caspase 9


Summary: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a CASPASE RECRUITMENT DOMAIN in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.

Top Publications

  1. Ali N, Rashid S, Nafees S, Hasan S, Shahid A, Majed F, et al. Protective effect of Chlorogenic acid against methotrexate induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in rat liver: An experimental approach. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;272:80-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply that CGA has perfective effect against MTX-induced liver injury. Hence CGA supplementation might be helpful in abrogation of MTX toxicity. ..
  2. Maiuthed A, Pinkhien T, Chamni S, Suwanborirux K, Saito N, Petpiroon N, et al. Apoptosis-inducing Effect of Hydroquinone 5-O-Cinnamoyl Ester Analog of Renieramycin M on Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:6259-6267 pubmed
    ..hydroquinone 5-O-cinnamoyl ester (CIN-RM), was investigated here for its activity against non-small cell lung cancer cells...
  3. Kim T, Park J, Lee J, Lee H. Effects of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on programmed cell death of Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells through ezrin phosphorylation. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2017;37:503-509 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study will be more interesting to address molecular connections or prove this critical optimal concentration range of vitamin D. ..
  4. Kischkel F, Lawrence D, Chuntharapai A, Schow P, Kim K, Ashkenazi A. Apo2L/TRAIL-dependent recruitment of endogenous FADD and caspase-8 to death receptors 4 and 5. Immunity. 2000;12:611-20 pubmed
    ..TRADD and RIP, which bound TNFR1, did not bind DR4 and DR5. Thus, Apo2L/TRAIL and FasL initiate apoptosis through similar mechanisms, and FADD may be a universal adaptor for death receptors. ..
  5. Bratton S, Salvesen G. Regulation of the Apaf-1-caspase-9 apoptosome. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3209-14 pubmed publisher
  6. Zeng J, Li S, Wu X, Liu D, Wan X. [Study on impact of ethanol extracts from Sedum sarmentosum in inhibiting STAT-3 signaling and inducing apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2014;39:3349-52 pubmed
    ..ESB inhibits HepG2 cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by inhibiting STAT-3 signaling and Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 expressions. ..
  7. Simion V, Sobilo J, Clemoncon R, Natkunarajah S, Ezzine S, Abdallah F, et al. Positive radionuclide imaging of miRNA expression using RILES and the human sodium iodide symporter as reporter gene is feasible and supports a protective role of miRNA-23a in response to muscular atrophy. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177492 pubmed publisher
    ..between miRNA-23a and one of the main transcriptional target of this miRNA, APAF-1, and as downstream target, Caspase 9. Our results report the first positive monitoring of endogenously expressed miRNAs in a nuclear medicine imaging ..
  8. Ijiri M, Fujiya M, Konishi H, Tanaka H, Ueno N, Kashima S, et al. Ferrichrome identified from Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 induces apoptosis through its iron-binding site in gastric cancer cells. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317711311 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, probiotic-derived ferrichrome induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. The iron binding site of ferrichrome is the structure responsible for its tumor suppressive function. ..
  9. Lu C, Li L, Zhou W, Zhao J, Wang Y, Peng S. Silica nanoparticles and lead acetate co-exposure triggered synergistic cytotoxicity in A549 cells through potentiation of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induction. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017;52:114-120 pubmed publisher
    ..Factorial analyses revealed synergistic interactions were responsible for the potentiation of joint apoptotic responses. ..

More Information


  1. Kim J, Kim H, Sung S. Cytotoxic pterosins from Pteris multifida roots against HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:3144-3147 pubmed publisher
    ..0±1.7?M. Additionally, 1 induced the upregulation of the caspase-9 and procaspase-9 levels in Western blots and increased the annexin V/propidium iodide (PI)-positive cell population in flow cytometry. ..
  2. Wang L, Qiao Q, Wu H. Understanding CARD Tricks in Apoptosomes. Structure. 2017;25:575-577 pubmed publisher
    ..2017) describe a crystal structure of the complex between Apaf-1 CARD and caspase-9 CARD. Together with two recent cryo-EM structures, this work brings us closer to a full view of the holo-apoptosome. ..
