chimerin proteins


Summary: A family of GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS that are specific for RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.

Top Publications

  1. Kurakin A, Bredesen D. Target-assisted iterative screening reveals novel interactors for PSD95, Nedd4, Src, Abl and Crk proteins. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2002;19:1015-29 pubmed
    ..The novel screening format, dubbed TAIS (target-assisted iterative screening), is discussed as an alternative platform to existing technologies for a pair-wise characterization of protein-protein interactions. ..
  2. Yang C, Kazanietz M. Chimaerins: GAPs that bridge diacylglycerol signalling and the small G-protein Rac. Biochem J. 2007;403:1-12 pubmed
    ..In addition, vigorous recent studies have begun to decipher the critical roles of chimaerins in the central nervous system, development and tumour progression. ..
  3. Montaner J, Mendioroz M, Ribo M, Delgado P, Quintana M, Penalba A, et al. A panel of biomarkers including caspase-3 and D-dimer may differentiate acute stroke from stroke-mimicking conditions in the emergency department. J Intern Med. 2011;270:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..If replicated, this approach could be used as a tool for urgent referral of stroke patients to hospitals in which acute treatments are available. ..
  4. Montoya M. Opening the GAP. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:1033 pubmed
  5. Montaner J, Perea Gainza M, Delgado P, Ribo M, Chacon P, Rosell A, et al. Etiologic diagnosis of ischemic stroke subtypes with plasma biomarkers. Stroke. 2008;39:2280-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a combination of biomarkers may be a feasible strategy to improve the diagnosis of cardioembolic stroke in the acute phase, thus rapidly guiding other diagnostic tests and accelerating the start of optimal secondary prevention. ..
  6. Crambert G, Beguin P, Pestov N, Modyanov N, Geering K. Betam, a structural member of the X,K-ATPase beta subunit family, resides in the ER and does not associate with any known X,K-ATPase alpha subunit. Biochemistry. 2002;41:6723-33 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results indicate that betam exhibits a cellular location and functional role clearly distinct from the typical X,K-ATPase beta subunits. ..
  7. Wang H, Kazanietz M. Chimaerins, novel non-protein kinase C phorbol ester receptors, associate with Tmp21-I (p23): evidence for a novel anchoring mechanism involving the chimaerin C1 domain. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:4541-50 pubmed
    ..In this setting, Tmp21-I serves as an anchoring protein that determines the intracellular localization of these novel phorbol ester receptors. ..
  8. Guest R, Kirillova N, Mowbray S, Gornall H, Rothwell D, Cheadle E, et al. Definition and application of good manufacturing process-compliant production of CEA-specific chimeric antigen receptor expressing T-cells for phase I/II clinical trial. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2014;63:133-45 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these results confirm that CAR T-cells can be generated in a manner compliant with regulations governing medicinal products in the European Union. ..
  9. Pittenger J, Hess J, FitzGerald P. Identifying the role of specific motifs in the lens fiber cell specific intermediate filament phakosin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:5132-41 pubmed

