transforming growth factors


Summary: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.

Top Publications

  1. Barton D, Foellmer B, Du J, Tamm J, Derynck R, Francke U. Chromosomal mapping of genes for transforming growth factors beta 2 and beta 3 in man and mouse: dispersion of TGF-beta gene family. Oncogene Res. 1988;3:323-31 pubmed
  2. Diab Assef M, Reimund J, Ezenfis J, Duclos B, Kedinger M, Foltzer Jourdainne C. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor, pentoxifylline, alters rat intestinal epithelial cell proliferation via changes in the expression of transforming growth factors. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2002;37:206-14 pubmed
    ..The drop in TGF-alpha mRNA is related to increasing intracellular cAMP, whereas the effect upon TGF-beta2 appears cAMP-independent. ..
  3. Lu Y, Wu L, Li C, Wang S, Han B. Expression of transforming growth factors in hepatocellular carcinoma and its relations with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2008;7:174-8 pubmed
    b>Transforming growth factors (TGF)-beta1, TGF-betaR2 and Smad4 belong to the TGF family, and play important roles in carcinogenesis and the development of carcinoma, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  4. Bagu E, Gordon J, Rawlings N. Postnatal changes in testicular concentrations of transforming growth factors-alpha and-beta 1, 2 and 3 and serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor I in bulls. Reprod Domest Anim. 2010;45:348-53 pubmed publisher
    Based on work largely in laboratory animals, transforming growth factors (TGF) and insulin like growth factors (IGF) could be regulators of testicular development...
  5. Ridley A, Davis J, Stroobant P, Land H. Transforming growth factors-beta 1 and beta 2 are mitogens for rat Schwann cells. J Cell Biol. 1989;109:3419-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, TGF-beta 1 and beta 2 are rat Schwann cell mitogens, and Schwann cells are one of the few normal cell populations to respond mitogenically to TGF-beta. ..
  6. Xu H, Jiang W, Feng L, Liu Y, Wu P, Jiang J, et al. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depresses the growth, head kidney and spleen immunity and structural integrity by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, apoptosis and MLCK signaling in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;52:111-38 pubmed publisher
    ..2, 137.5, 135.8 and 129.8 mg/kg diet, respectively. ..
  7. Cardoso A, Fernandes A, Aguilar Pimentel J, de Angelis M, Guedes J, Brito M, et al. Towards frailty biomarkers: Candidates from genes and pathways regulated in aging and age-related diseases. Ageing Res Rev. 2018;47:214-277 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that these predicted panels need to be experimentally explored in animal models and frail cohorts in order to ascertain their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential. ..
  8. Xu H, Jiang W, Feng L, Liu Y, Wu P, Jiang J, et al. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depressed the gill physical barriers and immune barriers referring to Nrf2, apoptosis, MLCK, NF-?B and TOR signaling in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) under infection of Flavobacterium columnare. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;58:177-192 pubmed publisher
    ..8, 156.6, 110.8, 57.8 and 134.9 mg/kg diet, respectively. ..
  9. Gao P, Yang B, Yu H, Meng R, Si J. Carvedilol alleviates the biliary cirrhosis through inhibiting the endoplasmic reticulum stress. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21:5813-5820 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Li S, Feng L, Jiang W, Liu Y, Jiang J, Wu P, et al. Deficiency of dietary niacin impaired gill immunity and antioxidant capacity, and changes its tight junction proteins via regulating NF-?B, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;55:212-22 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In conclusion, niacin deficiency decreased gill immunity, impaired gill antioxidant system, as well as regulated mRNA expression of gill tight junction proteins and related signaling molecules of fish. ..
  2. Li J, Shi J, Li P, Guo X, Wang T, Liu A. Genipin attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury and pulmonary hypertension via targeting glycogen synthase kinase-3 β in neonatal rats. Nutrition. 2019;57:237-244 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, genipin may provide a novel therapeutic option for preventing and treating infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. ..
  3. Liu S, Feng L, Jiang W, Liu Y, Jiang J, Wu P, et al. Impact of exogenous lipase supplementation on growth, intestinal function, mucosal immune and physical barrier, and related signaling molecules mRNA expression of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;55:88-105 pubmed publisher
    ..The optimal level of exogenous lipase supplementation in young grass carp (255-771 g) was estimated to be 1193 U kg(-1) diet. ..
  4. Mao Z, Shen S, Wan Y, Sun W, Chen H, Huang M, et al. Huangkui capsule attenuates renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy rats through regulating oxidative stress and p38MAPK/Akt pathways, compared to α-lipoic acid. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;173:256-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus provide the useful information about a clinical combination of HKC and LA in early DN patients. ..
  5. Chen L, Feng L, Jiang W, Jiang J, Wu P, Zhao J, et al. Dietary riboflavin deficiency decreases immunity and antioxidant capacity, and changes tight junction proteins and related signaling molecules mRNA expression in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;45:307-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on percent weight gain, gill lysozyme activity and reduced glutathione content, the dietary riboflavin requirements for young grass carp (275-722 g) were estimated to be 5.85, 7.39 and 6.34 mg/kg diet, respectively. ..
  6. Schwabl P, Hambruch E, Seeland B, Hayden H, Wagner M, Garnys L, et al. The FXR agonist PX20606 ameliorates portal hypertension by targeting vascular remodelling and sinusoidal dysfunction. J Hepatol. 2017;66:724-733 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PX20606 leads to an improved blood flow through the liver and decreases hypertension of the portal vein. Additionally, PX20606 improves the altered intestinal barrier and decreases bacterial migration from the gut. ..
  7. Li L, Feng L, Jiang W, Jiang J, Wu P, Zhao J, et al. Dietary pantothenic acid depressed the gill immune and physical barrier function via NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, p38MAPK and MLCK signaling pathways in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;47:500-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the quadratic regression analysis of gill lysozyme activity, the optimal PA levels in grass carp (253.44-745.25 g) were estimated to be 36.97 mg/kg diet. ..