  3. Kim K, Ryu S, Kim S, Baek G, Kim D, Lim K, et al. Highly efficient RNA-guided base editing in mouse embryos. Nat Biotechnol. 2017;35:435-437 pubmed publisher
    ..F0 mice showed nonsense mutations with an efficiency of 44-57% and allelic frequencies of up to 100%, demonstrating an efficient method to generate mice with targeted point mutations. ..
  4. Dong X, Fu J, Yin X, Qu C, Yang C, He H, et al. Induction of Apoptosis in HepaRG Cell Line by Aloe-Emodin through Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and the Mitochondrial Pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:685-696 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underscore the need for risk assessment of human exposure to aloe-emodin. ..
  5. Deshmukh M, Kuida K, Johnson E. Caspase inhibition extends the commitment to neuronal death beyond cytochrome c release to the point of mitochondrial depolarization. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:131-43 pubmed
  6. Kim D, Lim K, Kim S, Yoon S, Kim K, Ryu S, et al. Genome-wide target specificities of CRISPR RNA-guided programmable deaminases. Nat Biotechnol. 2017;35:475-480 pubmed publisher
    ..1%. Notably, off-target sites of the base editors are often different from those of Cas9 alone, calling for independent assessment of their genome-wide specificities. ..
  7. Rahman M, Ukiana J, Uson Lopez R, Sikder M, Saito T, Kurasaki M. Cytotoxic effects of cadmium and zinc co-exposure in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanism. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;269:41-49 pubmed publisher
    ..of the apoptotic factors Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-x, and cytochrome c were measured via western blot and expression of caspase 9 was detected via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
  8. Zong Y, Wang Y, Li C, Zhang R, Chen K, Ran Y, et al. Precise base editing in rice, wheat and maize with a Cas9-cytidine deaminase fusion. Nat Biotechnol. 2017;35:438-440 pubmed publisher
    ..48%. ..
  9. Chang C, Lee C, Lu C, Tsai F, Hsu Y, Tsao J, et al. Resveratrol-induced autophagy and apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant human oral cancer CAR cells: A key role of AMPK and Akt/mTOR signaling. Int J Oncol. 2017;50:873-882 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our findings indicate that resveratrol is likely to induce autophagic and apoptotic death in drug-resistant oral cancer cells and might become a new approach for oral cancer treatment in the near future. ..
  10. Chen H, Tang X, Zhou B, Zhou Z, Xu N, Wang Y. A ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway and Nrf2 pathway activation are involved in BDE-47 induced apoptosis in Neuro-2a cells. Chemosphere. 2017;184:679-686 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the ROS mediated mitochondrial pathway is involved in the BDE-47-induced apoptosis in Neuro-2a cells and that the Nrf2 pathway helps protect Neuro-2a cells from BDE-47-induced apoptosis. ..
  11. Liu P, Hu Y, Kang B, Tseng Y, Wu P, Liang C, et al. Expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-3 in tumorigenesis and prognosis of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180620 pubmed publisher
    ..The co-expression level of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-3 might be a prognostic biomarker for OTSCC patients, particular in those patients with certain tumor stages and cell differentiation status. ..
  12. Zhou X, Liang L, Zhao Y, Zhang H. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Ameliorates Angiotensin II-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells through the Activation of Nrf2/Caspase-3 Signaling. J Vasc Res. 2017;54:299-308 pubmed publisher
    ..All of our findings indicated that EGCG treatment provides a protective effect for Ang II-induced HUVEC apoptosis by decreasing oxidative stress and ameliorating mitochondrial injury. ..
  13. Li W, Yu K, Ma J, Shen J, Cheng C, Zhou F, et al. Non-thermal plasma induces mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway via ROS generation in HeLa cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2017;633:68-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insights to the therapeutic potential and clinical research of NTP as a novel tool in cervical cancer treatment. ..
  14. Xin Y, Huang Q, Zhang P, Guo W, Zhang L, Jiang G. Demethoxycurcumin in combination with ultraviolet radiation B induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in A431 and HaCaT cells. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317706216 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data indicate that demethoxycurcumin may be a promising photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy to induce apoptosis in skin cancer cells. ..
