interferon regulatory factor 7


Summary: An interferon regulatory factor that is induced by INTERFERONS as well as LMP-1 protein from EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS. IRF-7 undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION prior to nuclear translocation and it activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of multiple interferon GENES.

Top Publications

  1. Panne D, Maniatis T, Harrison S. An atomic model of the interferon-beta enhanceosome. Cell. 2007;129:1111-23 pubmed
    ..Contacts with virtually every nucleotide pair account for the evolutionary invariance of the enhancer sequence. ..
  2. Steinberg C, Eisenächer K, Gross O, Reindl W, Schmitz F, Ruland J, et al. The IFN regulatory factor 7-dependent type I IFN response is not essential for early resistance against murine cytomegalovirus infection. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1007-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Owing to these compensatory mechanisms IRF7-dependent antiviral immune responses were not essential for resistance against acute MCMV infection in vivo. ..
  3. Saira K, Zhou Y, Jones C. The infected cell protein 0 encoded by bovine herpesvirus 1 (bICP0) associates with interferon regulatory factor 7 and consequently inhibits beta interferon promoter activity. J Virol. 2009;83:3977-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, bICP0 inhibits the ability of IRF7 to trans-activate the IFN-beta promoter in the absence of IRF3 expression. The interaction between bICP0 and IRF7 correlates with reduced trans-activation of the IFN-beta promoter by IRF7...
  4. Miyamoto R, Ito T, Nomura S, Amakawa R, Amuro H, Katashiba Y, et al. Inhibitor of IkappaB kinase activity, BAY 11-7082, interferes with interferon regulatory factor 7 nuclear translocation and type I interferon production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R87 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR ligands, with regards to pDC activation, such as IFN-alpha production and nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) in vitro...
  5. So E, Kim B. Theiler's virus infection induces TLR3-dependent upregulation of TLR2 critical for proinflammatory cytokine production. Glia. 2009;57:1216-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that TMEV utilizes TLR3-induced TLR2 to induce inflammatory cytokines, which are critical to the development of immune-mediated demyelinating disease...
  6. Gotoh K, Tanaka Y, Nishikimi A, Nakamura R, Yamada H, Maeda N, et al. Selective control of type I IFN induction by the Rac activator DOCK2 during TLR-mediated plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation. J Exp Med. 2010;207:721-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Owing to its hematopoietic cell-specific expression, DOCK2 may serve as a therapeutic target for type I IFN-related autoimmune diseases. ..
  7. Calzada Nova G, Schnitzlein W, Husmann R, Zuckermann F. Characterization of the cytokine and maturation responses of pure populations of porcine plasmacytoid dendritic cells to porcine viruses and toll-like receptor agonists. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;135:20-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This atypical response of pDCs to PRRSV may contribute to its pathogenesis, which unlike that associated with PrV, SIV or TGEV includes persistent infection and limited development of protective immunity. ..
  8. Raychoudhuri A, Shrivastava S, Steele R, Dash S, Kanda T, Ray R, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection impairs IRF-7 translocation and Alpha interferon synthesis in immortalized human hepatocytes. J Virol. 2010;84:10991-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These impairments in the IFN-? signaling pathway may, in part, be responsible for establishment of chronic HCV infection. ..
  9. Zhu F, Sathish N, Yuan Y. Antagonism of host antiviral responses by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus tegument protein ORF45. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10573 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Sorrentino R, Morello S, Chen S, Bonavita E, Pinto A. The activation of liver X receptors inhibits toll-like receptor-9-induced foam cell formation. J Cell Physiol. 2010;223:158-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the activation of TLR9 facilitates the formation of foam cells in an NF-kappaB- and IRF7-dependent manner, countered by the activation of LXRs. This study further support LXRs as potential anti-atherosclerotic target. ..
  2. Chang S, Kodys K, Szabo G. Impaired expression and function of toll-like receptor 7 in hepatitis C virus infection in human hepatoma cells. Hepatology. 2010;51:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced TLR7 expression, due to RNA instability, directly correlates with HCV replication and alters TLR7-induced IRF7-mediated cell activation. These results suggest a role for TLR7 in HCV-mediated evasion of host immune surveillance. ..
