transforming growth factor beta1


Summary: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.

Top Publications

  1. Zhang W, Ou J, Inagaki Y, Greenwel P, Ramirez F. Synergistic cooperation between Sp1 and Smad3/Smad4 mediates transforming growth factor beta1 stimulation of alpha 2(I)-collagen (COL1A2) transcription. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:39237-45 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first linkage between the Smad3 and Smad4 proteins and TGFbeta stimulation of type I collagen biosynthesis. ..
  2. Duan N, Liu X, Wu J. Palmitic acid elicits hepatic stellate cell activation through inflammasomes and hedgehog signaling. Life Sci. 2017;176:42-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, compromised autophagy may facilitate HSC activation, implicating valuable candidates for pharmacologic intervention against the progression of fibrogenesis in NASH. ..
  3. Dimitrova Y, Gruber A, Mittal N, Ghosh S, Dimitriades B, Mathow D, et al. TFAP2A is a component of the ZEB1/2 network that regulates TGFB1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Biol Direct. 2017;12:8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that TFAP2A is a conserved component of the core network that regulates EMT, acting as a repressor of many genes, including ZEB2. This article has been reviewed by Dr. Martijn Huynen and Dr. Nicola Aceto. ..
  4. Liu M, Yeh J, Huang Y, Redondo A, Ke J, Yao J, et al. EFFECT OF TRIPTOLIDE ON PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS OF ANGIOTENSIN II-INDUCED CARDIAC FIBROBLASTS IN VITRO: A PRELIMINARY STUDY. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2017;14:145-154 pubmed publisher
    ..05). TPL can inhibit the proliferation of CFbs in rats by down-regulating TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling pathway. TPL might be a promising therapeutic drug for myocardial fibrosis. ..
  5. Ghatak S, Markwald R, Hascall V, Dowling W, Lottes R, Baatz J, et al. Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1) regulates CD44V6 expression and activity through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-induced EGR1 in pulmonary fibrogenic fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:10465-10489 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a novel positive-feedback loop that links the myofibroblast phenotype to TGF?1-stimulated CD44V6/ERK/EGR1 signaling. ..
  6. De Langhe E, Cailotto F, De Vooght V, Aznar López C, Vanoirbeek J, Luyten F, et al. Enhanced endogenous bone morphogenetic protein signaling protects against bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis. Respir Res. 2015;16:38 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulating the balance between BMP and TGF?, in particular increasing endogenous BMP signals, may therefore be a therapeutic target in fibrotic lung disease. ..
  7. Zheng Y, Miu Y, Yang X, Yang X, Zhu M. CCR7 Mediates TGF-?1-Induced Human Malignant Glioma Invasion, Migration, and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Activating MMP2/9 Through the Nuclear Factor KappaB Signaling Pathway. DNA Cell Biol. 2017;36:853-861 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that CCR7 is a potential therapeutic target for malignant glioma. ..
  8. Winsz Szczotka K, Komosinska Vassev K, Kuznik Trocha K, Siwiec A, Żegleń B, Olczyk K. Circulating keratan sulfate as a marker of metabolic changes of cartilage proteoglycan in juvenile idiopathic arthritis; influence of growth factors as well as proteolytic and prooxidative agents on aggrecan alterations. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2015;53:291-7 pubmed publisher
  9. Wu L. Functional characteristics of a novel SMAD4 mutation from thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA). Gene. 2017;628:129-133 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that Smad4 may not directly induce TAA; rather it may contribute to TAA in combination with other risk factors. ..

More Information


  1. Biswas S, Bachay G, Chu J, Hunter D, Brunken W. Laminin-Dependent Interaction between Astrocytes and Microglia: A Role in Retinal Angiogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:2112-2127 pubmed publisher
    ..The reverse effects were seen in the Lamb2-/- retina. Together, our results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which laminins modulate vascular branching and endothelial cell proliferation during retinal angiogenesis. ..
