myeloid differentiation factor 88


Summary: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.

Top Publications

  1. Tanishima M, Takashima S, Honda A, Yasuda D, Tanikawa T, Ishii S, et al. Identification of optineurin as an interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1-binding protein and its role in regulation of MyD88-dependent signaling. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:17250-17257 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the IRAK1-binding protein OPTN negatively regulates IL-1β/LPS-induced NF-κB activation by preventing polyubiquitination of TRAF6. ..
  2. Shiratori E, Itoh M, Tohda S. MYD88 Inhibitor ST2825 Suppresses the Growth of Lymphoma and Leukaemia Cells. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:6203-6209 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the effects of ST2825, a synthetic peptidomimetic compound which inhibits MYD88 homodimerization, on their growth...
  3. Kubinak J, Round J. Toll-like receptors promote mutually beneficial commensal-host interactions. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002785 pubmed publisher
  4. Mehrzad J, Malvandi A, Alipour M, Hosseinkhani S. Environmentally relevant level of aflatoxin B1 elicits toxic pro-inflammatory response in murine CNS-derived cells. Toxicol Lett. 2017;279:96-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the pro-inflammatory effects of an environmentally relevant dose of AFB1 on CNS-derived cells in vitro could potentially explain the immune dysregulation in neurodegenerative disorders. ..
  5. Goff P, Hayashi T, He W, Yao S, Cottam H, Tan G, et al. Synthetic Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR7 Ligands Work Additively via MyD88 To Induce Protective Antiviral Immunity in Mice. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..This novel adjuvant combination contributes to a more broadly protective vaccine while demonstrating an attractive safety profile. ..
  6. Tao Y, Wang Y, Wang X, Wang C, Bao K, Ji L, et al. Calycosin Suppresses Epithelial Derived Initiative Key Factors and Maintains Epithelial Barrier in Allergic Inflammation via TLR4 Mediated NF-?B Pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;44:1106-1119 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings help to understand the beneficial effects of calycosin on AD, and to develop effective preventive or therapeutic strategies to combat this disease and other epithelial barrier deletion-mediated allergic diseases. ..
  7. Kim D, Seo S, Zeng M, Kim W, Kamada N, Inohara N, et al. Mesenchymal Cell-Specific MyD88 Signaling Promotes Systemic Dissemination of Salmonella Typhimurium via Inflammatory Monocytes. J Immunol. 2017;199:1362-1371 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that S. Typhimurium promotes its systemic growth and dissemination through MyD88 signaling pathways in mesenchymal cells. ..
  8. Xue X, Qiu Y, Yang H. Immunoregulatory Role of MicroRNA-21 in Macrophages in Response to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Infection Involves Modulation of the TLR4/MyD88 Signaling Pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:91-102 pubmed publisher
  9. Schickel J, Glauzy S, Ng Y, Chamberlain N, Massad C, Isnardi I, et al. Self-reactive VH4-34-expressing IgG B cells recognize commensal bacteria. J Exp Med. 2017;214:1991-2003 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, B cells expressing germline-encoded self-reactive VH4-34 antibodies may represent an innate-like B cell population specialized in the containment of commensal bacteria when gut barriers are breached. ..

More Information


  1. Lozano Pope I, Sharma A, Matthias M, Doran K, Obonyo M. Effect of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 on expression profiles of genes during the development and progression of Helicobacter-induced gastric cancer. BMC Cancer. 2017;17:133 pubmed publisher
    ..The data show that our mouse model system is useful for identifying genes involved in gastric cancer progression. ..
  2. Xu H, Hao S, Gan F, Wang H, Xu J, Liu D, et al. In vitro immune toxicity of ochratoxin A in porcine alveolar macrophages: A role for the ROS-relative TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;272:107-116 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of TLR4 by using a TLR4-specific siRNA alleviated the OTA-induced immune toxicity. These data indicate that OTA induced immune toxicity via ROS-relative TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway in PAMs. ..
  3. Wang X, Lu Y, Sun Y, He W, Liang J, Li L. TAK-242 Protects Against Apoptosis in Coronary Microembolization-Induced Myocardial Injury in Rats by Suppressing TLR4/NF-?B Signaling Pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:1675-1683 pubmed publisher
    ..05). TAK-242 can effectively improve CME-induced cardiac dysfunction by regulating TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway and then reducing the myocardial apoptosis. ..