  3. Chang T, Kubota T, Matsuoka M, Jones S, Bradfute S, Bray M, et al. Ebola Zaire virus blocks type I interferon production by exploiting the host SUMO modification machinery. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000493 pubmed publisher
  4. Démoulins T, Baron M, Kettaf N, Abdallah A, Sharif Askari E, SEKALY R. Poly (I:C) induced immune response in lymphoid tissues involves three sequential waves of type I IFN expression. Virology. 2009;386:225-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This IFN-HTA strategy can serve as a useful tool to qualify and quantify the expression of various IFN-alpha subtypes under distinct immune responses and thus provides a first step in evaluating their function. ..
  5. Zheng L, Yu C, Zhang Z, Yang C, Cai X. Expression of interferon regulatory factor 1, 3, and 7 in primary Sjögren syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:661-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, IRF1-positive cells exist in the epithelial islands, lymphocytes, and ductal epithelial cells of the parotid glands of individuals affected by pSS, but are limited to the ductal epithelial cells of healthy control subjects. ..
  6. Nemec A, Zubritsky L, Barchowsky A. Chromium(VI) stimulates Fyn to initiate innate immune gene induction in human airway epithelial cells. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010;23:396-404 pubmed publisher
    ..interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and induced ISRE-driven transactivation of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), without affecting the gamma interferon-activated site (GAS)-driven IRF1 expression...
  7. Konno H, Yamamoto T, Yamazaki K, Gohda J, Akiyama T, Semba K, et al. TRAF6 establishes innate immune responses by activating NF-kappaB and IRF7 upon sensing cytosolic viral RNA and DNA. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5674 pubmed publisher
    ..Given its essential role in signaling by various receptors involved in the acquired immune system, TRAF6 represents a key molecule in innate and antigen-specific immune responses against viral infection. ..
  8. Ivanova A, Ivanov S, Prudkin L, Nonaka D, Liu Z, Tsao A, et al. Mechanisms of FUS1/TUSC2 deficiency in mesothelioma and its tumorigenic transcriptional effects. Mol Cancer. 2009;8:91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support immuno-therapeutic potential of TUSC2, define its targets, and underscore its importance as a transcriptional stimulator of anti-tumorigenic pathways. ..
  9. Bentz G, Liu R, Hahn A, Shackelford J, Pagano J. Epstein-Barr virus BRLF1 inhibits transcription of IRF3 and IRF7 and suppresses induction of interferon-beta. Virology. 2010;402:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a new role for BRLF1 with the ability to evade host innate immune responses...
  10. Petzke M, Brooks A, Krupna M, Mordue D, Schwartz I. Recognition of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, by TLR7 and TLR9 induces a type I IFN response by human immune cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:5279-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a TLR7/9-dependent signaling pathway used by human PBMCs to initiate a type I IFN response to the extracellular bacterium B. burgdorferi. ..
  11. Buss C, Opitz B, Hocke A, Lippmann J, van Laak V, Hippenstiel S, et al. Essential role of mitochondrial antiviral signaling, IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3, and IRF7 in Chlamydophila pneumoniae-mediated IFN-beta response and control of bacterial replication in human endothelial cells. J Immunol. 2010;184:3072-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, C. pneumoniae infection of endothelial cells activates an MAVS-, IRF3-, and IRF7-dependent signaling, which controls bacterial growth and might modulate development of vascular lesions. ..
  12. Siednienko J, Halle A, Nagpal K, Golenbock D, Miggin S. TLR3-mediated IFN-? gene induction is negatively regulated by the TLR adaptor MyD88 adaptor-like. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:3150-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Mal is essential in restricting TLR3 signalling thereby protecting the host from unwanted immunopathologies associated with excessive IFN-? production. ..
  13. Huang Y, Walstrom A, Zhang L, Zhao Y, Cui M, Ye L, et al. Type I interferons and interferon regulatory factors regulate TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HIV-1-infected macrophages. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5397 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that IRF-1, IRF-7, type I IFNs, and STAT1 form a signaling feedback loop that is critical in regulating TRAIL expression in HIV-1-infected macrophages. ..