  8. Zhang L, Li Y, Guan C, Tian S, Lv X, Li J, et al. Therapeutic effect of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells on injured rat endometrium during its chronic phase. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2018;9:36 pubmed publisher
  9. Hassan M, Ghobara M. Antifibrotic effect of meloxicam in rat liver: role of nuclear factor kappa B, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2016;389:971-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Abrogation of oxidative stress and modulation of liver-metabolizing enzymes (CYP2E1 and GST) were also involved. ..
  10. Setiawan M, Tan X, Goh T, Hin Fai Yam G, Mehta J. Inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 and transforming growth factor-? signaling to promote epithelial transition of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1381-1388 pubmed publisher
    ..Human ADSCs were transited to epithelial lineage by inhibiting GSK3 and TGF? signaling. It can be an adult stem cell source for epithelial cell-based therapy. ..
  11. Arauz J, Zarco N, Hernández Aquino E, Galicia Moreno M, Favari L, Segovia J, et al. Coffee consumption prevents fibrosis in a rat model that mimics secondary biliary cirrhosis in humans. Nutr Res. 2017;40:65-74 pubmed publisher
  12. Bina F, Soleymani S, Toliat T, Hajimahmoodi M, Tabarrai M, Abdollahi M, et al. Plant-derived medicines for treatment of endometriosis: A comprehensive review of molecular mechanisms. Pharmacol Res. 2019;139:76-90 pubmed publisher
    ..So, medicinal plants seem to be a valuable source for identifying new drugs for treatment of endometriosis; however, since most of studies are preclinical, further clinical trials are required to achieve more conclusive results. ..
  13. Shi L, Feng L, Jiang W, Liu Y, Jiang J, Wu P, et al. Folic acid deficiency impairs the gill health status associated with the NF-κB, MLCK and Nrf2 signaling pathways in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;47:289-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on percent weight gain, LZ activity and MDA content in the gills, the dietary folic acid requirements for young grass carp were 1.60, 2.07 and 2.08 mg kg(-1), respectively. ..
  14. Jiang W, Feng L, Qu B, Wu P, Kuang S, Jiang J, et al. Changes in integrity of the gill during histidine deficiency or excess due to depression of cellular anti-oxidative ability, induction of apoptosis, inflammation and impair of cell-cell tight junctions related to Nrf2, TOR and NF-?B signaling in fish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;56:111-122 pubmed publisher
  15. Ismail A, Salem A, Eassawy M. Modulation of gamma-irradiation and carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in the brain of female rats by flaxseed oil. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2016;161:91-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, FSO exhibited neuroprotective activity on ?-irradiated, CCl4, and their combined effect induced brain injury in rats. ..
  16. Ali M, Khan T, Fatima K, Ali Q, Ovais M, Khalil A, et al. Selected hepatoprotective herbal medicines: Evidence from ethnomedicinal applications, animal models, and possible mechanism of actions. Phytother Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..However, further research is needed to identify, characterize, and standardize the active ingredients, useful compounds, and their preparations for the treatment of liver diseases...
  17. Qin Y, Zhai Q, Li Y, Cao M, Xu Y, Zhao K, et al. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside ameliorates diabetic nephropathy through regulation of glutathione pool. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;103:1223-1230 pubmed publisher
    ..The data demonstrates that enhancement of GSH pool is involved in the renal-protective effects of C3G. Overall, C3G could be a promising therapeutic option for attenuation of diabetes and DN. ..
  18. Kameyama H, Udagawa O, Hoshi T, Toukairin Y, Arai T, Nogami M. The mRNA expressions and immunohistochemistry of factors involved in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the early stage of rat skin incision wounds. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2015;17:255-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our novel findings show the possible involvement of several factors involved in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the early stage of wound healing process, which may be useful for forensic wound evaluations. ..
  19. Feng L, Li W, Liu Y, Jiang W, Kuang S, Wu P, et al. Protective role of phenylalanine on the ROS-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and tight junction damage via Nrf2, TOR and NF-?B signalling molecules in the gill of fish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;60:185-196 pubmed publisher
  20. Zeng Y, Feng L, Jiang W, Liu Y, Wu P, Jiang J, et al. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid/linoleic acid ratios modulate immune response, physical barrier and related signaling molecules mRNA expression in the gills of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;62:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the quadratic regression analysis of complement 3 content in the gill, optimal dietary ALA/LNA ratio for maximum growth of juvenile grass carp was estimated to be 1.12. ..
  21. Liu X, Shen M, Qi Q, Zhang H, Guo S. Corroborating evidence for platelet-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation in the development of adenomyosis. Hum Reprod. 2016;31:734-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Support for data collection and analysis was provided by grants from the National Science Foundation of China. None of the authors has anything to disclose. ..
  22. Kabel A, Abd Elmaaboud M, Albarraq A. Ameliorative potential of omega 3 fatty acids and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on experimentally-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2015;96:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This might be attributed to the effect of fish oil on the lipid profile, inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance and TGF-β1 which potentiates the effect of atorvastatin on NASH. ..
  23. Feng L, Luo J, Jiang W, Liu Y, Wu P, Jiang J, et al. Changes in barrier health status of the gill for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during valine deficiency: Regulation of tight junction protein transcript, antioxidant status and apoptosis-related gene expression. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;45:239-49 pubmed publisher