bone morphogenetic protein 2


Summary: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.

Top Publications

  1. Carragee E, Ghanayem A, Weiner B, Rothman D, Bono C. A challenge to integrity in spine publications: years of living dangerously with the promotion of bone growth factors. Spine J. 2011;11:463-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Lee K, Kim H, Li Q, Chi X, Ueta C, Komori T, et al. Runx2 is a common target of transforming growth factor beta1 and bone morphogenetic protein 2, and cooperation between Runx2 and Smad5 induces osteoblast-specific gene expression in the pluripotent mesenchymal precursor cell line C2C12. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:8783-92 pubmed
    ..Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) not only blocks myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells but also induces osteoblast ..
  3. Silva H, Cheim A, Moreno R, Miranda S. Off-label use of rhBMP-2 as bone regeneration strategies in mandibular ameloblastoma unicystic. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2017;15:92-95 pubmed publisher
  4. Cho S, Lee S, Lee D, Lee J, Chang G, Kim H, et al. The Korean herbal formulation Yukmijihwangtang stimulates longitudinal bone growth in animal models. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:239 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, YJT may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of growth retardation during adolescence. ..
  5. Garrison P, Yue S, Hanson J, Baron J, Lui J. Spatial regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in postnatal articular and growth plate cartilage. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176752 pubmed publisher
  6. Macias D, Gañan Y, Sampath T, Piedra M, Ros M, Hurle J. Role of BMP-2 and OP-1 (BMP-7) in programmed cell death and skeletogenesis during chick limb development. Development. 1997;124:1109-17 pubmed
    b>Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2) and Osteogenic Protein 1 (OP-1, also termed BMP-7) are members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily...
  7. Dube P, Birnbaumer L, Vazquez G. Evidence for constitutive bone morphogenetic protein-2 secretion by M1 macrophages: Constitutive auto/paracrine osteogenic signaling by BMP-2 in M1 macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:154-158 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies suggest operation of an auto/paracrine mechanism by which BMP-2 secreted by M1 macrophages maintains constitutive activation of a BMP-2 receptor/SMAD1/5 signaling axis. ..
  8. Zhang Y, Wei Q, Ding W, Zhang L, Wang H, Zhu Y, et al. Increased microRNA-93-5p inhibits osteogenic differentiation by targeting bone morphogenetic protein-2. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182678 pubmed publisher
    ..Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that miR-93-5p can target bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). A luciferase gene reporter assay was performed to confirm these findings...
  9. Penn M, Mausner Fainberg K, Golan M, Karni A. High serum levels of BMP-2 correlate with BMP-4 and BMP-5 levels and induce reduced neuronal phenotype in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2017;310:120-128 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that BMP-2 sera levels may play a role in the failure of remyelination and neuro-regeneration in RR-MS. ..

More Information


  1. Liang F, Yen S, Imahiyerobo T, Sanborn L, Yen L, Yen D, et al. Three-Dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography Volumetric Outcomes of rhBMP-2/Demineralized Bone Matrix versus Iliac Crest Bone Graft for Alveolar Cleft Reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017;140:767-774 pubmed publisher
    ..Cone beam computed tomography provides a more nuanced understanding of true bone regeneration within the alveolar cleft that may contribute to the information provided by occlusal radiographs alone. Therapeutic, II. ..
  2. Liu G, Ma C, Wang P, Zhang P, Qu X, Liu S, et al. Pilose antler peptide potentiates osteoblast differentiation and inhibits osteoclastogenesis via manipulating the NF-?B pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:388-395 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, PAP, a novel drug with both antiresorptive and osteoanabolic activity, shows therapeutic potential as an alternative treatment for osteolytic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. ..
  3. Lee J, Qu Petersen Z, Cao B, Kimura S, Jankowski R, Cummins J, et al. Clonal isolation of muscle-derived cells capable of enhancing muscle regeneration and bone healing. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:1085-100 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest the isolation of a population of muscle-derived stem cells capable of improving both muscle regeneration and bone healing. ..
  4. Zhang Y, Zhao S, Zhu Z, Wang Y, Liu J, Zhang Z, et al. Cx43- and Smad-Mediated TGF-?/ BMP Signaling Pathway Promotes Cartilage Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Inhibits Osteoblast Differentiation. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:1277-1293 pubmed publisher
    ..Cx43 and Smad1 promote BMP-induced cartilage differentiation of BMSCs and inhibit osteoblast differentiation, which provide a new strategy for cartilage tissue engineering using exogenous Cx43 and Smad1. ..