  14. Buettner N, Vogt C, Mart nez Sobrido L, Weber F, Waibler Z, Kochs G. Thogoto virus ML protein is a potent inhibitor of the interferon regulatory factor-7 transcription factor. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, another IRF7 activation step, nuclear translocation, is not affected by ML. Our data elucidate ML protein as a virulence factor with an IRF-specific IFN-antagonistic spectrum...
  15. Spruss A, Kanuri G, Wagnerberger S, Haub S, Bischoff S, Bergheim I. Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in the development of fructose-induced hepatic steatosis in mice. Hepatology. 2009;50:1094-104 pubmed publisher
  16. Zhou S, Cerny A, Zacharia A, Fitzgerald K, Kurt Jones E, Finberg R. Induction and inhibition of type I interferon responses by distinct components of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J Virol. 2010;84:9452-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These virus-host interactions may play important roles in the pathogeneses of LCMV and other human arenavirus diseases. ..
  17. Genin P, Lin R, Hiscott J, Civas A. Differential regulation of human interferon A gene expression by interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3435-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This regulatory mechanism contributes to differential expression of IFN-A genes and may be critical for alpha interferon production in different cell types by RIG-I-dependent signals, leading to innate antiviral immune responses. ..
  18. Ning S, Pagano J. The A20 deubiquitinase activity negatively regulates LMP1 activation of IRF7. J Virol. 2010;84:6130-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, A20 negatively regulates LMP1-stimulated IRF7 ubiquitination and activity in EBV latency, and its DUB activity is indispensable for this function. Finally, we discussed the regulation and function of IRFs in EBV latency. ..
  19. Sasai M, Linehan M, Iwasaki A. Bifurcation of Toll-like receptor 9 signaling by adaptor protein 3. Science. 2010;329:1530-4 pubmed publisher
    ..signals leading to the activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B)-dependent proinflammatory cytokines and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-dependent type I interferons (IFNs)...
  20. Salloum R, Franek B, Kariuki S, Rhee L, Mikolaitis R, Jolly M, et al. Genetic variation at the IRF7/PHRF1 locus is associated with autoantibody profile and serum interferon-alpha activity in lupus patients. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:553-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that IRF7/PHRF1 variants in combination with SLE-associated autoantibodies result in higher serum levels of IFNalpha, providing a biologic relevance for this locus at the protein level in human SLE in vivo. ..
  21. Zhang W, Du X, Zhao G, Jin H, Kang Y, Xiao C, et al. Levamisole is a potential facilitator for the activation of Th1 responses of the subunit HBV vaccination. Vaccine. 2009;27:4938-46 pubmed publisher
  22. Jiang J, Zhang Y, Li S, Yu F, Sun F, Gui J. Expression regulation and functional characterization of a novel interferon inducible gene Gig2 and its promoter. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:3131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the data provide strong evidence that Gig2 is indeed a novel IFN inducible gene and its expression is likely dependent on IRF7 upon Poly I:C or IFN. ..
  23. Wang D, Fang L, Luo R, Ye R, Fang Y, Xie L, et al. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;399:72-8 pubmed publisher
  24. Chehimi J, Papasavvas E, Tomescu C, Gekonge B, Abdulhaqq S, Raymond A, et al. Inability of plasmacytoid dendritic cells to directly lyse HIV-infected autologous CD4+ T cells despite induction of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. J Virol. 2010;84:2762-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data show a lack of sustained high levels of soluble IFN-alpha in chronic HIV-1 infection in vivo and document a lack of direct PDC cytolytic activity against autologous infected or uninfected CD4(+) T cells. ..
  25. Tsitoura E, Thomas J, Cuchet D, Thoinet K, Mavromara P, Epstein A. Infection with herpes simplex type 1-based amplicon vectors results in an IRF3/7-dependent, TLR-independent activation of the innate antiviral response in primary human fibroblasts. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2209-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results confirm the existence of TLR-independent, IRF3/7-dependent activation pathways triggered by HSV-1 particles in human fibroblasts. ..
