neurturin

Summary

Summary: A glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ligand that is specific for the GFRA2 RECEPTOR. Neurturin is essential for the development of specific postganglionic parasympathetic NEURONS.

Top Publications

  1. Wanigasekara Y, Airaksinen M, Heuckeroth R, Milbrandt J, Keast J. Neurturin signalling via GFRalpha2 is essential for innervation of glandular but not muscle targets of sacral parasympathetic ganglion neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;25:288-300 pubmed
    b>Neurturin, a member of the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor familys of ligands, is important for development of many cranial parasympathetic ganglion neurons...
  2. Herzog C, Dass B, Gasmi M, Bakay R, Stansell J, Tuszynski M, et al. Transgene expression, bioactivity, and safety of CERE-120 (AAV2-neurturin) following delivery to the monkey striatum. Mol Ther. 2008;16:1737-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurturin (NTN) is a neurotrophic factor for dopaminergic neurons that may be therapeutic for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  3. Wanigasekara Y, Keast J. Neurturin has multiple neurotrophic effects on adult rat sacral parasympathetic ganglion neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:595-604 pubmed
    b>Neurturin (NTN) is an important neurotrophic factor for parasympathetic neurons; however, no studies to date have investigated the signalling mechanisms downstream of GFRalpha2 and Ret activation underlying this neurotrophic support...
  4. Luukko K, Saarma M, Thesleff I. Neurturin mRNA expression suggests roles in trigeminal innervation of the first branchial arch and in tooth formation. Dev Dyn. 1998;213:207-19 pubmed
    b>Neurturin (NTN) is a recently characterized member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-family which, like GDNF, can promote the survival of certain populations of neuronal cells in peripheral and central nervous ..
  5. Rosenblad C, Kirik D, Devaux B, Moffat B, Phillips H, Bjorklund A. Protection and regeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons by neurturin or GDNF in a partial lesion model of Parkinson's disease after administration into the striatum or the lateral ventricle. Eur J Neurosci. 1999;11:1554-66 pubmed
    Both glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its recently discovered congener, neurturin (NTN), have been shown to exert neuroprotective effects on lesioned nigral dopamine (DA) neurons when administered at the level of ..
  6. Koeberle P, Ball A. Neurturin enhances the survival of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in vivo: combined effects with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Neuroscience. 2002;110:555-67 pubmed
    ..We also examined the effects of neurturin on the survival of axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and compared neurturin-mediated RGC rescue to GDNF ..
  7. Klein R, Sherman D, Ho W, Stone D, Bennett G, Moffat B, et al. A GPI-linked protein that interacts with Ret to form a candidate neurturin receptor. Nature. 1997;387:717-21 pubmed
    Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) are two structurally related, potent survival factors for sympathetic, sensory and central nervous system neurons...
  8. Oiwa Y, Yoshimura R, Nakai K, Itakura T. Dopaminergic neuroprotection and regeneration by neurturin assessed by using behavioral, biochemical and histochemical measurements in a model of progressive Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2002;947:271-83 pubmed
    Trophic effects of neurturin, a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-family, have been demonstrated on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, suggesting its therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease...
  9. Li H, Ma Y, Su T, Che Y, Dai C, Sun M. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human neurturin secreted from the yeast Pichia pastoris. Protein Expr Purif. 2003;30:11-7 pubmed
    b>Neurturin (NTN), a potent neurotrophic factor acting specifically on dopaminergic neurons, is comprised of 102 amino acids as a mature protein...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Mabe A, Hoard J, Duffourc M, Hoover D. Localization of cholinergic innervation and neurturin receptors in adult mouse heart and expression of the neurturin gene. Cell Tissue Res. 2006;326:57-67 pubmed
    b>Neurturin (NRTN) is a neurotrophic factor required during development for normal cholinergic innervation of the heart, but whether NRTN continues to function in the adult heart is unknown...