  5. Aquino Martínez R, Artigas N, Gámez B, Rosa J, Ventura F. Extracellular calcium promotes bone formation from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by amplifying the effects of BMP-2 on SMAD signalling. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178158 pubmed publisher
    ..On the whole, these results demonstrate the usefulness of calcium-based bone grafts or the addition of exogenous Ca2+ in bone tissue engineering...
  6. Bai L, Chang H, Cheng J, Chu G, Leung P, Yang G. ALK2/ALK3-BMPR2/ACVR2A Mediate BMP2-Induced Downregulation of Pentraxin 3 Expression in Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3501-3511 pubmed publisher
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) belongs to the transforming growth factor-? superfamily and plays a critical role in regulating ovarian follicle function. Currently, the role of BMP2 during cumulus expansion remains to be determined...
  7. Ritter S, Davies P. Identification of a transforming growth factor-beta1/bone morphogenetic protein 4 (TGF-beta1/BMP4) response element within the mouse tissue transglutaminase gene promoter. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:12798-806 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta1-regulated the activity of the transglutaminase promoter was necessary and sufficient for bone morphogenetic protein 2- (BMP) and BMP4-dependent inhibition of the tissue transglutaminase promoter...
  8. Yu H, Jia Q, Feng X, Chen H, Wang L, Ni X, et al. Hypoxia decrease expression of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein to promote phenotype switching of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2017;91:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Both mRNA and protein levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were lower in PASMCs with the siRNA of COMP (P<0.05)...
  9. Filliat G, Mirsaidi A, Tiaden A, Kuhn G, Weber F, Oka C, et al. Role of HTRA1 in bone formation and regeneration: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181600 pubmed publisher
  10. Kraniak J, Chalasani A, Wallace M, Mattingly R. Development of 3D culture models of plexiform neurofibroma and initial application for phenotypic characterization and drug screening. Exp Neurol. 2018;299:289-298 pubmed publisher
    ..The proteolytic capacity of the PN cells in the model may be a clinically significant property that can be used for testing the ability of drugs to inhibit their invasive phenotype. ..
  11. Seher A, Lagler C, Stühmer T, Müller Richter U, Kübler A, Sebald W, et al. Utilizing BMP-2 muteins for treatment of multiple myeloma. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174884 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental outcome suggests new therapeutic strategies using BMP2 variants in the treatment of MM-related pathologies. ..
  12. Richards B, Oetgen M, Johnston C. The use of rhBMP-2 for the treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia: a case series. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92:177-85 pubmed publisher
  13. Aspenberg P. Under-reported complications related to BMP use in spine surgery. Acta Orthop. 2011;82:511-2 pubmed publisher
  14. Xie Y, Su Y, Min S, Tang J, Goh B, Saigo L, et al. Collagen Sponge Functionalized with Chimeric Anti-BMP-2 Monoclonal Antibody Mediates Repair of Critical-Size Mandibular Continuity Defects in a Nonhuman Primate Model. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:8094152 pubmed publisher
    ..This is evidenced by de novo bone formation adjacent to resected bone margins, which may be the source of endogenous BMPs captured by anti-BMP-2 mAb, in turn mediating bone repair. ..
  15. Debaud C, Salga M, Begot L, Holy X, Chedik M, de l Escalopier N, et al. Peripheral denervation participates in heterotopic ossification in a spinal cord injury model. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182454 pubmed publisher
    ..This new experimental design confirms that neuro inflammatory mechanisms induced by central or peripheral nervous system injury plays a key role in triggering ectopic osteogenesis. ..
  16. Hammoudeh J, Fahradyan A, Gould D, Liang F, Imahiyerobo T, Urbinelli L, et al. A Comparative Analysis of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 with a Demineralized Bone Matrix versus Iliac Crest Bone Graft for Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafts in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate: Review of 501 Cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017;140:318e-325e pubmed publisher
    ..The authors found no increase in serious adverse events with the use of this material. Local complications, such as swelling and minor wound dehiscence, predominantly improved without intervention. Therapeutic, III. ..