  26. Phillips R, Svensson M, Aziz N, Maroof A, Brown N, Beattie L, et al. Innate killing of Leishmania donovani by macrophages of the splenic marginal zone requires IRF-7. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000813 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also highlights the importance of selecting appropriate macrophage populations when studying pathogen interactions with this functionally diverse lineage of cells. ..
  27. Fukushima A, Boyle D, Corr M, Firestein G. Kinetic analysis of synovial signalling and gene expression in animal models of arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:918-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The dichotomy between RA and animal models could help explain the poor correlation between efficacy in RA and preclinical studies. ..
  28. Sweeney S, Kimbler T, Firestein G. Synoviocyte innate immune responses: II. Pivotal role of IFN regulatory factor 3. J Immunol. 2010;184:7162-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting synoviocyte IRF3 represents a potential approach to suppress diverse mediators while limiting suppression of IRF7-mediated immune responses. ..
  29. Stockinger S, Kastner R, Kernbauer E, Pilz A, Westermayer S, Reutterer B, et al. Characterization of the interferon-producing cell in mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000355 pubmed publisher
    ..systemic IFN-I was amplified via IFN-beta, the IFN-I receptor (IFNAR), and transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), a molecular circuitry usually characteristic of non-pDC producers...
  30. Kuri T, Zhang X, Habjan M, Martinez Sobrido L, Garcia Sastre A, Yuan Z, et al. Interferon priming enables cells to partially overturn the SARS coronavirus-induced block in innate immune activation. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2686-94 pubmed publisher
  31. Wada M, Marusawa H, Yamada R, Nasu A, Osaki Y, Kudo M, et al. Association of genetic polymorphisms with interferon-induced haematologic adverse effects in chronic hepatitis C patients. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:388-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to toxicity, the efficacy of IFN-based therapy was largely dependent on viral factors and degree of liver fibrosis. ..
  32. tenOever B, Sharma S, Zou W, Sun Q, Grandvaux N, Julkunen I, et al. Activation of TBK1 and IKKvarepsilon kinases by vesicular stomatitis virus infection and the role of viral ribonucleoprotein in the development of interferon antiviral immunity. J Virol. 2004;78:10636-49 pubmed
    ..Induction of IKKepsilon potentially functions as a component of the amplification mechanism involved in the establishment of the antiviral state. ..
  33. Ueno S, Tatetsu H, Hata H, Iino T, Niiro H, Akashi K, et al. PU.1 induces apoptosis in myeloma cells through direct transactivation of TRAIL. Oncogene. 2009;28:4116-25 pubmed publisher
    ..1-binding site in the TRAIL promoter eliminated this transactivation. Therefore, we conclude that PU.1 is capable of inducing apoptosis in certain myeloma cells by direct transactivation of TRAIL. ..
  34. Castaldello A, Sgarbanti M, Marsili G, Brocca Cofano E, Remoli A, Caputo A, et al. Interferon regulatory factor-1 acts as a powerful adjuvant in tat DNA based vaccination. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:702-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings define IRF-1 and its mutated form as efficacious T helper 1-inducing adjuvants in the context of tat-based vaccination and also providing a new promising candidate for genetic vaccine development...
  35. Heinig M, Petretto E, Wallace C, Bottolo L, Rotival M, Lu H, et al. A trans-acting locus regulates an anti-viral expression network and type 1 diabetes risk. Nature. 2010;467:460-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We defined an interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-driven inflammatory network (IDIN) enriched for viral response genes, which represents a ..
  36. Yoshikawa T, Hill T, Yoshikawa N, Popov V, Galindo C, Garner H, et al. Dynamic innate immune responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8729 pubmed publisher
  37. Liu X, Liu Y, Shi X, Wang Y, Geng Y, Wang J. Number of and distance between response elements in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 promoter influence its activation by replication and transcription activator and its repression by interferon regulatory factor 7. Arch Virol. 2010;155:361-6 pubmed publisher
    ..herpesvirus ORF57 expression is highly responsive to replication and transcription activator (RTA) and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7). Three RTA response elements (RREs) have been identified in the ORF57 promoter...