  2. Hätinen T, Holm L, Airaksinen M. Loss of neurturin in frog--comparative genomics study of GDNF family ligand-receptor pairs. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;34:155-67 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the clawed frog and chicken have only three GFLs: synteny analysis indicates loss of neurturin in frog and of persephin in chicken...
  3. Dolatshad N, Saffrey M. Differential expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha-2 isoforms in rat urinary bladder and intestine. Neurosci Lett. 2007;415:215-8 pubmed
    b>Neurturin (NTN) is a member of the glial cell line-derived (GDNF) family of neurotrophic factors, which act via a receptor complex composed of a signal transducing receptor, c-Ret and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked ligand ..
  4. Marks W, Ostrem J, Verhagen L, Starr P, Larson P, Bakay R, et al. Safety and tolerability of intraputaminal delivery of CERE-120 (adeno-associated virus serotype 2-neurturin) to patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease: an open-label, phase I trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7:400-8 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to assess the safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy of gene delivery of the neurotrophic factor neurturin. In this phase I, open-label clinical trial, 12 patients aged 35-75 years with a diagnosis of PD for at least 5 ..
  5. Herzog C, Brown L, Gammon D, Kruegel B, Lin R, Wilson A, et al. Expression, bioactivity, and safety 1 year after adeno-associated viral vector type 2-mediated delivery of neurturin to the monkey nigrostriatal system support cere-120 for Parkinson's disease. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:602-12; discussion 612-3 pubmed publisher
    ..No current therapy slows or halts disease progression. Neurturin (NTN) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor have potent neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects ..
  6. Biju K, Santacruz R, Chen C, Zhou Q, Yao J, Rohrabaugh S, et al. Bone marrow-derived microglia-based neurturin delivery protects against dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2013;535:24-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the efficacy of bone marrow-derived microglial delivery of neurturin (NTN) in protecting dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxin-induced death in mice...
  7. Wang T, Jing X, DeBerry J, Schwartz E, Molliver D, Albers K, et al. Neurturin overexpression in skin enhances expression of TRPM8 in cutaneous sensory neurons and leads to behavioral sensitivity to cool and menthol. J Neurosci. 2013;33:2060-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurturin (NRTN) is a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family of ligands that exerts its actions via Ret tyrosine kinase and GFR?2...
  8. Yan M, Sun M, Zhou Y, Wang W, He Z, Tang D, et al. Conversion of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in Wharton's jelly to dopamine neurons mediated by the Lmx1a and neurturin in vitro: potential therapeutic application for Parkinson's disease in a rhesus monkey model. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64000 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies provided that Lmx1? play an important role in the midbrain dopamine cells differentiation. Neurturin is desired candidate gene for providing a neuroprotective to DA neurons...
  9. Buj Bello A, Adu J, Pinon L, Horton A, Thompson J, Rosenthal A, et al. Neurturin responsiveness requires a GPI-linked receptor and the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. Nature. 1997;387:721-4 pubmed
    b>Neurturin (NTN) is a recently identified homologue of glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
  10. Garces A, Livet J, Grillet N, Henderson C, Delapeyriere O. Responsiveness to neurturin of subpopulations of embryonic rat spinal motoneuron does not correlate with expression of GFR alpha 1 or GFR alpha 2. Dev Dyn. 2001;220:189-97 pubmed
    Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its relative neurturin (NTN) are both potent trophic factors for motoneurons...
  11. Baloh R, Gorodinsky A, Golden J, Tansey M, Keck C, Popescu N, et al. GFRalpha3 is an orphan member of the GDNF/neurturin/persephin receptor family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:5801-6 pubmed
    GDNF, neurturin, and persephin are transforming growth factor beta-related neurotrophic factors known collectively as the GDNF family (GF)...