  2. Hiwatashi N, Bing R, Kraja I, Branski R. NR4A1 is an endogenous inhibitor of vocal fold fibrosis. Laryngoscope. 2017;127:E317-E323 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a foundation for the development of therapeutic strategies given persistent TGF-? signaling in vocal fold fibrosis. N/A Laryngoscope, 127:E317-E323, 2017. ..
  3. Hong S, Choo E, Ihm S, Chang K, Seung K. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor attenuates obesity-induced myocardial fibrosis by inhibiting transforming growth factor-?l and Smad2/3 pathways in high-fat diet-induced obesity rat model. Metabolism. 2017;76:42-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, DPP4 inhibition attenuated myocardial fibrosis and improved LV diastolic dysfunction in a DIO rat model by modulating the TGF-?1 and Smad2/3 pathways. ..
  4. Malik S, Suchal K, Khan S, Bhatia J, Kishore K, Dinda A, et al. Apigenin ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats via MAPK-NF-?B-TNF-? and TGF-?1-MAPK-fibronectin pathways. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;313:F414-F422 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, all of these changes were comparable with those produced by ramipril. Hence, apigenin ameliorated renal damage due to DN by suppressing oxidative stress and fibrosis and by inhibiting MAPK pathway. ..
  5. Bolton J, Montastier E, Carayol J, Bonnel S, Mir L, Marques M, et al. Molecular Biomarkers for Weight Control in Obese Individuals Subjected to a Multiphase Dietary Intervention. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2751-2761 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, ASPN is a TGF-?1 inhibitor. We found circulating biomarkers associated with weight control that could influence weight management strategies and genes that may be prognostic for successful weight control. ..
  6. Xiao Z, Chen S, Cheng J, Zhou W, Zhang Y, Yang R, et al. Y27, a novel derivative of 4-hydroxyquinoline-3-formamide, prevents the development of murine systemic lupus erythematosus-like diseases in MRL/lpr autoimmune mice and BDF1 hybrid mice. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R235 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental evidence of the protect effects of Y27 against autoimmune nephritis has been shown. The mechanism may involve enhancement of the suppressive capacity of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells. ..
  7. Cheng J, Chang H, Leung P. TGF-?1 Inhibits Human Trophoblast Cell Invasion by Upregulating Connective Tissue Growth Factor Expression. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3620-3628 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, cell invasiveness is decreased by treatment with recombinant CTGF. These results provide evidence that CTGF mediates TGF-?1-inhibited human trophoblast cell invasion. ..
  8. Xu J, Tao B, Guo X, Zhou S, Li Y, Zhang Y, et al. Macrophage-Restricted Shp2 Tyrosine Phosphatase Acts as a Rheostat for MMP12 through TGF-? Activation in the Prevention of Age-Related Emphysema in Mice. J Immunol. 2017;199:2323-2332 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings define a novel physiological function of Shp2 in TGF-?1/MMP12-dependent emphysema, adding insights into potential etiologies for this chronic lung disorder. ..
  9. Candia E, Reyes P, Covian C, Rodriguez F, Wainstein N, Morales J, et al. Single and combined effect of retinoic acid and rapamycin modulate the generation, activity and homing potential of induced human regulatory T cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182009 pubmed publisher
    ..Treg cells generated in the presence of RAPA show the most potent suppression effect on the proliferation of effector cells. ..
  10. Sui H, Zhao J, Zhou L, Wen H, Deng W, Li C, et al. Tanshinone IIA inhibits β-catenin/VEGF-mediated angiogenesis by targeting TGF-β1 in normoxic and HIF-1α in hypoxic microenvironments in human colorectal cancer. Cancer Lett. 2017;403:86-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our research provides a new anti-angiogenesis strategy and strengthens support for the use of Tan IIA as an angiogenesis inhibitor. ..