  17. Lee K, Jeon Y, Shin S, Lee J. Effects of rhBMP-2 Loaded Titanium Reinforced Collagen Membranes on Horizontal Bone Augmentation in Dogs. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:7141296 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Based on histomorphometric analysis, there were no significant differences in horizontal bone gaining ratio (p > 0.05)...
  18. Nishida T, Nakanishi T, Asano M, Shimo T, Takigawa M. Effects of CTGF/Hcs24, a hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific gene product, on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells in vitro. J Cell Physiol. 2000;184:197-206 pubmed
    ..Because of these functions, we are re-defining CTGF/Hcs24 as a major factor to promote endochondral ossification to be called "ecogenin: endochondral ossification genetic factor." ..
  19. Miao C, Zhou L, Tian L, Zhang Y, Zhang W, Yang F, et al. Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of In Vitro Cultured Human Skeletal Muscle for Expedited Bone Tissue Engineering. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:8619385 pubmed publisher
  20. Shen W, Zhou J, Wang C, Xu G, Wu Y, Hu Z. High mobility group box 1 induces calcification of aortic valve interstitial cells via toll-like receptor 4. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15:2530-2536 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrated that TLR4 may function as an essential mediator of HMGB1?induced calcification and in the activation of p38 and NF-?B. ..
  21. Payr S, Tichy B, Atteneder C, Michel M, Tiefenboeck T, Lang N, et al. Redifferentiation of aged human articular chondrocytes by combining bone morphogenetic protein-2 and melanoma inhibitory activity protein in 3D-culture. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179729 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant enhancement of this effect in combination with MIA could not be observed. Furthermore no significant reduction of osteogenic markers during re-differentiation of chondrocytes was present combining BMP-2 and MIA. ..
  22. Saxon J, Baer D, Barton J, Hawkins T, Wu B, Trusk T, et al. BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage is required for AV endocardial cushion maturation and remodeling. Dev Biol. 2017;430:113-128 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence that BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage is essential for the distal outgrowth, maturation and remodeling of AV endocardial cushions into the normal membranous VS and the stratified AV valves. ..
  23. Olsavszky V, Ulbrich F, Singh S, Diett M, Sticht C, Schmid C, et al. GATA4 and LMO3 balance angiocrine signaling and autocrine inflammatory activation by BMP2 in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Gene. 2017;627:491-499 pubmed publisher
  24. Pan H, Lee S, Ting K, Shen J, Wang C, Nguyen A, et al. Cyst-Like Osteolytic Formations in Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) Augmented Sheep Spinal Fusion. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:1485-1495 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite promoting successful fusion, rhBMP-2 use in clinical applications may result in local adverse structural alterations and compromised biomechanical changes to the bone. ..
  25. Rodríguez Évora M, Reyes R, Alvarez Lorenzo C, Concheiro A, Delgado A, Evora C. Bone regeneration induced by an in situ gel-forming poloxamine, bone morphogenetic protein-2 system. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2014;10:959-69 pubmed
  26. Lo S, Li K, Chang Y, Hsu M, Sung L, Vu T, et al. Enhanced critical-size calvarial bone healing by ASCs engineered with Cre/loxP-based hybrid baculovirus. Biomaterials. 2017;124:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These data implicated the potential of Cre/loxP-based hybrid baculovirus vector for ASCs engineering and calvarial bone healing. ..
  27. Karyagina A, Boksha I, Grunina T, Demidenko A, Poponova M, Sergienko O, et al. Two Variants of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with Additional Protein Domains: Synthesis in an Escherichia coli Heterologous Expression System. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2017;82:613-624 pubmed publisher
    ..Biological activity of both proteins was demonstrated in vitro by induction of alkaline phosphatase in C2C12 cells, and the activity of s-tag-BMP-2 in vivo was shown in various experimental animal models. ..
  28. Canali S, Wang C, Zumbrennen Bullough K, Bayer A, Babitt J. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 controls iron homeostasis in mice independent of Bmp6. Am J Hematol. 2017;92:1204-1213 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that in addition to BMP6, endothelial cell BMP2 has a non-redundant role in hepcidin regulation by iron. ..
  29. Hissnauer T, Stiel N, Babin K, Rupprecht M, Ridderbusch K, Rueger J, et al. Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for the Treatment of Nonunion of the Femur in Children and Adolescents: A Retrospective Analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:3046842 pubmed publisher
    ..One major complication was thought to be possibly related to its use. ..