  12. Wang C, Yang F, He X, Je H, Zhou J, Eckermann K, et al. Regulation of neuromuscular synapse development by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and neurturin. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:10614-25 pubmed
    ..Using Xenopus nerve-muscle co-cultures, we show that GDNF and its family member neurturin (NRTN) facilitate the development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
  13. Demir I, Wang K, Tieftrunk E, Giese N, Xing B, Friess H, et al. Neuronal plasticity in chronic pancreatitis is mediated via the neurturin/GFR?2 axis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;303:G1017-28 pubmed publisher
    The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family member neurturin (NRTN) and its receptor GFR?2 play a deciding role in the normal development of pancreatic parasympathetic innervation...
  14. Nangle M, Keast J. Deafferentation and axotomy each cause neurturin-independent upregulation of c-Jun in rodent pelvic ganglia. Exp Neurol. 2009;215:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..A c-Jun response was retained in injured or deafferented parasympathetic neurons in neurturin knockout mice...
  15. Horger B, Nishimura M, Armanini M, Wang L, Poulsen K, Rosenblad C, et al. Neurturin exerts potent actions on survival and function of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. J Neurosci. 1998;18:4929-37 pubmed
    ..We report here that neurturin (NTN), a homolog of GDNF, is expressed in the nigrostriatal system, and that NTN exerts potent effects on ..
  16. Young B, Girard B, Parsons R. Neurturin suppresses injury-induced neuronal activating transcription factor 3 expression in cultured guinea pig cardiac ganglia. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:795-805 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Neurturin significantly suppressed ATF-3 expression in 48-hour-cultured neurons without effect on ATF-3 expression in ..
  17. Heuckeroth R, Lampe P, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. Neurturin and GDNF promote proliferation and survival of enteric neuron and glial progenitors in vitro. Dev Biol. 1998;200:116-29 pubmed
    ..Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin both potently support survival and proliferation of enteric neuron precursors in this system...
  18. Yan H, Keast J. Neurturin regulates postnatal differentiation of parasympathetic pelvic ganglion neurons, initial axonal projections, and maintenance of terminal fields in male urogenital organs. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1169-83 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated the development of autonomic nerves in the urogenital tract of male mice and the effect of neurturin gene deletion on this process...
  19. Ramaswamy S, McBride J, Herzog C, Brandon E, Gasmi M, Bartus R, et al. Neurturin gene therapy improves motor function and prevents death of striatal neurons in a 3-nitropropionic acid rat model of Huntington's disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2007;26:375-84 pubmed
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that an adenoassociated viral (AAV2) vector encoding for the trophic factor neurturin (NTN) could provide neuroprotection in the rat 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) model of HD...
  20. Kordower J, Herzog C, Dass B, Bakay R, Stansell J, Gasmi M, et al. Delivery of neurturin by AAV2 (CERE-120)-mediated gene transfer provides structural and functional neuroprotection and neurorestoration in MPTP-treated monkeys. Ann Neurol. 2006;60:706-15 pubmed
    We tested the hypothesis that gene delivery of the trophic factor neurturin could preserve motor function and protect nigrostriatal circuitry in hemiparkinsonian monkeys...
  21. Liu W, Lu G, Li B, Chen S. Dopaminergic neuroprotection by neurturin-expressing c17.2 neural stem cells in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2007;13:77-88 pubmed
    ..b>Neurturin (NTN), a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-family, has been demonstrated to act ..
  22. Wanigasekara Y, Keast J. Nerve growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and neurturin prevent semaphorin 3A-mediated growth cone collapse in adult sensory neurons. Neuroscience. 2006;142:369-79 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether NGF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) modulate sema3A-mediated growth cone collapse in cultured adult rat DRG neurons...
  23. Davies J, Millar C, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. Neurturin: an autocrine regulator of renal collecting duct development. Dev Genet. 1999;24:284-92 pubmed
    ..We report that neurturin, a neurotrophin related to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and expressed in the developing kidney, ..