  11. Du L, Lei Y, Chen J, Song H, Wu X. Potential Ameliorative Effects of Qing Ye Dan Against Cadmium Induced Prostatic Deficits via Regulating Nrf-2/HO-1 and TGF-?1/Smad Pathways. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;43:1359-1368 pubmed publisher
    ..Swertia mileensis is used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of prostatic deficits and named as Qing Ye Dan (QYD). This study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effects of QYD against Cd-induced prostatic deficits...
  12. Kitai M, Fukuda N, Ueno T, Endo M, Maruyama T, Abe M, et al. Effects of a spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor on progression of the lupus nephritis in mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2017;134:29-36 pubmed publisher
  13. Foster C, Gualdrini F, Treisman R. Mutual dependence of the MRTF-SRF and YAP-TEAD pathways in cancer-associated fibroblasts is indirect and mediated by cytoskeletal dynamics. Genes Dev. 2017;31:2361-2375 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the MRF-SRF and YAP-TEAD pathways interact indirectly through their ability to control cytoskeletal dynamics. ..
  14. Tone M, Greene M. Cooperative regulatory events and Foxp3 expression. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:14-6 pubmed publisher
  15. Kenny H, Chiang C, White E, Schryver E, Habis M, Romero I, et al. Mesothelial cells promote early ovarian cancer metastasis through fibronectin secretion. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:4614-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that cancer-associated mesothelial cells promote colonization during the initial steps of OvCa metastasis and suggest that mesothelial cells actively contribute to metastasis. ..
  16. Li Y, Hu F, Xue M, Jia Y, Zheng Z, Wang L, et al. Klotho down-regulates Egr-1 by inhibiting TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling in high glucose treated human mesangial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;487:216-222 pubmed publisher
    ..Klotho overexpression can prevent mesangial ECM production in high-glucose-treated human MCs, an effect that has been partially attributed to Egr-1 down-regulation facilitated by TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling inhibition. ..
  17. Setiawan M, Tan X, Goh T, Hin Fai Yam G, Mehta J. Inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 and transforming growth factor-? signaling to promote epithelial transition of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1381-1388 pubmed publisher
    ..Human ADSCs were transited to epithelial lineage by inhibiting GSK3 and TGF? signaling. It can be an adult stem cell source for epithelial cell-based therapy. ..
  18. Liu H, He X, Li G, Ding Q, Liang W, Fan J. [Effects of microRNA-145 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of TGF-?1-induced human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2017;19:712-718 pubmed
    ..05). miR-145 modulates the EMT of HK-2 cells treated with TGF-?1, possibly by inhibition of the activation of TGF-?-dependent Smad signaling pathway. ..
  19. Li F, Surolia R, Li H, Wang Z, Kulkarni T, Liu G, et al. Autoimmunity to Vimentin Is Associated with Outcomes of Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. J Immunol. 2017;199:1596-1605 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have implications with regard to the pathogenesis of this enigmatic disease and raise the possibility that therapies specifically directed at these autoimmune processes could have therapeutic efficacy. ..
  20. Xiao X, Fischbach S, Zhang T, Chen C, Sheng Q, Zimmerman R, et al. SMAD3/Stat3 Signaling Mediates ?-Cell Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Chronic Pancreatitis-Related Diabetes. Diabetes. 2017;66:2646-2658 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest that chronic pancreatitis may trigger TGF?1-mediated ?-cell EMT to lead to CPRD, which could substantially be prevented by sustained expression of FoxO1 in ?-cells. ..
  21. Zheng J, Ma L, Ren Q, Li L, Zhang Y, Shi H, et al. The influence of astragalus polysaccharide and ?-elemene on LX-2 cell growth, apoptosis and activation. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:224 pubmed publisher
    ..SMA and CD44 expressions was inhibited upon APS + ELE treatment through TGF-? pathway in LX-2 cells. The results indicated a novel treatment using natural products for liver diseases with anti-fibrotic effect. ..
