caveolin 1


Summary: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.

Top Publications

  1. Mercier I, Camacho J, Titchen K, Gonzales D, Quann K, Bryant K, et al. Caveolin-1 and accelerated host aging in the breast tumor microenvironment: chemoprevention with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor and anti-aging drug. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:278-93 pubmed publisher
  2. Hill M, Daud N, Aung C, Loo D, Martin S, Murphy S, et al. Co-regulation of cell polarization and migration by caveolar proteins PTRF/Cavin-1 and caveolin-1. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43041 pubmed publisher
    ..By selectively manipulating PTRF/cavin-1 and caveolin-1 expression (and therefore caveola formation) in multiple cell systems, we unveil caveola-independent functions for both proteins in cell migration. ..
  3. Yue L, Bian J, Grizelj I, Cavka A, Phillips S, Makino A, et al. Apolipoprotein E enhances endothelial-NO production by modulating caveolin 1 interaction with endothelial NO synthase. Hypertension. 2012;60:1040-6 pubmed publisher
    ..apoE is internalized by endothelial cells and impacts the subcellular distribution/interaction of caveolin 1 (cav-1) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)...
  4. Rieth M, Lee J, Glover K. Probing the caveolin-1 P132L mutant: critical insights into its oligomeric behavior and structure. Biochemistry. 2012;51:3911-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Li W, Liu H, Zhou J, Cao J, Zhou X, Choi A, et al. Caveolin-1 inhibits expression of antioxidant enzymes through direct interaction with nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2). J Biol Chem. 2012;287:20922-30 pubmed publisher
  6. Guido C, Whitaker Menezes D, Capparelli C, Balliet R, Lin Z, Pestell R, et al. Metabolic reprogramming of cancer-associated fibroblasts by TGF-? drives tumor growth: connecting TGF-? signaling with "Warburg-like" cancer metabolism and L-lactate production. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:3019-35 pubmed publisher
  7. Martinez Outschoorn U, Lin Z, Whitaker Menezes D, Howell A, Sotgia F, Lisanti M. Ketone body utilization drives tumor growth and metastasis. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:3964-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, ketone bodies behave as onco-metabolites, and we directly show that the enzymes HMGCS2, ACAT1/2 and OXCT1/2 are bona fide metabolic oncogenes. ..
  8. Malan D, Elischer A, Hesse M, Wickström S, Fleischmann B, Bloch W. Deletion of integrin linked kinase in endothelial cells results in defective RTK signaling caused by caveolin 1 mislocalization. Development. 2013;140:987-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibility of a caveolin 1-related defect was investigated by transfecting WT and Ilk(-/-) ECs with a caveolin 1-EGFP fusion protein...
  9. Sánchez Alvarez R, Martinez Outschoorn U, Lin Z, Lamb R, Hulit J, Howell A, et al. Ethanol exposure induces the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype and lethal tumor metabolism: implications for breast cancer prevention. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:289-301 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that caveolin-1 and MCT4 protein expression can be effectively used as new biomarkers to monitor oxidative stress induced by ethanol. ..

More Information


  1. Avena P, Anselmo W, Whitaker Menezes D, Wang C, Pestell R, Lamb R, et al. Compartment-specific activation of PPAR? governs breast cancer tumor growth, via metabolic reprogramming and symbiosis. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:1360-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, as researchers design new therapies, they must be conscious that cancer is not a cell-autonomous disease, but rather a tumor is an ecosystem of many different cell types, which engage in metabolic symbiosis. ..
  2. Martinez Outschoorn U, Lin Z, Whitaker Menezes D, Howell A, Lisanti M, Sotgia F. Ketone bodies and two-compartment tumor metabolism: stromal ketone production fuels mitochondrial biogenesis in epithelial cancer cells. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:3956-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they suggest that we should target ketone body metabolism as a new area for drug discovery, for the prevention and treatment of human cancers. ..
  3. Hansen C, Shvets E, Howard G, Riento K, Nichols B. Deletion of cavin genes reveals tissue-specific mechanisms for morphogenesis of endothelial caveolae. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1831 pubmed publisher
    ..Cavin 1, however, is essential for normal oligomerization of caveolin 1. Our data reveal that endothelial caveolae are heterogeneous, and identify cavin 2 as a determinant of this ..
  4. Ha T, Chi S. CAV1/caveolin 1 enhances aerobic glycolysis in colon cancer cells via activation of SLC2A3/GLUT3 transcription. Autophagy. 2012;8:1684-5 pubmed publisher
    Although elevated expression of CAV1/caveolin 1 is associated with the malignant progression of various human cancers, the molecular mechanism underlying its oncogenic functions is largely unknown...