More Information


  1. Cheng J, Ekberg T, Engstrom M, Nestor M, Jensen H, Tolmachev V, et al. Radioimmunotherapy with astatine-211 using chimeric monoclonal antibody U36 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:1013-8 pubmed
    ..05). The study illustrates the specific binding of astatine-211-labeled U36 to HNSCC and suggests radioimmunotherapy with the alpha emitting radionuclide to be a useful treatment modality. ..
  2. Shariat S, Desai S, Song W, Khan T, Zhao J, Nguyen C, et al. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of inducible caspases: a novel "death switch" gene therapeutic approach to prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2001;61:2562-71 pubmed
  3. Parmentier M. [Characterization of new chemoattractant agents in leukocytes]. Bull Mem Acad R Med Belg. 2004;159:515-20; discussion 521 pubmed
    ..The role of these two new systems in the control of physiological and pathological inflammatory reactions is presently being studied. ..
  4. Leskow F, Holloway B, Wang H, Mullins M, Kazanietz M. The zebrafish homologue of mammalian chimerin Rac-GAPs is implicated in epiboly progression during development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5373-8 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal a crucial role for chn1 in early development and implicate Rac as a key regulator of morphogenetic movements during zebrafish epiboly. ..
  5. Savina A, Vidal M, Colombo M. The exosome pathway in K562 cells is regulated by Rab11. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:2505-15 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results demonstrate that in K562 cells Rab11 modulates the exosome pathway although the exact step involved is still not known. ..
  6. Lewis M, Kao J, Anderson A, Shively J, Raubitschek A. An improved method for conjugating monoclonal antibodies with N-hydroxysulfosuccinimidyl DOTA. Bioconjug Chem. 2001;12:320-4 pubmed
    ..This improved conjugation procedure facilitates large-scale production and radiometal labeling of cT84.66-DOTA for clinical radioimmunotherapy trials. ..
  7. Yagi S, Matsuda M, Kiyokawa E. Chimaerin suppresses Rac1 activation at the apical membrane to maintain the cyst structure. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52258 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, Chimaerin depletion did not inhibit extension formation at the basal membrane. These observations suggest that Chimaerin functions as the apical-specific Rac1 GAP to maintain epithelial morphology. ..
  8. Kramer R, Li C, Carter D, Stone M, Naik R. Engineered protein cages for nanomaterial synthesis. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:13282-6 pubmed
    ..Our studies indicate that it is possible to design chimeric cages, using specific peptide templates, for the growth of other inorganic nanoparticles. ..
  9. Forero Torres A, Leonard J, Younes A, Rosenblatt J, Brice P, Bartlett N, et al. A Phase II study of SGN-30 (anti-CD30 mAb) in Hodgkin lymphoma or systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2009;146:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that weekly administration of SGN-30 is safe, with modest clinical activity in patients with ALCL. ..
  10. Kazanietz M. Targeting protein kinase C and "non-kinase" phorbol ester receptors: emerging concepts and therapeutic implications. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1754:296-304 pubmed
    ..The discovery of the chimaerins and other "non-kinase" phorbol ester receptors has major implications in the design of agents for cancer therapy. ..
  11. Snow A, Lambert S, Natkunam Y, Esquivel C, Krams S, Martinez O. EBV can protect latently infected B cell lymphomas from death receptor-induced apoptosis. J Immunol. 2006;177:3283-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, the ability of latent EBV to block DR apoptosis may help to ensure the survival of host cells during B cell differentiation, and contribute to the development of B cell lymphomas, especially in immunocompromised individuals. ..
  12. Irie K, Masuda A, Shindo M, Nakagawa Y, Ohigashi H. Tumor promoter binding of the protein kinase C C1 homology domain peptides of RasGRPs, chimaerins, and Unc13s. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004;12:4575-83 pubmed
    ..By the rapid screening system using this C1 peptide library, 5-prenyl-indolactam-V was identified as a promising lead for the novel protein kinase C isozyme specific ligands. ..
  13. Hashimoto R, Yoshida M, Kunugi H, Ozaki N, Yamanouchi Y, Iwata N, et al. A missense polymorphism (H204R) of a Rho GTPase-activating protein, the chimerin 2 gene, is associated with schizophrenia in men. Schizophr Res. 2005;73:383-5 pubmed
  14. Caloca M, Delgado P, Alarcon B, Bustelo X. Role of chimaerins, a group of Rac-specific GTPase activating proteins, in T-cell receptor signaling. Cell Signal. 2008;20:758-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results identify chimaerins as candidates for the downmodulation of Rac1 in T-lymphocytes and, in addition, uncover a novel regulatory mechanism that mediates their activation in T-cells. ..
  15. Vermi W, Lonardi S, Morassi M, Rossini C, Tardanico R, Venturini M, et al. Cutaneous distribution of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in lupus erythematosus. Selective tropism at the site of epithelial apoptotic damage. Immunobiology. 2009;214:877-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This study confirms cutaneous PDC infiltration as hallmark of LE. The topographical segregation in D-PDC and J-PDC suggests a novel view of the role of these cells in skin autoimmunity. ..
  16. Semkova I, Muether P, Kuebbeler M, Meyer K, Kociok N, Joussen A. Recruitment of blood-derived inflammatory cells mediated via tumor necrosis factor-? receptor 1b exacerbates choroidal neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:6101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusions. Signals through TNF-? receptor 1b expressed on BM -derived inflammatory cells mediate an increased inflammatory cell invasion and enhanced angiogenic response after laser-induced rupture of Bruch's membrane. ..