  22. Rodríguez García A, Samsó P, Fontova P, Simon Molas H, Manzano A, Castaño E, et al. TGF-?1 targets Smad, p38 MAPK, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways to induce PFKFB3 gene expression and glycolysis in glioblastoma cells. FEBS J. 2017;284:3437-3454 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that PFKFB3 induction by TGF-?1 can be one of the main mechanisms mediating the reprogramming of glioma cells. ..
  23. Chen L, Xiao J, Kuroda J, Ago T, Sadoshima J, Cohen R, et al. Both hydrogen peroxide and transforming growth factor beta 1 contribute to endothelial Nox4 mediated angiogenesis in endothelial Nox4 transgenic mouse lines. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842:2489-99 pubmed
    ..vascular endothelial growth factor receptor2 (VEGFR2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) were upregulated in EWT both in the ischemic muscle and in heart ECs, while TGFbeta1 was ..
  24. El Mihi K, Kenawy H, El Karef A, Elsherbiny N, Eissa L. Naringin attenuates thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats through modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Life Sci. 2017;187:50-57 pubmed publisher
    ..NR alleviated experimental liver fibrosis through inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway beside its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Therefore, NR is a promising therapeutic candidate for hepatic fibrosis. ..
  25. Aström P, Juurikka K, Hadler Olsen E, Svineng G, Cervigne N, Coletta R, et al. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinase-8, transforming growth factor-?1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-C cooperatively contributes to the aggressiveness of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2017;117:1007-1016 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, low MMP-8 and high VEGF-C expression have strong independent prognostic value in OTSCC. ..
  26. Shirzad H, Bagheri N, Azadegan Dehkordi F, Zamanzad B, Izadpanah E, Abdi M, et al. New insight to IL-23/IL-17 axis in Iranian infected adult patients with gastritis: effects of genes polymorphisms on expression of cytokines. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2015;78:212-8 pubmed
    ..pylori-infected patients with chronic gastritis. These results suggest that IL-17A G197A, IL-17F A7488G and IL23R +2199A/C polymorphisms no alter mucosal cytokine pattern in Iranian patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis diseases. ..
  27. Diniz L, Tortelli V, Matias I, Morgado J, Bérgamo Araujo A, Melo H, et al. Astrocyte Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Protects Synapses against A? Oligomers in Alzheimer's Disease Model. J Neurosci. 2017;37:6797-6809 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results describe a new mechanism underlying the toxicity of A?Os and indicate novel therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease, mainly focused on TGF-?1 and astrocytes. ..
  28. Thum T, Lorenzen J. Cardiac fibrosis revisited by microRNA therapeutics. Circulation. 2012;126:800-2 pubmed publisher
  29. Xu X, Zhang J, Zhan S, Li Z, Liu X, Zhang H, et al. TGF-?1 improving abnormal pregnancy outcomes induced by Toxoplasma gondii infection: Regulating NKG2D/DAP10 and killer subset of decidual NK cells. Cell Immunol. 2017;317:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that TGF-?1 might be a potential immunoprotective method for the treatment of abnormal pregnancy outcomes following T. gondii infection. ..
  30. Cheng M, Wu G, Song Y, Wang L, Tu L, Zhang L, et al. Celastrol-Induced Suppression of the MiR-21/ERK Signalling Pathway Attenuates Cardiac Fibrosis and Dysfunction. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;38:1928-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Celastrol ameliorates myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction, these probably related to miR-21/ERK signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. ..
  31. Faust I, Donhauser E, Fischer B, Ibold B, Kuhn J, Knabbe C, et al. Characterization of dermal myofibroblast differentiation in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Exp Cell Res. 2017;360:153-162 pubmed publisher
    ..These results not only improve our insights into cellular PXE pathophysiology, but might also qualify us to interfere with ECM remodeling in the future. ..