  5. Yang X, Xiong H, Guan Z, Okai I, Ye D, Song Y, et al. Higher expression of Caveolin-1 inhibits human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) apoptosis in vitro. Cancer Invest. 2012;30:453-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings illuminate a potential molecular mechanism regarding CAV-1's role as anti-apoptosis protein. ..
  6. Nassar Z, Hill M, Parton R, Parat M. Caveola-forming proteins caveolin-1 and PTRF in prostate cancer. Nat Rev Urol. 2013;10:529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluation of caveolin-1 antibodies in the clinical setting is underway and it is hoped that future studies will reveal the mechanisms of PTRF action, allowing its targeting for therapeutic purposes...
  7. Capparelli C, Whitaker Menezes D, Guido C, Balliet R, Pestell T, Howell A, et al. CTGF drives autophagy, glycolysis and senescence in cancer-associated fibroblasts via HIF1 activation, metabolically promoting tumor growth. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:2272-84 pubmed publisher
  8. Collins B, Davis M, Hancock J, Parton R. Structure-based reassessment of the caveolin signaling model: do caveolae regulate signaling through caveolin-protein interactions?. Dev Cell. 2012;23:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that CBM/CSD-dependent interactions are unlikely to mediate caveolar signaling, and the basis for signaling effects should therefore be reassessed. ..
  9. Meyer C, Liu Y, Kaul A, Peipe I, Dooley S. Caveolin-1 abrogates TGF-? mediated hepatocyte apoptosis. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e466 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, via affecting TGF-? mediated non-Smad AKT signaling and regulation of pro- and antiapoptotic factors, Caveolin-1 is a crucial hepatocyte fate determinant for TGF-? effects. ..
  10. Songserm T, Pongrakhananon V, Chanvorachote P. Sub-toxic cisplatin mediates anoikis resistance through hydrogen peroxide-induced caveolin-1 up-regulation in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:1659-69 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate a novel effect of cisplatin treatment on cancer cells which may lead to a better understanding of cancer biology and in the improvement of chemotherapy. ..
  11. Guo Q, Shen N, Yuan K, Li J, Wu H, Zeng Y, et al. Caveolin-1 plays a critical role in host immunity against Klebsiella pneumoniae by regulating STAT5 and Akt activity. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:1500-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings indicate that Cav1 may offer resistance to K. pneumoniae infection, by affecting both systemic and local production of proinflammatory cytokines via the actions of STAT5 and the GSK3?-?-catenin-Akt pathway. ..
  12. Fernandez Rojo M, Gongora M, Fitzsimmons R, Martel N, Martin S, Nixon S, et al. Caveolin-1 is necessary for hepatic oxidative lipid metabolism: evidence for crosstalk between caveolin-1 and bile acid signaling. Cell Rep. 2013;4:238-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the significance of CAV1 in (1) hepatic lipid homeostasis and (2) nuclear hormone receptor (PPAR?, FXR?, and SHP) and bile acid signaling. ..
  13. Ayala G, Morello M, Frolov A, You S, Li R, Rosati F, et al. Loss of caveolin-1 in prostate cancer stroma correlates with reduced relapse-free survival and is functionally relevant to tumour progression. J Pathol. 2013;231:77-87 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that intracrine production of androgens, a process relevant to castration resistance, may occur in the stroma. ..
  14. Salem A, Whitaker Menezes D, Lin Z, Martinez Outschoorn U, Tanowitz H, Al Zoubi M, et al. Two-compartment tumor metabolism: autophagy in the tumor microenvironment and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS) in cancer cells. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:2545-56 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time, our current studies also link the DNA damage response in the tumor microenvironment with "Warburg-like" cancer metabolism, as DRAM is a DNA damage/repair target gene. ..
  15. Gvaramia D, Blaauboer M, Hanemaaijer R, Everts V. Role of caveolin-1 in fibrotic diseases. Matrix Biol. 2013;32:307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we consider this homeostatic function of caveolin-1 as a possible novel approach in treatment of fibroproliferative diseases. ..
  16. Joshi B, Bastiani M, Strugnell S, Boscher C, Parton R, Nabi I. Phosphocaveolin-1 is a mechanotransducer that induces caveola biogenesis via Egr1 transcriptional regulation. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:425-35 pubmed publisher
    ..pCav1 is therefore a mechanotransducer that acts via PKC to relieve Egr1 transcriptional inhibition of Cav1 and cavin-1, defining a novel feedback regulatory loop to regulate caveola biogenesis. ..