  4. Gidon A, Åsberg S, Louet C, Ryan L, Haug M, Flo T. Persistent mycobacteria evade an antibacterial program mediated by phagolysosomal TLR7/8/MyD88 in human primary macrophages. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006551 pubmed publisher
  5. Ve T, Vajjhala P, Hedger A, Croll T, DiMaio F, Horsefield S, et al. Structural basis of TIR-domain-assembly formation in MAL- and MyD88-dependent TLR4 signaling. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2017;24:743-751 pubmed publisher
  6. Fernandez Rodriguez C, Bellosillo B, Garcia Garcia M, Sanchez Gonzalez B, Gimeno E, Vela M, et al. MYD88 (L265P) mutation is an independent prognostic factor for outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leukemia. 2014;28:2104-6 pubmed publisher
  7. Landgren O, Staudt L. MYD88 L265P somatic mutation in IgM MGUS. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:2255-6; author reply 2256-7 pubmed publisher
  8. Shalaby K, Al Heialy S, Tsuchiya K, Farahnak S, McGovern T, Risse P, et al. The TLR4-TRIF pathway can protect against the development of experimental allergic asthma. Immunology. 2017;152:138-149 pubmed publisher
  9. Pattabiraman G, Panchal R, Medvedev A. The R753Q polymorphism in Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) attenuates innate immune responses to mycobacteria and impairs MyD88 adapter recruitment to TLR2. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:10685-10695 pubmed publisher
    ..smegmatis. ..
  10. Cheng Y, Du J, Han J, Sun W, Gao F, Zhang P, et al. Polymyxin B Attenuates LPS-Induced Death but Aggravates Radiation-Induced Death via TLR4-Myd88-IL-6 Pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:1120-1126 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study revealed a role of PMB in LPS-induced endotoxemia and radiation exposure. We infer that the TLR4-Myd88-IL-6 pathway may play a crucial role in the process. ..
  11. Warner N, Nunez G. MyD88: a critical adaptor protein in innate immunity signal transduction. J Immunol. 2013;190:3-4 pubmed publisher
  12. Wang J, Jeelall Y, Humburg P, Batchelor E, Kaya S, Yoo H, et al. Synergistic cooperation and crosstalk between MYD88L265P and mutations that dysregulate CD79B and surface IgM. J Exp Med. 2017;214:2759-2776 pubmed publisher
  13. Falahee P, Anderson L, Reynolds M, Pirir M, McLaughlin B, Dillen C, et al. ?-Toxin Regulates Local Granulocyte Expansion from Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Staphylococcus aureus-Infected Wounds. J Immunol. 2017;199:1772-1782 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus-infected wounds, revealing a potential antibiotic-free strategy for tuning the innate immune response to treat methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection in immunodeficient patients. ..
  14. Kang H, Kim I, Lee H, Joo H, Lim J, Lee J, et al. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces liver fibrosis in mice with diet-induced obesity via TLR4/MyD88/MAPK/NF-kB signaling pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:349-355 pubmed publisher
    ..TRIF, p38 MAPK, and JNK activation did not differ significantly between groups. We conclude that CIH in DIO mice leads to liver fibrosis via TLR4/MyD88/MAPK/NF-kB signaling pathways. ..
  15. Wang N, Han X, Liu H, Zhao T, Li J, Feng Y, et al. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 is up-regulated in epileptic brain and contributes to experimental seizures in rats. Exp Neurol. 2017;295:23-35 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a critical adaptor protein in the signaling cascade elicited by IL-1β...
  16. Bandyopadhyay U, Chadha A, Gupta P, Tiwari B, Bhattacharyya K, Popli S, et al. Suppression of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated proinflammatory responses by Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv3529c. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;102:1249-1259 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented show another strategy evolved by M. tuberculosis toward immune evasion that centers on incorporating sequences in proteins that are similar to crucial proteins in the innate immune system of the host. ..
  17. Davila E, Kolls J. A "Toll" for Th17 cell expansion. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:5-7 pubmed publisher
  18. Imbert P, Louche A, Luizet J, Grandjean T, Bigot S, Wood T, et al. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa TIR effector mediates immune evasion by targeting UBAP1 and TLR adaptors. EMBO J. 2017;36:1869-1887 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined targeting of UBAP1 and TLR adaptors by PumA impedes both cytokine and TLR receptor signalling, highlighting a novel strategy for innate immune evasion. ..