  15. Shultz J, Chalfant C. Caspase 9b: a new target for therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2011;11:499-502 pubmed publisher
  16. Faleiro L, Lazebnik Y. Caspases disrupt the nuclear-cytoplasmic barrier. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:951-9 pubmed
    ..Hence, caspase-9 contributes to cell disassembly by disrupting the nuclear cytoplasmic barrier. ..
  17. Ha S, Choi J, Min N, Lee K, Ham S. Inhibition of Importin ?1 With a 2-Aminothiazole Derivative Resulted in G2/M Cell-cycle Arrest and Apoptosis. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:2373-2379 pubmed
    ..Compound 1, as a KPNB1 inhibitor, might be a good target for future development of anticancer agents showing the activities of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. ..
  18. Li Y, Wu X, Li L, Liu Y, Xu C, Su D, et al. The E3 ligase HECTD3 promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) growth and cell survival through targeting and inhibiting caspase-9 activation. Cancer Lett. 2017;404:44-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish a new mechanism of cancer cell resistance to apoptosis and provide a new potential strategy for ESCC treatment. ..
  19. Kho M, Park J, Han B, Tan R, Yoon J, Kim H, et al. Plantago asiatica L. Ameliorates Puromycin Aminonucleoside-Induced Nephrotic Syndrome by Suppressing Inflammation and Apoptosis. Nutrients. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Plantago asiatica is likely to be a promising agent in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome. ..
  20. Lan T, Zhao H, Xiang B, Wang J, Liu Y. Suture compression induced midpalatal suture chondrocyte apoptosis with increased caspase-3, caspase-9, Bad, Bak, Bax and Bid expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;489:179-186 pubmed publisher
    ..No expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl was detected. Continuous compression force induces chondrocytes apoptosis in the mid-palatal suture. This process might be associated with the mitochondrial pathway. ..
  21. Wen J, Zhao Y, Liu Y, Zhao J. MicroRNA-34a inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis in osteosarcoma partly by effecting C-IAP2 and Bcl-2. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317705761 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we indicated that miR-34a can inhibit tumor invasion and metastasis in osteosarcoma, and its mechanism may be partly related to downregulating the expression of C-IAP2 and Bcl-2 protein directly or indirectly. ..
  22. Sun Q, Wang J, Li Y, Zhuang J, Zhang Q, Sun X, et al. Synthesis and evaluation of cytotoxic activities of artemisinin derivatives. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2017;90:1019-1028 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that 5d activates the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells and may merit further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for hepatocellular carcinoma. ..
  23. Mani V, Arivalagan S, Islam Siddique A, Namasivayam N. Antihyperlipidemic and antiapoptotic potential of zingerone on alcohol induced hepatotoxicity in experimental rats. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;272:197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Together results portray zingerone exhibits antihyperlipidemic and antiapoptotic potential on alcohol induced hepatotoxicity. ..
  24. Dey R, Moraes C. Lack of oxidative phosphorylation and low mitochondrial membrane potential decrease susceptibility to apoptosis and do not modulate the protective effect of Bcl-x(L) in osteosarcoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:7087-94 pubmed
    ..It also reinforces a model in which Bcl-x(L) can exert an antiapoptotic effect by stimulating oxidative phosphorylation and/or inhibiting caspase activation. ..
  25. Liang C, Pei S, Ju W, Jia M, Tian D, Tang Y, et al. Synthesis and in vitro and in vivo antitumour activity study of 11-hydroxyl esterified bergenin/cinnamic acid hybrids. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;133:319-328 pubmed publisher
    ..These data imply that bergenin/cinnamic acid hybrids could serve as novel Akt/Bcl-2 inhibitors for further preclinical studies. ..
  26. Qi J, Deng J, Qian K, Tian L, Li J, He K, et al. Novel 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazones Ga(III) complexes with a high antiproliferative activity by promoting apoptosis and inhibiting cell cycle. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;134:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Caspase activation was somewhat mediated by the release of Cyt C from mitochondria after incubation with selected agents. Both types of Ga(III) complexes showed more effective in inhibition of the G1/S transition than the ligand alone. ..