  38. Jaspers I, Horvath K, Zhang W, Brighton L, Carson J, Noah T. Reduced expression of IRF7 in nasal epithelial cells from smokers after infection with influenza. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;43:368-75 pubmed publisher
  39. Michaud F, Coulombe F, Gaudreault E, Paquet Bouchard C, Rola Pleszczynski M, Gosselin J. Epstein-Barr virus interferes with the amplification of IFNalpha secretion by activating suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in primary human monocytes. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11908 pubmed publisher
    ..This immunomodulatory effect is important to better understand the aspects of the immune response to EBV...
  40. Marichal T, Bedoret D, Mesnil C, Pichavant M, Goriely S, Trottein F, et al. Interferon response factor 3 is essential for house dust mite-induced airway allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:836-844.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are critically involved in the pathophysiology of airway allergy, yet most of the signaling pathways downstream of PRRs implicated in allergic airway sensitization remain unknown...
  41. Higgs R, Lazzari E, Wynne C, Ní Gabhann J, Espinosa A, Wahren Herlenius M, et al. Self protection from anti-viral responses--Ro52 promotes degradation of the transcription factor IRF7 downstream of the viral Toll-Like receptors. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11776 pubmed publisher
    ..As Ro52 is known to be IFN-inducible, this system constitutes a negative-feedback loop that acts to protect the host from the prolonged activation of the immune response. ..
  42. Zekri A, Moharram R, Mohamed W, Bahnassy A, Alam El Din H, Abo Shadi M, et al. Disease progression from chronic hepatitis C to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with repression of interferon regulatory factor-1. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22:450-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IRF-1 could be nominated as one of the tumor suppressor factors and could aid in the early detection of HCC. ..
  43. Bergan V, Kileng y, Sun B, Robertsen B. Regulation and function of interferon regulatory factors of Atlantic salmon. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:2005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, AsIRF7A and AsIRF7B seemed to have a lesser role in salmon IFNa1 induction, which may indicate that these factors have a larger role in activating other IFN genes or interferon stimulatory genes of Atlantic salmon...
  44. Daffis S, Suthar M, Szretter K, Gale M, Diamond M. Induction of IFN-beta and the innate antiviral response in myeloid cells occurs through an IPS-1-dependent signal that does not require IRF-3 and IRF-7. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000607 pubmed publisher
  45. Bilgic H, Ytterberg S, Amin S, McNallan K, Wilson J, Koeuth T, et al. Interleukin-6 and type I interferon-regulated genes and chemokines mark disease activity in dermatomyositis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:3436-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Coregulation of the expression of IFN-driven chemokines and IL-6 suggests a novel pathogenic linkage in DM. ..
  46. Xu Y, Hu Y, Shi B, Zhang X, Wang J, Zhang Z, et al. HBsAg inhibits TLR9-mediated activation and IFN-alpha production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:2640-6 pubmed publisher
  47. Khorooshi R, Owens T. Injury-induced type I IFN signaling regulates inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. J Immunol. 2010;185:1258-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings point to a role for type I IFN signaling in regulation of CNS response to sterile injury. ..
  48. Imaizumi T, Tanaka H, Tajima A, Tsuruga K, Oki E, Sashinami H, et al. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is induced by IFN-{gamma} in human mesangial cells in culture: possible involvement of RIG-I in the inflammation in lupus nephritis. Lupus. 2010;19:830-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I inhibited the interferon-gamma-induced upregulation of interferon regulatory factor 7, a transcriptional factor involved in immune and inflammatory reactions...
  49. Kim T, Pazhoor S, Bao M, Zhang Z, Hanabuchi S, Facchinetti V, et al. Aspartate-glutamate-alanine-histidine box motif (DEAH)/RNA helicase A helicases sense microbial DNA in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Using MS, we investigated C-phosphate-G (CpG)-binding proteins from human pDCs, pDC-cell lines, and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-expressing B-cell lines...