  19. Millet A, Martin K, Bonnefoy F, Saas P, Mocek J, Alkan M, et al. Proteinase 3 on apoptotic cells disrupts immune silencing in autoimmune vasculitis. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:4107-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that PR3 disrupts immune silencing associated with clearance of apoptotic neutrophils and provide insight into how PR3 and PR3-targeting ANCAs promote GPA pathophysiology. ..
  20. Edwardson D, Boudreau J, Mapletoft J, Lanner C, Kovala A, Parissenti A. Inflammatory cytokine production in tumor cells upon chemotherapy drug exposure or upon selection for drug resistance. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183662 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, stimulation of the LPS-induced pathway may be an attractive target for treatment of drug-resistant disease. ..
  21. Trucco L, Roselli E, Araya P, Núñez N, Mena H, Bocco J, et al. Downregulation of adaptor protein MyD88 compromises the angiogenic potential of B16 murine melanoma. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179897 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results imply that cell-autonomous signaling through MyD88 is required to sustain tumor growth and underscore its function as an important positive modulator of tumor angiogenesis. ..
  22. Sweet R, Nickerson K, Cullen J, Wang Y, Shlomchik M. B Cell-Extrinsic Myd88 and Fcer1g Negatively Regulate Autoreactive and Normal B Cell Immune Responses. J Immunol. 2017;199:885-893 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these results reveal novel regulatory roles in the B cell response for receptors that are typically proinflammatory. ..
  23. Bagchi A, Akolkar G, Mandal S, Ayyappan P, Yang X, Singal P. Toll-like receptor 2 dominance over Toll-like receptor 4 in stressful conditions for its detrimental role in the heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;312:H1238-H1247 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that IL-10 helps to maintain heart function during stress via myeloid differentiation gene 88/IRAK-4/IRAK-1-dependent TLR4 signaling. ..
  24. Franco L, Fleuri A, Pellison N, Quirino G, Horta C, de Carvalho R, et al. Autophagy downstream of endosomal Toll-like receptor signaling in macrophages is a key mechanism for resistance to Leishmania major infection. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13087-13096 pubmed publisher
    ..major replication, and mechanistically explain the previously described endosomal TLR-mediated resistance to L. major infection. ..
  25. Friedrich C, Mamareli P, Thiemann S, Kruse F, Wang Z, Holzmann B, et al. MyD88 signaling in dendritic cells and the intestinal epithelium controls immunity against intestinal infection with C. rodentium. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006357 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest that MyD88 signaling in DC and IEC is both essential and sufficient to induce a full spectrum of host responses upon intestinal infection with C. rodentium. ..
  26. Reins R, Courson J, Lema C, Redfern R. MyD88 contribution to ocular surface homeostasis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182153 pubmed publisher
    ..This work furthers our understanding of the importance of TLR signaling in corneal defense and immune homeostasis, showing that a lack of MyD88 may compromise the baseline innate response to insult. ..
  27. Francišković M, Gonzalez Perez R, Orcic D, Sanchez de Medina F, Martinez Augustin O, Svirčev E, et al. Chemical Composition and Immuno-Modulatory Effects of Urtica dioica L. (Stinging Nettle) Extracts. Phytother Res. 2017;31:1183-1191 pubmed publisher
    ..Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ..
  28. Kitagawa Y, Sakai M, Funayama M, Itoh M, Gotoh B. Human Metapneumovirus M2-2 Protein Acts as a Negative Regulator of Alpha Interferon Production by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..the ability to block TLR7/9-dependent signaling reconstituted in HEK293T cells by transfection with myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), IKKα, and IFN regulatory ..
  29. Lee A, Ro M, Cho K, Kim J. Lipopolysaccharide/TLR4 Stimulates IL-13 Production through a MyD88-BLT2-Linked Cascade in Mast Cells, Potentially Contributing to the Allergic Response. J Immunol. 2017;199:409-417 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying how bacterial infection worsens allergic inflammation under certain conditions. ..
