growth differentiation factors


Summary: A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.

Top Publications

  1. Scudellari M. Ageing research: Blood to blood. Nature. 2015;517:426-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Onodera K, Sugiura H, Yamada M, Koarai A, Fujino N, Yanagisawa S, et al. Decrease in an anti-ageing factor, growth differentiation factor 11, in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2017;72:893-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Daily GDF11 treatment attenuated cellular senescence and airspace enlargement in an elastase-induced mouse model of emphysema. The decrease in GDF11 may be involved in the cellular senescence observed in COPD. ..
  3. Jing Y, Li D, Wu F, Gong L, Li R. GDF11 does not improve the palmitate induced insulin resistance in C2C12. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21:1795-1802 pubmed
  4. Laviano A. Young blood. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:573-5 pubmed publisher
  5. Li H, Li Y, Xiang L, Zhang J, ZHu B, Xiang L, et al. GDF11 Attenuates Development of Type 2 Diabetes via Improvement of Islet ?-Cell Function and Survival. Diabetes. 2017;66:1914-1927 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that GDF11 repletion may improve ?-cell function and mass and thus may lead to a new therapeutic approach for T2D. ..
  6. Qin X, Kuang H, Chen L, Wei S, Yu D, Liang F. Coexpression of growth differentiation factor 11 and reactive oxygen species in metastatic oral cancer and its role in inducing the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017;123:697-706 pubmed publisher
    ..GDF11 induces EMT and cell migration with ROS involvement in SCC-9 cells. Overexpression of GDF11 and ROS is associated with metastatic oral cancer. GDF11 and ROS may participate in metastasis of oral cancer through EMT. ..
  7. Augustin H, McGourty K, Steinert J, Cochemé H, Adcott J, Cabecinha M, et al. Myostatin-like proteins regulate synaptic function and neuronal morphology. Development. 2017;144:2445-2455 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these anti-myogenic proteins act as important inhibitors of synapse function and neuronal growth. ..
  8. Yang R, Fu S, Zhao L, Zhen B, Ye L, Niu X, et al. Quantitation of circulating GDF-11 and β2-MG in aged patients with age-related impairment in cognitive function. Clin Sci (Lond). 2017;131:1895-1904 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is possible that the relatively small sample size in the present study affected the quality of the statistical analysis, and future studies are needed to further validate our findings. ..
  9. Mitrofan C, Appleby S, Nash G, Mallat Z, Chilvers E, Upton P, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and BMP10 enhance tumor necrosis factor-α-induced monocyte recruitment to the vascular endothelium mainly via activin receptor-like kinase 2. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13714-13726 pubmed publisher
    ..This process is mediated mainly via the ALK2 type I receptor, BMPR-II/ACTR-IIA type II receptors, and downstream Smad1/5 signaling. ..

More Information


  1. Pepinsky B, Gong B, Gao Y, Lehmann A, Ferrant J, Amatucci J, et al. A Prodomain Fragment from the Proteolytic Activation of Growth Differentiation Factor 11 Remains Associated with the Mature Growth Factor and Keeps It Soluble. Biochemistry. 2017;56:4405-4418 pubmed publisher
    ..Complex formation with PDP60-114 represents a new strategy for stabilizing GDF11 in an active state that may translate to other members of the TGF-? family that form latent pro/mature domain complexes. ..
  2. Duhachek Muggy S, Bhat K, Vlashi E, Pajonk F. Growth Differentiation Factor 11 does not Mitigate the Lethal Effects of Total-Abdominal Irradiation. Radiat Res. 2017;188:469-475 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, GDF11 was unable to improve survival of mice subjected to total-abdominal irradiation. These data demonstrate that GDF11 does not mitigate radiation damage to intestinal stem cells. ..
  3. Bajikar S, Wang C, Borten M, Pereira E, Atkins K, Janes K. Tumor-Suppressor Inactivation of GDF11 Occurs by Precursor Sequestration in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Dev Cell. 2017;43:418-435.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..Intracellular GDF11 retention adds to the concept of tumor-suppressor inactivation and reveals a cell-biological vulnerability for TNBCs lacking therapeutically actionable mutations. ..