  27. Hajjar D, Kremb S, Sioud S, Emwas A, Voolstra C, Ravasi T. Anti-cancer agents in Saudi Arabian herbals revealed by automated high-content imaging. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177316 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate the usefulness of cell-based phenotypic screening of natural products to reveal their biological activities. ..
  28. Gross A, Jockel J, Wei M, Korsmeyer S. Enforced dimerization of BAX results in its translocation, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. EMBO J. 1998;17:3878-85 pubmed
    ..This conformational change in BAX manifests in its translocation, mitochondrial membrane insertion and homodimerization, and a program of mitochondrial dysfunction that results in cell death. ..
  29. Le Negrate G, Selva E, Auberger P, Rossi B, Hofman P. Sustained polymorphonuclear leukocyte transmigration induces apoptosis in T84 intestinal epithelial cells. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:1479-88 pubmed
    ..This apoptotic process appears to involve remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton of enterocytes independent of the Fas/Fas ligand pathway. ..
  30. Pan L, Zhang Y, Zhao W, Zhou X, Wang C, Deng F. The cardiac glycoside oleandrin induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017;80:91-100 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that oleandrin induces apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of anti-cancer property of oleandrin. ..
  31. Pereira D, Silva T, Losada Barreiro S, Valentão P, Paiva Martins F, Andrade P. Toxicity of phenolipids: Protocatechuic acid alkyl esters trigger disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase activation in macrophages. Chem Phys Lipids. 2017;206:16-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study addressing the toxicity and mechanism of action of protocatechuic acid derivatives, which is relevant in light of the recent interest in these molecules. ..
  32. Wang L, Han L, Ma X, Yu Q, Zhao S. Effect of mitochondrial apoptotic activation through the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore on yak meat tenderness during postmortem aging. Food Chem. 2017;234:323-331 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, yak meat tenderness was improved by mitochondrial apoptotic pathway during aging. MPTP opening may be influenced by the ROS generation and Ca2+ overloading in yak meat during postmortem aging. ..
  33. Yan X, Wang L, Yang X, Qiu Y, Tian X, Lv Y, et al. Fluoride induces apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes via the mitochondrial pathway. Chemosphere. 2017;182:159-165 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data suggest that apoptosis is involved in NaF-induced H9c2 cell toxicity and that activation of the mitochondrial pathway may occur. ..
  34. Argo A, Spatola G, Zerbo S, Sortino C, Lanzarone A, Uzzo M, et al. A possible biomarker for methadone related deaths. J Forensic Leg Med. 2017;49:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..When MTH is found to be present in significant concentrations, but apoptotic lesions are absent, it would be reasonable to assume that MTH was not primarily the cause of cardiorespiratory arrest. ..
  35. Rubio Osornio M, Orozco Ibarra M, Diaz Ruiz A, Brambila E, Boll M, Monroy Noyola A, et al. Copper sulfate pretreatment prevents mitochondrial electron transport chain damage and apoptosis against MPP+-induced neurotoxicity. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;271:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study provided evidence that copper pretreatment reduced MPP+-induced apoptotic damage, probably through direct action on copper-dependent proteins or indirectly on proteins in the apoptotic pathway. ..
  36. Hernández Padilla L, Vázquez Rivera D, Sánchez Briones L, Díaz Pérez A, Moreno Rodríguez J, Moreno Eutimio M, et al. The Antiproliferative Effect of Cyclodipeptides from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 on HeLa Cells Involves Inhibition of Phosphorylation of Akt and S6k Kinases. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together our findings indicate that PI3K-Akt-mTOR-S6k signaling pathway blockage is involved in the antiproliferative effect of the PAO1-CDPs. ..
  37. Cheng C, Xu J, Yu T. Neutralizing IL-6 reduces heart injury by decreasing nerve growth factor precursor in the heart and hypothalamus during rat cardiopulmonary bypass. Life Sci. 2017;178:61-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Suppressing inflammation attenuated myocardial apoptosis and autonomic nerve function disturbance in CPB rats, likely due in part to regulation of proNGF in the heart and hypothalamus. ..
