Summary: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.

Top Publications

  1. Chen Y, Lin C, Chen Y, Lo C, Chen W, Chen T. Viral infection upregulates myostatin promoter activity in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186506 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin is a negative regulator of myogenesis and has been suggested to be an important factor in the development of muscle wasting during viral infection...
  2. Argiles J, López Soriano F, Stemmler B, Busquets S. Novel targeted therapies for cancer cachexia. Biochem J. 2017;474:2663-2678 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, timing is crucial and has to be taken very seriously when applying the therapeutic approach. ..
  3. Ivey F, Roth S, Ferrell R, Tracy B, Lemmer J, Hurlbut D, et al. Effects of age, gender, and myostatin genotype on the hypertrophic response to heavy resistance strength training. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000;55:M641-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, little is known about whether the hypertrophic response to ST is affected by myostatin genotype, a candidate gene for muscle hypertrophy...
  4. Pasteuning Vuhman S, Putker K, Tanganyika de Winter C, Boertje van der Meulen J, Van Vliet L, Overzier M, et al. Natural disease history of mouse models for limb girdle muscular dystrophy types 2D and 2F. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182704 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study offers a comprehensive natural history dataset which will be useful to design standardized tests and future pre-clinical studies in LGMD2D and 2F mice. ..
  5. Hennebry A, Oldham J, Shavlakadze T, Grounds M, Sheard P, Fiorotto M, et al. IGF1 stimulates greater muscle hypertrophy in the absence of myostatin in male mice. J Endocrinol. 2017;234:187-200 pubmed publisher
    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myostatin have opposing roles in regulating the growth and size of skeletal muscle, with IGF1 stimulating, and myostatin inhibiting, growth...
  6. Planavila A, Fernández Solà J, Villarroya F. Cardiokines as Modulators of Stress-Induced Cardiac Disorders. Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol. 2017;108:227-256 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential of these cardiokines as clinical biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of cardiac disorders is also discussed. ..
  7. Vanchieri C. Cachexia in cancer: is it treatable at the molecular level?. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102:1694-7 pubmed publisher
  8. von Haehling S, Stepney R, Anker S. Advances in understanding and treating cardiac cachexia: highlights from the 5th Cachexia Conference. Int J Cardiol. 2010;144:347-9 pubmed publisher
    ..4 melanocortin receptor antagonist SNT 207979, the appetite promoting synthetic ghrelin SUN11031, the soluble myostatin decoy receptor ActRIIB-Fc, the fast skeletal muscle troponin activating substance CK-2017357, the anti-catabolic/..
  9. Chen P, Lee K. INVITED REVIEW: Inhibitors of myostatin as methods of enhancing muscle growth and development. J Anim Sci. 2016;94:3125-3134 pubmed
    ..b>Myostatin is a well-known negative regulator of muscle growth and development that inhibits proliferation and ..

More Information


  1. Han D, Hsiao M, Wang T, Chen S, Yang W. Relation between serum myokines and phase II cardiac rehabilitation. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6579 pubmed publisher
    ..Exercise physiology parameters and serum myokines (myostatin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured pre- and postrehabilitation...
  2. Gabriel J, Alves H, Do Rosário M, Secatto A, Coutinho L, Macari M. Abundance of MyoD and myostatin transcripts in chicken embryos submitted to distinct incubation temperatures and timing exposures. Braz J Biol. 2011;71:563-4 pubmed
  3. Augustin H, McGourty K, Steinert J, Cochemé H, Adcott J, Cabecinha M, et al. Myostatin-like proteins regulate synaptic function and neuronal morphology. Development. 2017;144:2445-2455 pubmed publisher
    Growth factors of the TGFβ superfamily play key roles in regulating neuronal and muscle function. Myostatin (or GDF8) and GDF11 are potent negative regulators of skeletal muscle mass...
  4. Zhang N, Valentine J, Zhou Y, Li M, Zhang Y, Bhattacharya A, et al. Sustained NFκB inhibition improves insulin sensitivity but is detrimental to muscle health. Aging Cell. 2017;16:847-858 pubmed publisher
    ..g., myostatin)...
  5. Farshidfar F, Pinder M, Myrie S. Creatine Supplementation and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism for Building Muscle Mass- Review of the Potential Mechanisms of Action. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2017;18:1273-1287 pubmed publisher
    ..directly affect the myogenic process (formation of muscle tissue), by altering secretions of myokines, such as myostatin and insulin-like growth factor-1, and expressions of myogenic regulatory factors, resulting in enhanced ..
  6. Fan S, Xu Y, Liu B, He W, Zhang B, Su J, et al. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the myostatin gene and its association with growth traits in Noble scallop (Chlamys nobilis). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;212:24-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin (MSTN), also called growth and differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), is a member of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily and an inhibitor of muscle differentiation and growth...
  7. Sliwicka E, Cisoń T, Kasprzak Z, Nowak A, Pilaczyńska Szcześniak Ł. Serum irisin and myostatin levels after 2 weeks of high-altitude climbing. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181259 pubmed publisher
    ..between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin...
  8. Chazaud B. Dual effect of HGF on satellite/myogenic cell quiescence. Focus on "High concentrations of HGF inhibit skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation in vitro by inducing expression of myostatin: a possible mechanism for reestablishing satellite c. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C448-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Grobet L, Poncelet D, Royo L, Brouwers B, Pirottin D, Michaux C, et al. Molecular definition of an allelic series of mutations disrupting the myostatin function and causing double-muscling in cattle. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:210-3 pubmed
    We have determined the entire myostatin coding sequence for 32 double-muscled cattle sampled from ten European cattle breeds...
  10. Patel V, Demontis F. GDF11/myostatin and aging. Aging (Albany NY). 2014;6:351-2 pubmed
  11. Deng Z, Luo P, Lai W, Song T, Peng J, Wei H. Myostatin inhibits eEF2K-eEF2 by regulating AMPK to suppress protein synthesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;494:278-284 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily, is a negative regulator of protein synthesis...
  12. Sundarrajan L, Yeung C, Hahn L, Weber L, Unniappan S. Irisin regulates cardiac physiology in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181461 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro studies found that treatment with irisin (0.1 nM) downregulated the expression of PGC-1 alpha, myostatin a, and b, while upregulating troponin C mRNA expression in zebrafish heart and skeletal muscle...
  13. Qin Y, Peng Y, Zhao W, Pan J, Ksiezak Reding H, Cardozo C, et al. Myostatin inhibits osteoblastic differentiation by suppressing osteocyte-derived exosomal microRNA-218: A novel mechanism in muscle-bone communication. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:11021-11033 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myostatin, a myokine secreted by muscles, has been shown to inhibit muscle growth, and the disruption of the myostatin ..
  14. Astorino T, Harness E, Witzke K. Chronic activity-based therapy does not improve body composition, insulin-like growth factor-I, adiponectin, or myostatin in persons with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2015;38:615-25 pubmed publisher
    ..fasting blood samples were obtained to assess changes in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), adiponectin, and myostatin. Across all subjects, there was no change (P>0...