  30. Rampazzo E, Dettin M, Maule F, Scabello A, Calvanese L, D Auria G, et al. A synthetic BMP-2 mimicking peptide induces glioblastoma stem cell differentiation. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:2282-2292 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the role of BMP-mimicking peptides as potential anti-cancer agents against GBM and stimulate the further development of GBMP1a-based structures in order to enhance its stability and activity. ..
  31. Jian C, Fan Q, Hu Y, He Y, Li M, Zheng W, et al. Effects of rhBMP-2 gene transfection to periodontal ligament cells on osteogenesis. Biosci Rep. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrated that rhBMP-2 transfection enhances the osteogenesis of PDL cells and provides a possibility for the application of rhBMP-2 expression products in dental disease treatment. ..
  32. Wang M, Zhou X, Zhang M, Shi L, Xiao R, Zeng L, et al. BMP2 promotes proliferation and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via mTORC1 pathway. Aging (Albany NY). 2017;9:1326-1340 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that BMP2 overexpression in NPC enhances proliferation, invasion and EMT of tumor cells through the mTORC1 signaling pathway. ..
  33. Xu H, Wu F, Zhang H, Yang C, Li K, Wang H, et al. Actin cytoskeleton mediates BMP2-Smad signaling via calponin 1 in preosteoblast under simulated microgravity. Biochimie. 2017;138:184-193 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide new important insights into the mechanism of mechanotransduction under SMG condition, which probably contribute to bone formation decrease induced by SMG. ..
  34. Mueller T. RGM co-receptors add complexity to BMP signaling. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2015;22:439-40 pubmed publisher
  35. Park K. Injectable hyaluronic acid hydrogel for bone augmentation. J Control Release. 2011;152:207 pubmed publisher
  36. Ren Q, Cai M, Zhang K, Ren W, Su Z, Yang T, et al. Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release from polylactide-poly (ethylene glycol)-polylactide (PELA) microcapsule-based scaffolds on bone. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2017;51:e6520 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that the sequential release of BMP-2 and VEGF from PELA microcapsule-based scaffolds is a promising approach for the treatment of bone defects...
  37. Zhu G, Mallery S, Schwendeman S. Stabilization of proteins encapsulated in injectable poly (lactide- co-glycolide). Nat Biotechnol. 2000;18:52-7 pubmed
    ..We successfully applied this stabilization approach in both cylinder- and microsphere-injectable configurations and for delivery of angiogenic basic fibroblast growth factor and bone-regenerating bone morphogenetic protein-2. ..
  38. Heliotis M, Tsiridis E. Suppression of bone morphogenetic protein inhibitors promotes osteogenic differentiation: therapeutic implications. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008;10:115 pubmed publisher
  39. Betz O, Betz V, Schröder C, Penzkofer R, Göttlinger M, Mayer Wagner S, et al. Repair of large segmental bone defects: BMP-2 gene activated muscle grafts vs. autologous bone grafting. BMC Biotechnol. 2013;13:65 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that treatment of large bone defects by implantation of BMP-2 gene activated muscle tissue leads to similar bone volume and stability as bone isografts, mimicking autologous bone grafting. ..
  40. Garbuzova V, Stroy D, Dosenko V, Dubovyk Y, Borodenko A, Shimko K, et al. [Association of allelic polymorphisms of genes matrix Gla-protein system with ischemic atherothrombotic stroke]. Fiziol Zh. 2015;61:19-27 pubmed
    ..The coincidence of patients T/C and G/G, C/C and G/A genotypes, and A/A genotype (G(-7)-->A polymorphism) with any genotype T(2255)-->C polymorphism are increases the risk of IATS. ..
  41. Gaoli X, Yi L, Lili W, Qiutao S, Guang H, Zhiyuan G. [Effect of naringin combined with bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;35:275-280 pubmed publisher
    ..05????NAR?????BMP-2??4 d?7 d???????ALP???100 ?mol·L?¹ NAR?BMP-2?????ALP?????P<0.05??100~1 000 ?mol·L?¹?NAR????????????????ALP?OCN?Runx2?Col???????????? NAR??????????MC3T3-E1????????????NAR?BMP-2?????????. ..