  17. Halim H, Luanpitpong S, Chanvorachote P. Acquisition of anoikis resistance up-regulates caveolin-1 expression in human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:1649-58 pubmed
    ..Our findings show CAV1 to be a key player in anoikis resistance and provide a novel mechanism regarding cancer cell adaptation, resulting in acquisition of anoikis resistance in lung cancer cells. ..
  18. Madaro L, Antonangeli F, Favia A, Esposito B, Biamonte F, Bouché M, et al. Knock down of caveolin-1 affects morphological and functional hallmarks of human endothelial cells. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114:1843-51 pubmed publisher
  19. Shankar J, Wiseman S, Meng F, Kasaian K, Strugnell S, Mofid A, et al. Coordinated expression of galectin-3 and caveolin-1 in thyroid cancer. J Pathol. 2012;228:56-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-expression of Gal3 and Cav1 in the T238 anaplastic cell line stabilized FAK-GFP in focal adhesions. Gal3 and Cav1 therefore function synergistically to promote focal adhesion signalling, migration and progression of DTC. ..
  20. Martinez Outschoorn U, Balliet R, Lin Z, Whitaker Menezes D, Howell A, Sotgia F, et al. Hereditary ovarian cancer and two-compartment tumor metabolism: epithelial loss of BRCA1 induces hydrogen peroxide production, driving oxidative stress and NF?B activation in the tumor stroma. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:4152-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that new cancer prevention trials with antioxidants are clearly warranted in patients that harbor hereditary/familial BRCA1 mutations. ..
  21. Martinez Outschoorn U, Balliet R, Lin Z, Whitaker Menezes D, Birbe R, Bombonati A, et al. BRCA1 mutations drive oxidative stress and glycolysis in the tumor microenvironment: implications for breast cancer prevention with antioxidant therapies. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:4402-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In this regard, immunostaining with Cav-1 and MCT4 could be used as cost-effective biomarkers to monitor the response to antioxidant therapy. ..
  22. Goetz J, Minguet S, Navarro Lérida I, Lazcano J, Samaniego R, Calvo E, et al. Biomechanical remodeling of the microenvironment by stromal caveolin-1 favors tumor invasion and metastasis. Cell. 2011;146:148-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Cav1 modulates tissue responses through force-dependent architectural regulation of the microenvironment. ..
  23. Chiavarina B, Whitaker Menezes D, Migneco G, Martinez Outschoorn U, Pavlides S, Howell A, et al. HIF1-alpha functions as a tumor promoter in cancer associated fibroblasts, and as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells: Autophagy drives compartment-specific oncogenesis. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:3534-51 pubmed
    ..Lastly, our results provide direct experimental support for the recently proposed "Autophagic Tumor Stroma Model of Cancer". ..
  24. Shivshankar P, Brampton C, Miyasato S, Kasper M, Thannickal V, Le Saux C. Caveolin-1 deficiency protects from pulmonary fibrosis by modulating epithelial cell senescence in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;47:28-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, therapeutic strategies to modulate the expression of cav-1 should take into account cell-specific effects in the regenerative responses of the lung epithelium to injury. ..
  25. Lee S, Lee Y, Park S, Kim H, Han H. Caveolin-1 and integrin ?1 regulate embryonic stem cell proliferation via p38 MAPK and FAK in high glucose. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:1850-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that high glucose-induced Cav-1 and IN ?1 activation can stimulate ES cell proliferation through the modification of focal adhesion signaling pathways. ..
  26. Masuelli L, Budillon A, Marzocchella L, Mrozek M, Vitolo D, Di Gennaro E, et al. Caveolin-1 overexpression is associated with simultaneous abnormal expression of the E-cadherin/?-? catenins complex and multiple ErbB receptors and with lymph nodes metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:3344-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may provide new insight into the biology of HNSCC progression and help to identify subgroups of primary HNSCCs with a more aggressive behavior. ..
  27. Castello Cros R, Bonuccelli G, Molchansky A, Capozza F, Witkiewicz A, Birbe R, et al. Matrix remodeling stimulates stromal autophagy, "fueling" cancer cell mitochondrial metabolism and metastasis. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:2021-34 pubmed
    ..Thus, the secretion and remodeling of extracellular matrix components (such as PAI-1/2) can directly regulate both (1) autophagy in stromal fibroblasts and (2) epithelial tumor cell mitochondrial metabolism. ..