  30. Bai L, Liang W, Chen M, Cissé Y, Liu J, Su Y, et al. Effect of lentivirus-mediated gene silencing, targeting toll-like receptor 2, on corneal allograft transplantation in rats. Mol Immunol. 2017;91:97-104 pubmed publisher
    ..001). LV mediated TLR2 siRNA could effectively down regulate the TLR2 expression via RNA interference and prolong the survival of corneal grafts, although not necessarily able to prevent the rejection. ..
  31. Paludo J, Abeykoon J, Kumar S, Shreders A, Ailawadhi S, Gertz M, et al. Dexamethasone, rituximab and cyclophosphamide for relapsed and/or refractory and treatment-naïve patients with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Br J Haematol. 2017;179:98-105 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to ibrutinib, DRC offers a less expensive, fixed-duration option, with preliminary data suggesting efficacy independent of the patients' MYD88 status. ..
  32. Upadhyay K, Park J, Yoon T, Halder P, Kim Y, Metcalfe V, et al. Group B Streptococci Induce Proinflammatory Responses via a Protein Kinase D1-Dependent Pathway. J Immunol. 2017;198:4448-4457 pubmed publisher
  33. Feng Y, Zou L, Yan D, Chen H, Xu G, Jian W, et al. Extracellular MicroRNAs Induce Potent Innate Immune Responses via TLR7/MyD88-Dependent Mechanisms. J Immunol. 2017;199:2106-2117 pubmed publisher
  34. Liu X, Zhang Y, Liu T, Xu Z, Park C, Berta T, et al. Nociceptive neurons regulate innate and adaptive immunity and neuropathic pain through MyD88 adapter. Cell Res. 2014;24:1374-7 pubmed publisher
  35. Montesinos Rongen M, Godlewska E, Brunn A, Wiestler O, Siebert R, Deckert M. Activating L265P mutations of the MYD88 gene are common in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Acta Neuropathol. 2011;122:791-2 pubmed publisher
  36. Rogers G, Shirley J, Zolotukhin I, Kumar S, Sherman A, Perrin G, et al. Plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells cooperate in crosspriming AAV capsid-specific CD8+ T cells. Blood. 2017;129:3184-3195 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these outcomes directly point to therapeutic interventions and demonstrate that innate immune blockade can eliminate unwanted immune responses in gene therapy. ..
  37. Dhariwala M, Olson R, Anderson D. Induction of Type I Interferon through a Noncanonical Toll-Like Receptor 7 Pathway during Yersinia pestis Infection. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..pestis by host Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). Type I IFN expression proceeded independent of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), which is the only known signaling adaptor for TLR7, suggesting that a noncanonical ..
  38. Cervantes J. MyD88 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2017;206:187-193 pubmed publisher
    ..MyD88 plays a critical role not only in the generation of an inflammatory response, but also in inducing regulatory signals to prevent excessive inflammation and cellular damage in the lung. ..
  39. Li F, Han F, Li H, Zhang J, Qiao X, Shi J, et al. Human placental mesenchymal stem cells of fetal origins-alleviated inflammation and fibrosis by attenuating MyD88 signaling in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice. Mol Immunol. 2017;90:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may suggest an importance of MyD88/TGF-? signaling axis in the tissue homeostasis and functional integrity of lung in response to injury, which may offer a novel target for treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. ..
  40. Knol E, Gibbs B. Editorial: Basophil survival and immunomodulatory function are uniquely regulated by a novel MyD88-dependent pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:753-5 pubmed publisher
  41. Kader M, Alaoui El Azher M, Vorhauer J, Kode B, Wells J, Stolz D, et al. MyD88-dependent inflammasome activation and autophagy inhibition contributes to Ehrlichia-induced liver injury and toxic shock. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006644 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals that Ehrlichia-induced liver injury and toxic shock are mediated by MyD88-dependent inflammasome activation and autophagy inhibition. ..
  42. Chen C, Liu L, Zhou J, Wang X, Han M, Jiao X, et al. Up-Regulation of HMGB1 Exacerbates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Stimulating Inflammatory and Immune Responses through the TLR4 Signaling Pathway in Mice. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:2447-2460 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicated that the up-regulation of HMGB1 could exacerbate renal IRI by stimulating inflammatory and immune responses through the TLR4 signaling pathway.c. ..