  38. MacFarlane M, Merrison W, Dinsdale D, Cohen G. Active caspases and cleaved cytokeratins are sequestered into cytoplasmic inclusions in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:1239-54 pubmed
    ..We propose that effector caspase-mediated cleavage of cytokeratins, resulting in disassembly of the cytoskeleton and formation of cytoplasmic inclusions, may be a characteristic feature of epithelial cell apoptosis. ..
  39. Ozdogan S, Kafadar A, Yilmaz S, Tımırcı Kahraman Ö, Gormus U, Isbir T. Role of Caspase-9 Gene Ex5+32 G>A (rs1052576) Variant in Susceptibility to Primary Brain Tumors. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:4997-5000 pubmed
    ..CASP-9 (rs1052576) mutant A allele seems to be a protective factor for glioma brain tumor. Future studies with a larger sample size will clarify the possible roles of CASP-9 gene in the etiology and progression of primary brain tumors. ..
  40. Visiedo F, Santos Rosendo C, Mateos Bernal R, Gil Sánchez M, Bugatto F, Aguilar Diosdado M, et al. Characterization of NO-Induced Nitrosative Status in Human Placenta from Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:5629341 pubmed publisher
  41. Chen Z, Yu Y, Zuo Z, Nelson J, Michalopoulos G, Monga S, et al. Targeting genomic rearrangements in tumor cells through Cas9-mediated insertion of a suicide gene. Nat Biotechnol. 2017;35:543-550 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Cas9-mediated suicide-gene insertion may be a viable genotype-specific cancer therapy. ..
  42. Shimatani Z, Kashojiya S, Takayama M, Terada R, Arazoe T, Ishii H, et al. Targeted base editing in rice and tomato using a CRISPR-Cas9 cytidine deaminase fusion. Nat Biotechnol. 2017;35:441-443 pubmed publisher
  43. Matsunaga T, Morikawa Y, Kamata K, Shibata A, Miyazono H, Sasajima Y, et al. ?-Pyrrolidinononanophenone provokes apoptosis of neuronal cells through alterations in antioxidant properties. Toxicology. 2017;386:93-102 pubmed publisher
  44. Vural K, Kosova F, Kurt F, Tuglu I. In vitro investigation of the effect of matrix molecules on the behavior of colon cancer cells under the effect of geldanamycin derivative. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317720569 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect occurs through apoptosis, and related genes were also altered. All these genes may serve for novel target under the effect of matrix substrate. However, correct interpretation of the results requires further studies...
  45. Napoletano F, Gibert B, Yacobi Sharon K, Vincent S, Favrot C, Mehlen P, et al. p53-dependent programmed necrosis controls germ cell homeostasis during spermatogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007024 pubmed publisher
    ..This form of necrosis involved an atypical function of the initiator caspase Dronc/Caspase 9, independent of its catalytic activity...
  46. Lee J, Shin E, Kim B, Kim B, Chitsazian Yazdi M, Iranshahi M, et al. Auraptene Induces Apoptosis via Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1-Mediated Activation of Caspases in PC3 and DU145 Prostate Cancer Cells. Phytother Res. 2017;31:891-898 pubmed publisher
    ..Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ..
  47. Teitz T, Wei T, Valentine M, Vanin E, Grenet J, Valentine V, et al. Caspase 8 is deleted or silenced preferentially in childhood neuroblastomas with amplification of MYCN. Nat Med. 2000;6:529-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, caspase 8 acts as a tumor suppressor in neuroblastomas with amplification of MYCN. ..
  48. Jin Y, Fan J, Gu X, Zhang L, Han J, Du S, et al. Neuroprotective Activity of Cerebrosides from Typhonium giganteum by Regulating Caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 Signaling Pathways in PC12 Cells. J Nat Prod. 2017;80:1734-1741 pubmed publisher
  49. Kinkead L, Fayram D, Allen L. Francisella novicida inhibits spontaneous apoptosis and extends human neutrophil lifespan. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;102:815-828 pubmed publisher
  50. Li C, Wang Y, Wang C, Yi X, Li M, He X. Anticancer activities of harmine by inducing a pro-death autophagy and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. Phytomedicine. 2017;28:10-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of Bcl-2, Bax and the gathering of cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase 3 and cleaved-caspase 9 contributed to the induction of apoptosis...