  42. Sanchez Duffhues G, Hiepen C, Knaus P, Ten Dijke P. Emerging regulators of BMP bioavailability. Bone. 2016;93:220-221 pubmed publisher
  43. Macisaac Z, Henderson S, Shakir S, Naran S, Smith D, Camison L, et al. Biomechanical Integrity in Craniofacial Surgery: Calvarial Reconstruction in Favorable and Infected Defects with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017;139:1141-1150 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite providing radiographic coverage, the biomechanical properties of rhBMP-2 bone differ from those of native bone. Further studies are warranted to determine how these properties affect overall strength and structural integrity. ..
  44. Katanec D, Granić M, Majstorovic M, Trampuš Z, Pandurić D. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP2) in bilateral alveolar ridge augmentation: case report. Coll Antropol. 2014;38:325-30 pubmed
    ..Vertical bone augmentation using rhBMP-2 is optional treatment modality to consider when planning dental implant placement in sites where severe vertical insufficiency exists. ..
  45. Lagler C, El Mesery M, Kübler A, Müller Richter U, Stühmer T, Nickel J, et al. The anti-myeloma activity of bone morphogenetic protein 2 predominantly relies on the induction of growth arrest and is apoptosis-independent. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185720 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we use bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to show that the "apoptotic" effect of BMPs on human neoplastic B cells is dominated by anti-..
  46. Shui Y, Lv G, Shan L, Fan C, Tian N, Zhang L, et al. Epimedin C Promotes Vascularization during BMP2-Induced Osteogenesis and Tumor-Associated Angiogenesis. Am J Chin Med. 2017;45:1093-1111 pubmed publisher
    ..As vasculogenesis plays a pivotal role in bone formation, this study used the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) induced ectopic bone formation model and mice 4T1 breast cancer cells co-implanted with ..
  47. Shi L, Sun W, Gao F, Cheng L, Li Z. Heterotopic ossification related to the use of recombinant human BMP-2 in osteonecrosis of femoral head. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7413 pubmed publisher
    ..01), and the survival rate was 72.0%.rhBMP-2 has osteoinductive property and might serve as an adjuvant therapy in the surgical treatment of ONFH. However, the incidence of HO formation might increase when used in high doses. ..
  48. Sallon C, Callebaut I, Boulay I, Fontaine J, Logeart Avramoglou D, Henriquet C, et al. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a new bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -4 (BMP-2/4) antagonist identified in pituitary cells. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:15352-15368 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings provide new insights into the involvement of TSP-1 in the BMP-2/-4 mechanisms of action. ..
  49. Crouzier T, Fourel L, Boudou T, Albiges Rizo C, Picart C. Presentation of BMP-2 from a soft biopolymeric film unveils its activity on cell adhesion and migration. Adv Mater. 2011;23:H111-8 pubmed publisher
  50. Xu E, Blythe E, Fischer G, Hyvonen M. Structural analyses of von Willebrand factor C domains of collagen 2A and CCN3 reveal an alternative mode of binding to bone morphogenetic protein-2. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:12516-12527 pubmed publisher
    ..This binding site is different from that previously observed in the complex between CV-2 vWC and BMP-2, revealing an alternative mode of interaction between vWC domains and BMPs. ..
  51. Liu C, Gao J, Chen B, Chen L, Belguise K, Yu W, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 promotes pulmonary intravascular macrophage accumulation by exacerbating BMP signaling in rat experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;138:205-215 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that inhibition of COX-2 by parecoxib can improve the HPS through the repression of BMP signaling and macrophage accumulation. ..
  52. Wu C, Lin Y, Lee S, Chen C, Wu M, Lin J. Effects of Davallia formosana Hayata Water and Alcohol Extracts on Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells. Phytother Res. 2017;31:1349-1356 pubmed publisher
    ..and 100 ?g/mL [DFE only]) using cell viability, expression of osteoblast differentiation markers [bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), collagen 1 (CoL-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx ..
  53. Urano Morisawa E, Takami M, Suzawa T, Matsumoto A, Osumi N, Baba K, et al. Induction of osteoblastic differentiation of neural crest-derived stem cells from hair follicles. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174940 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that NC-derived hair follicle cells possess a capacity for osteoblastic differentiation and may be useful for developing new bone regenerative medicine therapies. ..