632 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify an eosinophil-mediated mechanism for paradoxical caspofungin activity and support the future investigation of the potential of eosinophil or fungal chitin-targeted inhibition in the treatment of IA. ..
  48. Refos J, Vonk A, ten Kate M, Eadie K, Verbrugh H, Bakker Woudenberg I, et al. Addition of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin to a suboptimal caspofungin treatment regimen in neutropenic rats with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis delays the time to death but does not enhance the overall therapeutic efficacy. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180961 pubmed publisher
    ..This study underlines the need to develop less toxic and more fungal specific geldamycin derivatives and the need to test such drugs not only in invertebrate models but also in mammalian models. ..
  49. Ozdemir H, Karbuz A, Ciftci E, Dincaslan H, Ince E, Aysev D, et al. Successful treatment of central venous catheter infection due to Candida lipolytica by caspofungin-lock therapy. Mycoses. 2011;54:e647-9 pubmed publisher
  50. Asari S, Ongena M, Debois D, De Pauw E, Chen K, Bejai S, et al. Insights into the molecular basis of biocontrol of Brassica pathogens by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 lipopeptides. Ann Bot. 2017;120:551-562 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana . The structures of secreted lipopeptides were analysed using mass spectrometry...
  51. Paul S, Ishida H, Nguyen L, Liu Z, Vogel H. Structural and dynamic characterization of a freestanding acyl carrier protein involved in the biosynthesis of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. Protein Sci. 2017;26:946-959 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also highlight the different surface charges of LipD and FAS-ACP from A. friuliensis that would allow the acyl-CoA ligase to interact preferentially with the LipD instead of binding to the FAS-ACP. ..
  52. Velkov T, Roberts K, Li J. Rediscovering the octapeptins. Nat Prod Rep. 2017;34:295-309 pubmed publisher
  53. Kaiser A, Gaidzik N, Becker T, Menge C, Groh K, Cai H, et al. Fully synthetic vaccines consisting of tumor-associated MUC1 glycopeptides and a lipopeptide ligand of the Toll-like receptor 2. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2010;49:3688-92 pubmed publisher