  28. Burgermeister E, Friedrich T, Hitkova I, Regel I, Einwächter H, Zimmermann W, et al. The Ras inhibitors caveolin-1 and docking protein 1 activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? through spatial relocalization at helix 7 of its ligand-binding domain. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3497-510 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a novel mechanism of PPAR? regulation by which Ras/MAPK inhibitors act as scaffold proteins that sequester and sensitize PPAR? to ligands, limiting proliferation of gastric epithelial cells. ..
  29. Capozza F, Trimmer C, Castello Cros R, Katiyar S, Whitaker Menezes D, Follenzi A, et al. Genetic ablation of Cav1 differentially affects melanoma tumor growth and metastasis in mice: role of Cav1 in Shh heterotypic signaling and transendothelial migration. Cancer Res. 2012;72:2262-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings show that Cav1 may regulate different mechanisms during primary melanoma tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. ..
  30. Yamaguchi H, Oikawa T. Membrane lipids in invadopodia and podosomes: key structures for cancer invasion and metastasis. Oncotarget. 2010;1:320-8 pubmed
    ..This review will summarize recent progress on the molecular mechanisms of invadopodia/podosome formation, with strong emphasis on the roles of lipid rafts and phosphoinositides...
  31. Kuehn M, Wang K, Roos B, Stone E, Kwon Y, Alward W, et al. Chromosome 7q31 POAG locus: ocular expression of caveolins and lack of association with POAG in a US cohort. Mol Vis. 2011;17:430-5 pubmed
    ..We were unable to detect this association in our patients from Iowa, suggesting that this risk factor may not have a strong effect in all populations. ..
  32. Schmitz M, Zerr I, Althaus H. Effect of cavtratin, a caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide, on oligodendroglial signaling cascades. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011;31:991-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data showed that cavtratin suppresses the NGF-induced phosphorylation of TrkA as well as the activation of MAPK in porcine oligodendrocytes significantly. ..
  33. Brennan D, Peltonen S, Dowling A, Medhat W, Green K, Wahl J, et al. A role for caveolin-1 in desmoglein binding and desmosome dynamics. Oncogene. 2012;31:1636-48 pubmed publisher
  34. Le Lay S, Rodriguez M, Jessup W, Rentero C, Li Q, Cartland S, et al. Caveolin-1-mediated apolipoprotein A-I membrane binding sites are not required for cholesterol efflux. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23353 pubmed publisher
  35. Morais C, Ebrahem Q, Anand Apte B, Parat M. Altered angiogenesis in caveolin-1 gene-deficient mice is restored by ablation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:1702-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to demonstrate the detrimental effects of unregulated eNOS activity on angiogenesis, and shows that impaired tumor angiogenesis in caveolin-1-null mice is, at least in part, the result of enhanced eNOS activity...
  36. Yamamoto K, Furuya K, Nakamura M, Kobatake E, Sokabe M, Ando J. Visualization of flow-induced ATP release and triggering of Ca2+ waves at caveolae in vascular endothelial cells. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3477-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that localized ATP release at caveolae triggers shear-stress-dependent Ca(2+) signaling in ECs. ..
  37. Sathish V, Abcejo A, Thompson M, Sieck G, Prakash Y, Pabelick C. Caveolin-1 regulation of store-operated Ca(2+) influx in human airway smooth muscle. Eur Respir J. 2012;40:470-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that caveolar expression and regulation of proteins such as Orai1 are important for [Ca(2+)](i) regulation in human ASM cells and its modulation during inflammation...
  38. Sathish V, Abcejo A, Vanoosten S, Thompson M, Prakash Y, Pabelick C. Caveolin-1 in cytokine-induced enhancement of intracellular Ca(2+) in human airway smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;301:L607-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results indicate that caveolin-1 plays an important role in airway inflammation by modulating the effect of specific cytokines on [Ca(2+)](i). ..
  39. Pavlides S, Tsirigos A, Migneco G, Whitaker Menezes D, Chiavarina B, Flomenberg N, et al. The autophagic tumor stroma model of cancer: Role of oxidative stress and ketone production in fueling tumor cell metabolism. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:3485-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we discuss that this "Autophagic Tumor Stroma Model of Cancer Metabolism" provides a viable solution to the "Autophagy Paradox" in cancer etiology and chemo-therapy. ..
  40. Pandey V, Vijayakumar M, Ajay A, Malvi P, Bhat M. Diet-induced obesity increases melanoma progression: involvement of Cav-1 and FASN. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:497-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study establishes a causative relationship between diet-induced obesity and melanoma progression as well as demonstrates that obesity affects important tumorigenic pathways in melanoma. ..