  51. Liu Y, Zhao N, Li C, Chang Q, Liu X, Liao Y, et al. Longistyline C acts antidepressant in vivo and neuroprotection in vitro against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity by regulating NMDAR/NR2B-ERK pathway in PC12 cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183702 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusison, longistyline C is most possibly through regulating NMDAR/NR2B-ERK1/2 related pathway and restoring endoplasmic reticulum function to exert neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced injury in PC12 cells. ..
  52. Reynaud K, Driancourt M. Oocyte attrition. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000;163:101-8 pubmed
    ..the cleavage of the bcl(2) family member Bid, which will act on mitochondria, resulting in cytochrome c release, caspase 9 activation and finally, activation of all executioner caspases...
  53. Yu Y, Cao F, Ran Q, Wang F. Long non-coding RNA Gm4419 promotes trauma-induced astrocyte apoptosis by targeting tumor necrosis factor ?. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:478-485 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present study would expand the insight into the novel approaches for TBI therapy. ..
  54. Wang X. The expanding role of mitochondria in apoptosis. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2922-33 pubmed
  55. Yu B, Wen L, Xiao B, Han F, Shi Y. Single Prolonged Stress induces ATF6 alpha-dependent Endoplasmic reticulum stress and the apoptotic process in medial Frontal Cortex neurons. BMC Neurosci. 2014;15:115 pubmed publisher
    ..of ATF6α in the ER stress: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78 and ERP57, and apoptotic factors caspase 12, caspase 9, and caspase 3...
  56. Tu P, Huang W, Wu Z, Peng Q, Xie Z, Bao J, et al. Induction of cell death by pyropheophorbide-? methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy in lung cancer A549 cells. Cancer Med. 2017;6:631-639 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that MPPa-PDT mainly kills cells by apoptotic mechanisms, with overt curative effects, indicating that MPPa should be considered a potent photosensitizer for lung carcinoma treatment. ..
  57. Kim Y, Komor A, Levy J, Packer M, Zhao K, Liu D. Increasing the genome-targeting scope and precision of base editing with engineered Cas9-cytidine deaminase fusions. Nat Biotechnol. 2017;35:371-376 pubmed publisher
  58. Shakeri R, Kheirollahi A, Davoodi J. Apaf-1: Regulation and function in cell death. Biochimie. 2017;135:111-125 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, reports have emerged showing non-apoptotic functions for Apaf-1. The current review summarizes the latest findings regarding structure-function relationship of Apaf-1 as well as its modifiers. ..
  59. Yang Y, Yu Y, Wang J, Li Y, Li Y, Wei J, et al. Silica nanoparticles induced intrinsic apoptosis in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells via CytC/Apaf-1 pathway. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017;52:161-169 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study confirmed that SiNPs induced intrinsic apoptosis in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells via CytC/Apaf-1 pathway and provided a better understanding of the potential toxicity induced by SiNPs on human neurocyte. ..
  60. Omer F, Hashim N, Ibrahim M, Aldoubi A, Hassandarvish P, Dehghan F, et al. Beta-mangostin demonstrates apoptogenesis in murine leukaemia (WEHI-3) cells in vitro and in vivo. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:366 pubmed publisher
    ..In the in vivo study, BM reduced the destructive effects of leukaemia on the spleen and liver by inducing apoptosis in leukaemic cells. BM exerts anti-leukaemic properties in vitro and in vivo. ..
  61. Rose J, Stephany J, Valente W, Trevillian B, Dang H, Bielas J, et al. Rapidly inducible Cas9 and DSB-ddPCR to probe editing kinetics. Nat Methods. 2017;14:891-896 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we observe distinct kinetic profiles, even for proximal sites, and this suggests that target sequence and chromatin state modulate cleavage and repair kinetics. ..
  62. Li Y, Wen J, Du C, Hu S, Chen J, Zhang S, et al. Thymol inhibits bladder cancer cell proliferation via inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:530-536 pubmed publisher
    ..ROS scavenger NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) could block the thymol-triggered apoptosis and activation of MAPKs. These findings offer a novel therapeutic approach for bladder cancer. ..