  17. DiPaolo B, Davidovich N, Kazanietz M, Margulies S. Rac1 pathway mediates stretch response in pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;305:L141-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data suggest that constitutive activity of Rac1, which is necessary for stretch-induced activation of the Rac1 downstream proteins, mediates stretch-induced increases in permeability and PJAR formation. ..
  18. Bruinsma S, Cagan R, Baranski T. Chimaerin and Rac regulate cell number, adherens junctions, and ERK MAP kinase signaling in the Drosophila eye. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7098-103 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal a role for chimaerin in the regulation of ERK signaling and cell-cell adhesion and have implications for its participation in epithelial development and tumor progression. ..
  19. Hung C, Cheng W, He L, Ling M, Juang J, Lin C, et al. Enhancing major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation by targeting antigen to centrosomes. Cancer Res. 2003;63:2393-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the centrosome may be an important locus for MHC class I antigen processing and that targeting antigen to the centrosome can improve DNA vaccine potency. ..
  20. Djebali S, Lagarde J, Kapranov P, Lacroix V, Borel C, Mudge J, et al. Evidence for transcript networks composed of chimeric RNAs in human cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e28213 pubmed publisher
    ..The non-random nature of the connection of the genes involved suggest that chimeric transcripts should not be studied in isolation, but together, as an RNA network. ..
  21. Tsukamoto K, Kozai Y, Ihara H, Kohda T, Mukamoto M, Tsuji T, et al. Identification of the receptor-binding sites in the carboxyl-terminal half of the heavy chain of botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. Microb Pathog. 2008;44:484-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, we revealed that two lysine residues of BoNT/D-H(C) are involved in the formation of the critical binding site for receptor binding. ..
  22. Brose N, Rosenmund C. Move over protein kinase C, you've got company: alternative cellular effectors of diacylglycerol and phorbol esters. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:4399-411 pubmed
    ..The examples of RasGRP1 and Munc13-1 show that detailed genetic analyses of C(1)-domain-containing non-PKC diacylglycerol/phorbol-ester receptors in mammals are ideally suited to achieve this goal. ..
  23. Liu J, Nau M, Yeh J, Allegra C, Chu E, Wright J. Molecular heterogeneity and function of EWS-WT1 fusion transcripts in desmoplastic small round cell tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2000;6:3522-9 pubmed
    ..The molecular diversity and functionality exhibited by these fusion transcripts may have significant biological implications for their transactivating and tumorigenic potential. ..
  24. Hakamada Y, Hatada Y, Ozawa T, Ozaki K, Kobayashi T, Ito S. Identification of thermostabilizing residues in a Bacillus alkaline cellulase by construction of chimeras from mesophilic and thermostable enzymes and site-directed mutagenesis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;195:67-72 pubmed
    ..This fact further suggested that specific ionic interaction is involved in the thermal stabilization of the enzyme. ..
  25. Derosa G, Franzetti I, Querci F, Carbone A, Ciccarelli L, Piccinni M, et al. Variation in inflammatory markers and glycemic parameters after 12 months of exenatide plus metformin treatment compared with metformin alone: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Pharmacotherapy. 2013;33:817-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of exenatide plus metformin was more effective than metformin alone in improving glycemic control, ?-cell function, and inflammatory parameters. ..
  26. Deng D, Liao S, Bai X, Wang W, Sima N, Xu Q, et al. The preparation of human papillomavirus type 58 vaccine and exploring its biological activity and immunogenicity in vitro. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2011;21:988-95 pubmed publisher
  27. Ikeda S, Takabe K, Inagaki M, Funakoshi N, Suzuki K. [Detection of ALK positive pulmonary adenocarcinoma using immunostaining]. Rinsho Byori. 2010;58:565-70 pubmed
    ..No separated signals were seen in cases with negative immunostaining findings. Detection by immunostaining was found useful for ALK mutated lung cancer cases, though the pretreatment and detection methods utilized are important. ..
  28. Wigginton S, Furtado P, Armour K, Clark M, Robins A, Emara M, et al. An immunoglobulin E-reactive chimeric human immunoglobulin G1 anti-idiotype inhibits basophil degranulation through cross-linking of FcepsilonRI with FcgammaRIIb. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:313-9 pubmed
  29. Lu L, Ikizawa K, Hu D, Werneck M, Wucherpfennig K, Cantor H. Regulation of activated CD4+ T cells by NK cells via the Qa-1-NKG2A inhibitory pathway. Immunity. 2007;26:593-604 pubmed
  30. Colon Gonzalez F, Kazanietz M. C1 domains exposed: from diacylglycerol binding to protein-protein interactions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1761:827-37 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is clear that the protein context plays a major role in determining whether binding of DAG to the C1 domain would lead to enzyme activation or merely serves as an anchoring mechanism. ..
  31. Kato M, Mrksich M. Rewiring cell adhesion. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:6504-5 pubmed
    ..We show that Chinese hamster ovary cells that are engineered with a chimeric beta1 integrin adhere, signal, and even migrate on a synthetic matrix. ..
  32. Quinn T, Soifer S, Ramer K, Williams L, Nakamura M. A receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor that stimulates endothelial apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2001;61:8629-37 pubmed
  33. Gong X, Yin H, Shi Y, He X, Yu Y, Guan S, et al. Evaluation of the immunogenicity and protective effects of a trivalent chimeric norovirus P particle immunogen displaying influenza HA2 from subtypes H1, H3 and B. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016;5:e51 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy of the immunogen should be further enhanced for practicality, and a better understanding of the protective immune mechanism will be critical for the development of HA2-based multivalent vaccines. ..