  32. Miret N, Rico Leo E, Pontillo C, Zotta E, Fernández Salguero P, Randi A. A dioxin-like compound induces hyperplasia and branching morphogenesis in mouse mammary gland, through alterations in TGF-?1 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;334:192-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that environmental HCB concentrations modulate AhR and TGF-?1 signaling, which could contribute to altered mammary branching morphogenesis, likely leading to preneoplastic lesions and retaining terminal end buds. ..
  33. Nie Y, Sun L, Wu Y, Yang Y, Wang J, He H, et al. AKT2 Regulates Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis via Modulating Macrophage Activation. J Immunol. 2017;198:4470-4480 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that AKT2 modulates pulmonary fibrosis through inducing TGF-?1 and IL-13 production by macrophages, and inhibition of AKT2 may be a potential strategy for treating IPF. ..
  34. Zhong J, Liu C, Zhang Q, Chen L, Shen Y, Chen Y, et al. TGF-?1 induces HMGA1 expression: The role of HMGA1 in thyroid cancer proliferation and invasion. Int J Oncol. 2017;50:1567-1578 pubmed publisher
  35. Chen H, Wang L, Wang W, Cheng C, Zhang Y, Zhou Y, et al. ELABELA and an ELABELA Fragment Protect against AKI. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28:2694-2707 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest that ELA32 and ELA11 may be therapeutic candidates for treating AKI. ..
  36. Feldkoren B, Hutchinson R, Rapoport Y, Mahajan A, Margulis V. Integrin signaling potentiates transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) dependent down-regulation of E-Cadherin expression - Important implications for epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal cell carcinoma. Exp Cell Res. 2017;355:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular machinery involved in the integrin ?v-TGF-?1 interplay may represent a therapeutic target in RCC. ..
  37. Ghatak S, Hascall V, Markwald R, Feghali Bostwick C, Artlett C, Gooz M, et al. Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1)-induced CD44V6-NOX4 signaling in pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:10490-10519 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies support a function for CD44V6 in lung fibrosis and offer proof of concept for therapeutic targeting of CD44V6 in lung fibrosis disorders. ..
  38. Pan X, Zhou J, Yao X, Shu J, Liu J, Yang J, et al. Transplantation of induced mesenchymal stem cells for treating chronic renal insufficiency. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176273 pubmed publisher
    ..The ultimate goal was to explore the effects of iMSC transplantation on the treatment of chronic renal insufficiency, with the aim of providing a new therapeutic modality for this disease. ..
  39. Ballmann C, Denney T, Beyers R, Quindry T, Romero M, Selsby J, et al. Long-term dietary quercetin enrichment as a cardioprotective countermeasure in mdx mice. Exp Physiol. 2017;102:635-649 pubmed publisher
  40. Zhang Y, Zhang L, Lin X, Li Z, Zhang Q. Knockdown of IRF3 inhibits extracellular matrix expression in keloid fibroblasts. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;88:1064-1068 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings suggest that IRF3 may represent a promising target for treatment of the keloid disease. ..
  41. Wendt M, Taylor M, Schiemann B, Sossey Alaoui K, Schiemann W. Fibroblast growth factor receptor splice variants are stable markers of oncogenic transforming growth factor ?1 signaling in metastatic breast cancers. Breast Cancer Res. 2014;16:R24 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, FGFR1 isoform expression can be used as a predictive biomarker for therapeutic application of its kinase inhibitors. ..
  42. van Caam A, Madej W, García de Vinuesa A, Goumans M, Ten Dijke P, Blaney Davidson E, et al. TGF?1-induced SMAD2/3 and SMAD1/5 phosphorylation are both ALK5-kinase-dependent in primary chondrocytes and mediated by TAK1 kinase activity. Arthritis Res Ther. 2017;19:112 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data regarding (5Z)-7-Oxozeaenol suggest that TAK1 facilitates Smad-dependent signaling. ..
