transforming growth factor beta2


Summary: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.

Top Publications

  1. Li J, Chen C, Bi X, Zhou C, Huang T, Ni C, et al. DNA methylation of CMTM3, SSTR2, and MDFI genes in colorectal cancer. Gene. 2017;630:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..92. The findings of this study have shown that DNA methylation of the genes, CMTM3, SSTR2, and MDFI should be studied further with a view to determining their potential role as biomarkers for CRC. ..
  2. Chida T, Ito M, Nakashima K, Kanegae Y, Aoshima T, Takabayashi S, et al. Critical role of CREBH-mediated induction of transforming growth factor ?2 by hepatitis C virus infection in fibrogenic responses in hepatic stellate cells. Hepatology. 2017;66:1430-1443 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatology 2017;66:1430-1443). ..
  3. Westphal D, Glitza Oliva I, Niessner H. Molecular insights into melanoma brain metastases. Cancer. 2017;123:2163-2175 pubmed publisher
    ..Only by knowing the molecular background is it possible to design new therapeutic agents that can be used to improve the outcome of patients with melanoma brain metastases. Cancer 2017;123:2163-75. © 2017 American Cancer Society. ..
  4. Howe G, Kazda K, Addison C. MicroRNA-30b controls endothelial cell capillary morphogenesis through regulation of transforming growth factor beta 2. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185619 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support that the regulation of miR-30b by VEGF in HUVEC is important for capillary morphogenesis, as increased miR-30b expression inhibits capillary morphogenesis through enhanced expression of TGF?2...
  5. Kim M, Sung K, Shin J, Young Yoon J, Jang J. Statins reduce TGF-beta2-modulation of the extracellular matrix in cultured astrocytes of the human optic nerve head. Exp Eye Res. 2017;164:55-63 pubmed publisher
  6. Liao K, Chang S, Chang H, Chien C, Huang T, Feng T, et al. Endothelial angiogenesis is directed by RUNX1T1-regulated VEGFA, BMP4 and TGF-?2 expression. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179758 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the discovery and application of pharmaceutical activators for RUNX1T1 will improve therapeutic efficacy toward ischemia by promoting neovascularization. ..
  7. Hernandez H, Medina Ortiz W, Luan T, Clark A, McDowell C. Crosstalk Between Transforming Growth Factor Beta-2 and Toll-Like Receptor 4 in the Trabecular Meshwork. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:1811-1823 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies identify TGF?2-TLR4 crosstalk as a novel pathway involved in ECM regulation in the TM and ocular hypertension. These data further explain the complex mechanisms involved in the development of glaucomatous TM damage. ..
  8. Montecchi Palmer M, Bermudez J, Webber H, Patel G, Clark A, Mao W. TGF?2 Induces the Formation of Cross-Linked Actin Networks (CLANs) in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells Through the Smad and Non-Smad Dependent Pathways. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:1288-1295 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF?2-induced CLANs in NTM cells were prevented and resolved using various pathway inhibitors. Apart from CLAN inhibition, some of these inhibitors also had different effects on actin stress fibers. ..
  9. Stadnikova A, Dudakova L, Skalicka P, Valenta Z, Filipec M, Jirsova K. Active transforming growth factor-?2 in the aqueous humor of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy patients. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175509 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Zhang B, Chen Y, Qiu M, Ding Z. Long noncoding RNA expression profile in HLE B-3 cells during TGF-?2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:69 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study lays the foundation for future research in lncRNAs related to EMT in HLE B-3 cells and could provide new avenues for the prevention and treatment of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). ..
  2. Bohlen C, Bennett F, Tucker A, Collins H, Mulinyawe S, Barres B. Diverse Requirements for Microglial Survival, Specification, and Function Revealed by Defined-Medium Cultures. Neuron. 2017;94:759-773.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the specialized gene expression profile of mature microglia requires continuous instructive signaling from the intact CNS. ..
  3. Arno A, Amini Nik S, Blit P, Al Shehab M, Belo C, Herer E, et al. Human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing through paracrine signaling. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014;5:28 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and migration (P?0.05), and promoted wound healing in an excisional full-thickness skin murine model. Under our experimental conditions, WJ-MSCs enhanced skin wound healing in an in vivo mouse model. ..
  4. Disha K, Schulz S, Kuntze T, Girdauskas E. Transforming Growth Factor Beta-2 Mutations in Barlow's Disease and Aortic Dilatation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017;104:e19-e21 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the parents presented with either valve dysfunction or aortic root dilatation. This rare case illustrates potentially common genetic and signaling pathways of concomitant myxomatous valve disease and aortic root dilatation. ..
  5. Angelov S, Hu J, Wei H, Airhart N, Shi M, Dichek D. TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor-β) Signaling Protects the Thoracic and Abdominal Aorta From Angiotensin II-Induced Pathology by Distinct Mechanisms. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:2102-2113 pubmed publisher
    ..Smooth muscle extrinsic signaling protects the abdominal aorta and smooth muscle intrinsic signaling protects the thoracic aorta. ..
  6. Futakuchi A, Inoue T, Fujimoto T, Kuroda U, Inoue Mochita M, Takahashi E, et al. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Filtration Bleb-Maintaining Effects of Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:2421-2429 pubmed publisher
    ..This in vitro study provides new evidence for the molecular basis of the potential bleb-maintaining effects of SAHA, a novel candidate drug in modulating scar formation after glaucoma filtration surgery. ..
  7. Matoba R, Morizane Y, Shiode Y, Hirano M, Doi S, Toshima S, et al. Suppressive effect of AMP-activated protein kinase on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in retinal pigment epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181481 pubmed publisher
    ..AMPK is a potential target molecule for the prevention and treatment of PVR, so AICAR may be a promising candidate for PVR therapy. ..
  8. Mir F, Contreras Ruiz L, Masli S. Thrombospondin-1-dependent immune regulation by transforming growth factor-β2-exposed antigen-presenting cells. Immunology. 2015;146:547-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings introduce the integrin-independent mechanism of TGF-β activation as an integral part of peripheral immune tolerance associated with TGF-β2-expressing tissues. ..
  9. Pellegatta S, Valletta L, Corbetta C, Patanè M, Zucca I, Riccardi Sirtori F, et al. Effective immuno-targeting of the IDH1 mutation R132H in a murine model of intracranial glioma. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2015;3:4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the translational potential of immunotherapeutic targeting of gliomas carrying IDH1 mutations. ..
  10. Yoshida S, Nakama T, Ishikawa K, Nakao S, Sonoda K, Ishibashi T. Periostin in vitreoretinal diseases. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017;74:4329-4337 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that periostin is a pivotal molecule for FVM formation and a promising therapeutic target for these proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. ..
  11. De Feo D, Merlini A, Brambilla E, Ottoboni L, Laterza C, Menon R, et al. Neural precursor cell-secreted TGF-β2 redirects inflammatory monocyte-derived cells in CNS autoimmunity. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:3937-3953 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides evidence that intrathecally transplanted NPCs interfere with the CNS-restricted inflammation of EAE by reprogramming infiltrating MCs into antiinflammatory myeloid cells via secretion of TGF-β2. ..
  12. Végh P, Magee D, Nalpas N, Bryan K, McCabe M, Browne J, et al. MicroRNA profiling of the bovine alveolar macrophage response to Mycobacterium bovis infection suggests pathogen survival is enhanced by microRNA regulation of endocytosis and lysosome trafficking. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2015;95:60-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our study suggests that miRNAs play a key role in tuning the complex interplay between M. bovis survival strategies and the host immune response. ..