  43. Jentho E, Bodden M, Schulz C, Jung A, Seidel K, Schmeck B, et al. microRNA-125a-3p is regulated by MyD88 in Legionella pneumophila infection and targets NTAN1. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176204 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumophila infection with regard to MyD88 signaling and identified NTAN1 as a target of miR-125a-3p. This finding unravels a yet unknown feature of Legionella-host cell interaction, potentially relevant for new treatment options. ..
  44. Chen Y, Huang W, Yang M, Xin G, Cui W, Xie Z, et al. Cardiotonic Steroids Stimulate Macrophage Inflammatory Responses Through a Pathway Involving CD36, TLR4, and Na/K-ATPase. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1462-1469 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings warrant further studies on endogenous CTS in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. ..
  45. Ohlsson C, Nigro G, Boneca I, Backhed F, Sansonetti P, Sjögren K. Regulation of bone mass by the gut microbiota is dependent on NOD1 and NOD2 signaling. Cell Immunol. 2017;317:55-58 pubmed publisher
  46. Biswas S, Zimman A, Gao D, Byzova T, Podrez E. TLR2 Plays a Key Role in Platelet Hyperreactivity and Accelerated Thrombosis Associated With Hyperlipidemia. Circ Res. 2017;121:951-962 pubmed publisher
    ..Using in vitro approaches, as well as platelets from mice with genetic deletion of MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88) or TLRs (Toll-like receptors), we demonstrate that TLR2 and TLR6 are required for the activation of ..
  47. Chen D, Lin C, Chen Y, Lan J, Hung W, Chen H, et al. Involvement of TLR7 MyD88-dependent signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of adult-onset Still's disease. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R39 pubmed publisher
    ..The overexpression of TLR7 MyD88-dependent signaling molecules may be a common pathogenic mechanism for both AOSD and SLE. ..
  48. Stifano G, Affandi A, Mathes A, Rice L, Nakerakanti S, Nazari B, et al. Chronic Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation in skin induces inflammation, macrophage activation, transforming growth factor beta signature gene expression, and fibrosis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:R136 pubmed publisher
    ..enhance transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) signaling, providing a potential mechanism for TLR4/Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent fibrosis...
  49. Lionakis M, Dunleavy K, Roschewski M, Widemann B, Butman J, Schmitz R, et al. Inhibition of B Cell Receptor Signaling by Ibrutinib in Primary CNS Lymphoma. Cancer Cell. 2017;31:833-843.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Aspergillosis was linked to BTK-dependent fungal immunity in a murine model. PCNSL is highly dependent on BCR signaling, and ibrutinib appears to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. ..
  50. Avbelj M, Panter G, Jerala R. The role of N-terminal segment and membrane association in MyD88-mediated signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:878-883 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, anchoring of MyD88 to the cell membrane augments signaling supporting the importance of membrane localization in MyD88-mediated signaling. ..
  51. Savage A, Liang H, Locksley R. The Development of Steady-State Activation Hubs between Adult LTi ILC3s and Primed Macrophages in Small Intestine. J Immunol. 2017;199:1912-1922 pubmed publisher
    ..This functional and anatomic organization constitutes a significant portion of the steady-state IL-23/IL-22 axis. ..
  52. Huang X, Ansari A, Huang H, Zhao X, Li N, Sun Z, et al. Lipopolysaccharide mediates immuno-pathological alterations in young chicken liver through TLR4 signaling. BMC Immunol. 2017;18:12 pubmed publisher
  53. Gurung P, Fan G, Lukens J, Vogel P, Tonks N, Kanneganti T. Tyrosine Kinase SYK Licenses MyD88 Adaptor Protein to Instigate IL-1?-Mediated Inflammatory Disease. Immunity. 2017;46:635-648 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these studies identify SHP1 and SYK crosstalk as a critical regulator of MyD88 post-translational modifications and IL-1-driven inflammation. ..
  54. Li H, Li Q, Guo T, He W, Dong C, Wang Y. LncRNA CRNDE triggers inflammation through the TLR3-NF-?B-Cytokine signaling pathway. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317703821 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculated that CRNDE might trigger inflammation to regulate tumorigenesis and tumor development through the toll-like receptor pathway. ..