  41. Sathish V, Yang B, Meuchel L, Vanoosten S, Ryu A, Thompson M, et al. Caveolin-1 and force regulation in porcine airway smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;300:L920-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results indicate that caveolin-1 is a critical player in enhanced ASM contractility with airway inflammation. ..
  42. Qian N, Ueno T, Kawaguchi Sakita N, Kawashima M, Yoshida N, Mikami Y, et al. Prognostic significance of tumor/stromal caveolin-1 expression in breast cancer patients. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:1590-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to understand the regulatory mechanism of Cav-1 in the tumor microenvironment. ..
  43. Miyasato S, Loeffler J, Shohet R, Zhang J, Lindsey M, Le Saux C. Caveolin-1 modulates TGF-?1 signaling in cardiac remodeling. Matrix Biol. 2011;30:318-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that cav1 has a direct role in reducing TGF-?1 signaling and as such might be an appropriate target for therapies to influence cardiac remodeling. ..
  44. Place A, Chen Z, Bakhshi F, Liu G, O Bryan J, Minshall R. Cooperative role of caveolin-1 and C-terminal Src kinase binding protein in C-terminal Src kinase-mediated negative regulation of c-Src. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;80:665-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, when either Cav-1 or Cbp expression is reduced or absent, there is a compensatory increase in the phosphorylation state or expression level of the other membrane-associated Csk adaptor to maintain SFK inhibition. ..
  45. Sotgia F, Martinez Outschoorn U, Howell A, Pestell R, Pavlides S, Lisanti M. Caveolin-1 and cancer metabolism in the tumor microenvironment: markers, models, and mechanisms. Annu Rev Pathol. 2012;7:423-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss the functional role of Cav-1 in epithelial cancer cells. ..
  46. Tang Y, Zeng X, He F, Liao Y, Qian N, Toi M. Caveolin-1 is related to invasion, survival, and poor prognosis in hepatocellular cancer. Med Oncol. 2012;29:977-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our clinical and in vitro data indicate that the status of caveolin-1 expression may be one of causative factors for the invasion and poor prognosis in HCC. ..
  47. Wang P, Zhu F, Tong Z, Konstantopoulos K. Response of chondrocytes to shear stress: antagonistic effects of the binding partners Toll-like receptor 4 and caveolin-1. FASEB J. 2011;25:3401-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Reconstructing the signaling network regulating shear-induced IL-6 expression in chondrocytes may provide insights for developing therapeutic strategies to combat osteoarthritis. ..
  48. Prade E, Tobiasch M, Hitkova I, Schäffer I, Lian F, Xing X, et al. Bile acids down-regulate caveolin-1 in esophageal epithelial cells through sterol responsive element-binding protein. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:819-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that bile acid-mediated down-regulation of Cav1 marks early changes in the squamous epithelium, which may contribute to onset of Barrett esophagus metaplasia and progression to BAC. ..
  49. Thomas S, Overdevest J, Nitz M, Williams P, Owens C, Sanchez Carbayo M, et al. Src and caveolin-1 reciprocally regulate metastasis via a common downstream signaling pathway in bladder cancer. Cancer Res. 2011;71:832-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical evaluation of personalized therapy to suppress metastasis development based on Cav-1 and Src profiles seems warranted. ..
  50. Martinez Outschoorn U, Whitaker Menezes D, Lin Z, Flomenberg N, Howell A, Pestell R, et al. Cytokine production and inflammation drive autophagy in the tumor microenvironment: role of stromal caveolin-1 as a key regulator. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:1784-93 pubmed
  51. Pojoga L, Underwood P, Goodarzi M, Williams J, Adler G, Jeunemaitre X, et al. Variants of the caveolin-1 gene: a translational investigation linking insulin resistance and hypertension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E1288-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Variations in the CAV1 gene are associated with IR and hypertension. CAV1 gene polymorphisms may be a biomarker for IR and hypertension, enabling earlier detection and improved treatment strategies. ..
  52. Wiggs J, Kang J, Yaspan B, Mirel D, Laurie C, Crenshaw A, et al. Common variants near CAV1 and CAV2 are associated with primary open-angle glaucoma in Caucasians from the USA. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4707-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We also present data suggesting that associations with several CAV1/CAV2 SNPs are significant mostly in women. ..
  53. Rossi S, Poliani P, Cominelli M, Bozzato A, Vescovi R, Monti E, et al. Caveolin 1 is a marker of poor differentiation in Rhabdomyosarcoma. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47:761-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In skeletal muscle caveolins are differentially distributed, with Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) being uniquely expressed in satellite cells and Caveolin 3 (Cav-3) in mature myofibers...