  24. Nangle M, Keast J. Loss of nitrergic neurotransmission to mouse corpus cavernosum in the absence of neurturin is accompanied by increased response to acetylcholine. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;148:423-33 pubmed
    The neurotrophic factor, neurturin (NTN), plays an important role in parasympathetic neural development. In the penis, parasympathetic nitrergic/cholinergic nerves mediate the erectile response...
  25. Golden J, DeMaro J, Osborne P, Milbrandt J, Johnson E. Expression of neurturin, GDNF, and GDNF family-receptor mRNA in the developing and mature mouse. Exp Neurol. 1999;158:504-28 pubmed
    The GDNF family of neurotrophic factors currently has four members: neurturin (NRTN), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), persephin, and artemin...
  26. Stucky C, Rossi J, Airaksinen M, Lewin G. GFR alpha2/neurturin signalling regulates noxious heat transduction in isolectin B4-binding mouse sensory neurons. J Physiol. 2002;545:43-50 pubmed
    The GFR alpha2 receptor is the cognate co-receptor for the neurotrophic factor neurturin and GFR alpha2 is selectively expressed by isolectin B(4) (IB(4))-binding nociceptive sensory neurons...
  27. Kawakami T, Wakabayashi Y, Aimi Y, Isono T, Okada Y. Developmental expression of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin, and their receptor mRNA in the rat urinary bladder. Neurourol Urodyn. 2003;22:83-8 pubmed
    Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and related factors neurturin (NRTN), artemin, and persephin are members of the GDNF family of neurotrophic factors...
  28. Rossi J, Airaksinen M. GDNF family signalling in exocrine tissues: distinct roles for GDNF and neurturin in parasympathetic neuron development. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002;506:19-26 pubmed
  29. Laurikainen A, Hiltunen J, Thomas Crusells J, Vanhatalo S, Arumae U, Airaksinen M, et al. Neurturin is a neurotrophic factor for penile parasympathetic neurons in adult rat. J Neurobiol. 2000;43:198-205 pubmed
    b>Neurturin (NRTN), a member of the GDNF family of neurotrophic factors, promotes the survival and function of several neuronal populations in the peripheral and central nervous system...
  30. Botchkareva N, Botchkarev V, Welker P, Airaksinen M, Roth W, Suvanto P, et al. New roles for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and neurturin: involvement in hair cycle control. Am J Pathol. 2000;156:1041-53 pubmed
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NTN), and their receptors, GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRalpha-1) and GDNF family receptor alpha-2 (GFRalpha-2), are critically important for kidney and nervous system ..
  31. Jomary C, Darrow R, Wong P, Organisciak D, Jones S. Expression of neurturin, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and their receptor components in light-induced retinal degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:1240-6 pubmed
    Dysregulation of neurturin (NTN) expression has been linked to photoreceptor apoptosis in a mouse model of inherited retinal degeneration...
  32. Yan H, Bergner A, Enomoto H, Milbrandt J, Newgreen D, Young H. Neural cells in the esophagus respond to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and neurturin, and are RET-dependent. Dev Biol. 2004;272:118-33 pubmed
    ..Two other GDNF family members, neurturin and artemin, are also expressed in the developing gut although artemin is only expressed in the esophagus...
  33. Marks W, Bartus R, Siffert J, Davis C, Lozano A, Boulis N, et al. Gene delivery of AAV2-neurturin for Parkinson's disease: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:1164-1172 pubmed publisher
    In an open-label phase 1 trial, gene delivery of the trophic factor neurturin via an adeno-associated type-2 vector (AAV2) was well tolerated and seemed to improve motor function in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease...
  34. Kotzbauer P, Lampe P, Heuckeroth R, Golden J, Creedon D, Johnson E, et al. Neurturin, a relative of glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor. Nature. 1996;384:467-70 pubmed
    ..This factor, neurturin, is structurally related to glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
  35. Bartus R, Baumann T, Siffert J, Herzog C, Alterman R, Boulis N, et al. Safety/feasibility of targeting the substantia nigra with AAV2-neurturin in Parkinson patients. Neurology. 2013;80:1698-701 pubmed publisher
    ..in moderately advanced Parkinson disease (PD), of bilaterally administering the gene therapy vector AAV2-neurturin (CERE-120) to the putamen plus substantia nigra (SN, a relatively small structure deep within the midbrain, in ..