  55. Cao X, Li J, Cai H, Zhang W, Duan M, Zhou D. Patients with primary breast and primary female genital tract diffuse large B cell lymphoma have a high frequency of MYD88 and CD79B mutations. Ann Hematol. 2017;96:1867-1871 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with primary breast and primary female genital tract DLBCL have a high frequency of MYD88 and CD79B mutations. The presence of these mutations does not affect survival but may offer additional therapeutic options. ..
  56. Oberbarnscheidt M, Zeng Q, Li Q, Dai H, Williams A, Shlomchik W, et al. Non-self recognition by monocytes initiates allograft rejection. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:3579-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underscore the importance of innate recognition of allogeneic non-self by monocytes in initiating graft rejection. ..
  57. Wang H, Wang Q, Yang M, Yang L, Wang W, Ding H, et al. Histomorphology and innate immunity during the progression of osteoarthritis: Does synovitis affect cartilage degradation?. J Cell Physiol. 2018;233:1342-1358 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also confirmed that SM may affect the pathological changes in AC through the innate immune system, and therefore affect the progress of OA. ..
  58. Willenbacher W, Willenbacher E, Brunner A, Manzl C. Improved accuracy of discrimination between IgM multiple myeloma and Waldenström macroglobulinaemia by testing for MYD88 L265P mutations. Br J Haematol. 2013;161:902-4 pubmed publisher
  59. Murata K, Motomura Y, Tanaka T, Kanno S, Yano T, Onimaru M, et al. Calcineurin inhibitors exacerbate coronary arteritis via the MyD88 signalling pathway in a murine model of Kawasaki disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017;190:54-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Particular attention should be paid to the development of coronary artery lesions when using CNIs to treat refractory KD. ..
  60. Fukushima M, Okoshi Y, Fukazawa K, Koshino M, Ishiguro S, Mitsuhashi S, et al. Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma Presenting with Diarrhea and Joint Pain Which was Successfully Diagnosed by an MYD88 Mutation Analysis. Intern Med. 2017;56:847-851 pubmed publisher
    ..A genetic examination detected a MYD88 L265P mutation; the mutation analysis was valuable in diagnosing lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma in a IgM-type M protein-negative patient. ..
  61. Purbey P, Scumpia P, Kim P, Tong A, Iwamoto K, McBride W, et al. Defined Sensing Mechanisms and Signaling Pathways Contribute to the Global Inflammatory Gene Expression Output Elicited by Ionizing Radiation. Immunity. 2017;47:421-434.e3 pubmed publisher
  62. Naik S, Padhi A, Ganguli G, Sengupta S, Pati S, Das D, et al. Mouse Bone Marrow Sca-1+ CD44+ Mesenchymal Stem Cells Kill Avirulent Mycobacteria but Not Mycobacterium tuberculosis through Modulation of Cathelicidin Expression via the p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Pathway. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report that demonstrates that virulent mycobacteria manipulate the TLR2/4-MyD88-IRAK-4-p38-NF-?B-Camp-IL-1? pathway to survive inside bone marrow stem cells. ..
  63. Luo M, Hu L, Li D, Wang Y, He Y, Zhu L, et al. MD-2 regulates LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1beta secretion by a MyD88/NF-?B-dependent pathway in alveolar macrophages cell line. Mol Immunol. 2017;90:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The observations suggest that MD-2 helps to regulate LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the inflammatory response in NR8383 cells, and likely does so by affecting MyD88/NF-?B signaling. ..
  64. Mareschal S, Pham Ledard A, Viailly P, Dubois S, Bertrand P, Maingonnat C, et al. Identification of Somatic Mutations in Primary Cutaneous Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Leg Type by Massive Parallel Sequencing. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:1984-1994 pubmed publisher
  65. Costa S, Marini O, Bevilacqua D, DeFranco A, Hou B, Lonardi S, et al. Role of MyD88 signaling in the imiquimod-induced mouse model of psoriasis: focus on innate myeloid cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;102:791-803 pubmed publisher
    ..hematopoietic cells to disease initiation and progression in the IMQ-induced mouse model of psoriasis and uncover a potential novel pathogenic role for monocytes/M? to psoriasis development. ..
  66. Castillo J, Hunter Z, Yang G, Treon S. Novel approaches to targeting MYD88 in Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Expert Rev Hematol. 2017;10:739-744 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective studies are ongoing and/or planned to study many other novel agents alone and in combination with aims at improving response, survival and quality of life in patients with WM. ..