  43. Tinoco Veras C, Santos A, Stipursky J, Meloni M, Araujo A, Foschetti D, et al. Transforming Growth Factor β1/SMAD Signaling Pathway Activation Protects the Intestinal Epithelium from Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Damage. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data show that TcdA induces TGF-β1 signaling pathway activation and suggest that this pathway might play a protective role against the effect of C. difficile-toxin. ..
  44. Chaudhari S, Li W, Wang Y, Jiang H, Ma Y, Davis M, et al. Store-operated calcium entry suppressed the TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling pathway in glomerular mesangial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;313:F729-F739 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that SOCE in MCs negatively regulates the TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling pathway. ..
  45. Yang Y, Nian H, Tang X, Wang X, Liu R. Effects of the combined Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi on bone turnover and TGF-?1/Smads pathway in GIOP rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;201:91-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The substance bases of the combined herbs on anti-osteoporosis were total flavonoids of Herba Epimedii, total iridoids and flavonoids of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi. ..
  46. Li Y, Shen X, Li L, Zhao T, Bernstein K, JOHNSON A, et al. Brain Transforming Growth Factor-? Resists Hypertension Via Regulating Microglial Activation. Stroke. 2017;48:2557-2564 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify that TGF-?-modulated microglia are critical to keeping brain homeostasis responding to hypertensive disturbance. ..
  47. El Tanbouly D, Wadie W, Sayed R. Modulation of TGF-?/Smad and ERK signaling pathways mediates the anti-fibrotic effect of mirtazapine in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;329:224-230 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study indicates that mirtazapine suppressed 5-HT-mediated TGF-?1/Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways as well as oxidative stress that contribute to the progression of liver fibrosis. ..
  48. Shimizu Y, Amano H, Ito Y, Betto T, Yamane S, Inoue T, et al. Angiotensin II subtype 1a receptor signaling in resident hepatic macrophages induces liver metastasis formation. Cancer Sci. 2017;108:1757-1768 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that resident hepatic macrophages induced liver metastasis formation by induction of TGF-?1 through AT1a signaling. ..
  49. Álvares P, Arruda J, Silva L, Nascimento G, Silveira M, Sobral A. Immunohistochemical expression of TGF-?1 and MMP-9 in periapical lesions. Braz Oral Res. 2017;31:e51 pubmed publisher
    ..The extracellular matrix remodeling process dependent on MMP-9 seems to be similar for both periapical granulomas and radicular cysts. TGF-?1 and MMP-9 may play an important role in the maintenance of periapical lesions. ..
  50. Lim W, Kim H, Kim Y, Choi K, Lee I, Lee K, et al. Dioscin suppresses TGF-?1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppresses A549 lung cancer migration and invasion. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:3342-3348 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that dioscin suppresses lung cancer migration, and invasion in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-?1-induced EMT. ..
  51. Ma C, Wei F, Xia H, Liu H, Dong X, Zhang Y, et al. MicroRNA-10b mediates TGF-?1-regulated glioblastoma proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Int J Oncol. 2017;50:1739-1748 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings provide a rationale for targeting TGF-?1 or miR-10b for the treatment of GBM. ..
  52. Welinder C, Pawłowski K, Szász A, Yakovleva M, Sugihara Y, Malm J, et al. Correlation of histopathologic characteristics to protein expression and function in malignant melanoma. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176167 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are necessary to determine whether these putative biomarkers can be utilized in diagnostics and prognostic prediction of metastatic melanoma. ..
  53. Zhang N, Liu Y, Wang Y, Zhao M, Tu L, Luo F. Decitabine reverses TGF-?1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in non-small-cell lung cancer by regulating miR-200/ZEB axis. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2017;11:969-983 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that epigenetic regulation of the miR-200/ZEB axis is responsible for EMT induction by TGF-?1 in PC9 cells. Decitabine inhibits EMT in NSCLC cell PC9 through its epigenetic-based therapeutic activity. ..