  36. Remy S, Naveilhan P, Brachet P, Neveu I. Differential regulation of GDNF, neurturin, and their receptors in primary cultures of rat glial cells. J Neurosci Res. 2001;64:242-51 pubmed
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) bind to GFR alpha-1 and GFR alpha-2 receptors, respectively, and their neurotrophic activity is mediated by the tyrosine kinase receptor, Ret...
  37. Widenfalk J, Nosrat C, Tomac A, Westphal H, Hoffer B, Olson L. Neurturin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor-beta (GDNFR-beta), novel proteins related to GDNF and GDNFR-alpha with specific cellular patterns of expression suggesting roles in the developing and adult nervous system and in peri. J Neurosci. 1997;17:8506-19 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization was then used to map cellular expression of the GDNF-related trophic factor neurturin (NTN) and GDNFR-beta mRNA in developing and adult mice, and comparisons with GDNFR-alpha and RET were made...
  38. Marco S, Canudas A, Canals J, Gavalda N, Pérez Navarro E, Alberch J. Excitatory amino acids differentially regulate the expression of GDNF, neurturin, and their receptors in the adult rat striatum. Exp Neurol. 2002;174:243-52 pubmed
    ..The mRNAs of two members of this family, GDNF and neurturin, and also their receptors have been detected in the basal ganglia...
  39. Wang W, Sun M, Li H, Wang W, Yan M. The delivery of tyrosine hydroxylase accelerates the neurorestoration of Macaca Rhesus model of Parkinson's disease provided by Neurturin. Neurosci Lett. 2012;524:10-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurturin (NTN) is a desired candidate therapeutic gene for PD treatment, however, only neuroprotective effect may not work for PD clinical remission due to nearly 50% of the dopaminergic neurons have died way when symptoms appear...
  40. Ludwig A, Uvarov P, Pellegrino C, Thomas Crusells J, Schuchmann S, Saarma M, et al. Neurturin evokes MAPK-dependent upregulation of Egr4 and KCC2 in developing neurons. Neural Plast. 2011;2011:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the trophic factor neurturin can also trigger Egr4 expression and upregulate KCC2 in an ERK1/2-dependent manner...
  41. Bartus R, Herzog C, Chu Y, Wilson A, Brown L, Siffert J, et al. Bioactivity of AAV2-neurturin gene therapy (CERE-120): differences between Parkinson's disease and nonhuman primate brains. Mov Disord. 2011;26:27-36 pubmed publisher
    AAV2-neurturin (CERE-120) is designed to deliver the neurotrophic-factor, neurturin, to the striatum to restore and protect degenerating nigrostriatal neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  42. Vellani V, Prandini M, Giacomoni C, Pavesi G, Ravegnani L, Magherini P. Functional endothelin receptors are selectively expressed in isolectin B4-negative sensory neurons and are upregulated in isolectin B4-positive neurons by neurturin and glia-derived neurotropic factor. Brain Res. 2011;1381:31-7 pubmed publisher
    ..PKC?-translocated neurons was significantly increased by nerve growth factor, while in the presence of neurturin or glia-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF), an IB4-positive subpopulation of small- and medium-sized neurons ..
  43. Bespalov M, Sidorova Y, Tumova S, Ahonen Bishopp A, Magalhães A, Kulesskiy E, et al. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-3 is a novel receptor for GDNF, neurturin, and artemin. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:153-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, syndecan-3 may directly transduce GFL signals or serve as a coreceptor, presenting GFLs to the signaling receptor RET. ..
  44. Rossi J, Luukko K, Poteryaev D, Laurikainen A, Sun Y, Laakso T, et al. Retarded growth and deficits in the enteric and parasympathetic nervous system in mice lacking GFR alpha2, a functional neurturin receptor. Neuron. 1999;22:243-52 pubmed
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and a related protein, neurturin (NTN), require a GPI-linked coreceptor, either GFR alpha1 or GFR alpha2, for signaling via the transmembrane Ret tyrosine kinase...
  45. Qiao S, Iwashita T, Ichihara M, Murakumo Y, Yamaguchi A, Isogai M, et al. Increased expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and neurturin in a case of colon adenocarcinoma associated with diffuse ganglioneuromatosis. Clin Neuropathol. 2009;28:105-12 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, GDNF as well as a related neurotrophic factor, neurturin (NTN), were expressed at high levels in adenocarcinoma cells whereas expression of GFR alpha 1 and RET was ..
  46. Laurikainen A, Hiltunen J, Vanhatalo S, Klinge E, Saarma M. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor is expressed in penis of adult rat and retrogradely transported in penile parasympathetic and sensory nerves. Cell Tissue Res. 2000;302:321-9 pubmed
    ..6%) of the penile S1 dorsal root ganglion neurons. In conclusion, the present data suggest that GDNF may act as a neurotrophic factor for subpopulations of adult rat penile parasympathetic and sensory neurons. ..
  47. Lee R, Wong W, Chan C, Chan S. Differential effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and neurturin in RET/GFRalpha1-expressing cells. J Neurosci Res. 2006;83:80-90 pubmed
    ..by members of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of ligands, which include GDNF, neurturin, artemin, and persephin. The ligands bind RET through GDNF family receptor alpha, termed GFRalpha1-4...
  48. Yan H, Newgreen D, Young H. Developmental changes in neurite outgrowth responses of dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia to GDNF, neurturin, and artemin. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:395-401 pubmed
    The ability of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin, and artemin to induce neurite outgrowth from dorsal root, superior cervical, and lumbar sympathetic ganglia from mice at a variety of development stages ..
  49. Ye M, Wang X, Zhang Y, Lu G, Liang L, Xu J, et al. Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells containing the neurturin gene in rat model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2007;1142:206-16 pubmed
    ..benefit of transplanted bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transfected with a kind of neurotrophic factor gene, neurturin (NTN) gene, in treating the rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  50. Doray B, Salomon R, Amiel J, Pelet A, Touraine R, Billaud M, et al. Mutation of the RET ligand, neurturin, supports multigenic inheritance in Hirschsprung disease. Hum Mol Genet. 1998;7:1449-52 pubmed
    ..neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mutations have been reported in the disease, we regarded the other RET ligand, neurturin (NTN), as an attractive candidate gene, especially as it shares large homologies with GDNF...
  51. Bartus R, Baumann T, Brown L, Kruegel B, OSTROVE J, Herzog C. Advancing neurotrophic factors as treatments for age-related neurodegenerative diseases: developing and demonstrating "clinical proof-of-concept" for AAV-neurturin (CERE-120) in Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34:35-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be best exemplified by adeno-associated virus serotype-2-neurturin (CERE-120), a viral-vector construct designed to deliver the neurotrophic factor, neurturin to degenerating ..
  52. Sariola H, Saarma M. Novel functions and signalling pathways for GDNF. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:3855-62 pubmed
    ..GDNF and related ligands, neurturin (NRTN), artemin (ARTN) and persephin (PSPN), maintain several neuronal populations in the central nervous ..
  53. Song X, Li D, Farley W, Luo L, Heuckeroth R, Milbrandt J, et al. Neurturin-deficient mice develop dry eye and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:4223-9 pubmed
    b>Neurturin has been identified as a neurotrophic factor for parasympathetic neurons. Neurturin-deficient (NRTN(-/-)) mice have defective parasympathetic innervation of their lacrimal glands...