fibroblast growth factor 6


Summary: A fibroblast growth factor that was initially identified based on its sequence similarity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 4. It is found in MYOBLASTS and plays an important role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.

Top Publications

  1. Ropiquet F, Giri D, Kwabi Addo B, Mansukhani A, Ittmann M. Increased expression of fibroblast growth factor 6 in human prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2000;60:4245-50 pubmed
    ..Thus, FGF6 is increased in PIN and prostate cancer and can promote the proliferation of the transformed prostatic epithelial cells via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. ..
  2. Sakuma K, Watanabe K, Sano M, Uramoto I, Totsuka T. Differential adaptation of growth and differentiation factor 8/myostatin, fibroblast growth factor 6 and leukemia inhibitory factor in overloaded, regenerating and denervated rat muscles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1497:77-88 pubmed
    ..The marked reduction of FGF6 in the hypertrophied and regenerating muscle would imply that FGF6 regulates muscle differentiation but not proliferation of satellite cells and/or myoblasts. ..
  3. Lopes G, Castro L, Valente L. Total substitution of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils stimulates muscle hypertrophic growth in Senegalese sole and the upregulation of fgf6. Food Funct. 2017;8:1869-1879 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that 50% VO does not affect the muscle phenotype, but total FO substitution stimulates muscle hypertrophy. ..
  4. Marics I, Adelaide J, Raybaud F, Mattei M, Coulier F, Planche J, et al. Characterization of the HST-related FGF.6 gene, a new member of the fibroblast growth factor gene family. Oncogene. 1989;4:335-40 pubmed
    ..FGF.6 was mapped to chromosome 12 at band p13 by in situ hybridization. The cloned normal human gene was able to transform mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts using both focus- and tumorigenicity-assays. ..
  5. Armand A, Pariset C, Laziz I, Launay T, Fiore F, Della Gaspera B, et al. FGF6 regulates muscle differentiation through a calcineurin-dependent pathway in regenerating soleus of adult mice. J Cell Physiol. 2005;204:297-308 pubmed
    ..At high doses, FGF6 stimulates the proliferation of the myogenic stem cells, whereas at lower doses it regulates both muscle differentiation and muscle phenotype via a calcineurin-signaling pathway. ..
  6. Coulier F, Pizette S, Ollendorff V, Delapeyriere O, Birnbaum D. The human and mouse fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6) genes and their products: possible implication in muscle development. Prog Growth Factor Res. 1994;5:1-14 pubmed
    ..It represses the terminal differentiation of myoblasts. Action of FGF6 could be mediated by the FGFR4 receptor, which binds FGF6 and whose gene is also expressed in developing skeletal muscle. ..
  7. Pessina A, Gagliardi G, Croera C, Foti P, Dassi C, Brambilla P, et al. Secretion of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) by WEHI-3B myelomonocytic leukemia cells. Growth Factors. 2002;20:121-9 pubmed
  8. Grass S, Arnold H, Braun T. Alterations in somite patterning of Myf-5-deficient mice: a possible role for FGF-4 and FGF-6. Development. 1996;122:141-50 pubmed
  9. Fiore F, Planche J, Gibier P, Sebille A, Delapeyriere O, Birnbaum D. Apparent normal phenotype of Fgf6-/- mice. Int J Dev Biol. 1997;41:639-42 pubmed
    ..The animals are viable, fertile and apparently normal, indicating that FGF6 is not required for vital functions in the laboratory mouse. ..

More Information


  1. Iida S, Yoshida T, Naito K, Sakamoto H, Katoh O, Hirohashi S, et al. Human hst-2 (FGF-6) oncogene: cDNA cloning and characterization. Oncogene. 1992;7:303-9 pubmed
    ..RNA blot analysis revealed the expression of the hst-2 gene in human leukemia cell lines with platelet/megakaryocytic differentiation potential. ..
  2. Oudhoff M, van den Keijbus P, Kroeze K, Nazmi K, Gibbs S, Bolscher J, et al. Histatins enhance wound closure with oral and non-oral cells. J Dent Res. 2009;88:846-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings encourage the future therapeutic application of histatins in the treatment of all kinds of wounds. ..
  3. Rescan P. Identification of a fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6) gene in a non-mammalian vertebrate: continuous expression of FGF6 accompanies muscle fiber hyperplasia. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1443:305-14 pubmed
    ..we report the isolation and characterization of a genomic clone encoding the trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fibroblast growth factor 6 (TFGF6)...
  4. Pizette S, Coulier F, Birnbaum D, Delapeyriere O. FGF6 modulates the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors and myogenic genes in muscle cells. Exp Cell Res. 1996;224:143-51 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that intramuscular FGF6 concentrations could influence the proliferation and differentiation processes taking place during development. ..
  5. de Lapeyriere O, Rosnet O, Benharroch D, Raybaud F, Marchetto S, Planche J, et al. Structure, chromosome mapping and expression of the murine Fgf-6 gene. Oncogene. 1990;5:823-31 pubmed
    ..5 of gestation, moderate levels during late gestation and in the neonate. In the adult, Fgf-6 mRNA can be detected in testis, heart and skeletal muscle. ..
  6. Kastner S, Elias M, Rivera A, Yablonka Reuveni Z. Gene expression patterns of the fibroblast growth factors and their receptors during myogenesis of rat satellite cells. J Histochem Cytochem. 2000;48:1079-96 pubmed
    ..The unique localization patterns of FGF6 and FGFR4 may reflect specific roles for these members of the FGF signaling complex during myogenesis in adult skeletal muscle...
  7. Sanders B, Jackson B, Brent M, Taylor A, Dang W, Berger S, et al. Identification and characterization of novel sirtuin inhibitor scaffolds. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:7031-41 pubmed publisher
  8. Decraene C, Benchaouir R, Dillies M, Israeli D, Bortoli S, Rochon C, et al. Global transcriptional characterization of SP and MP cells from the myogenic C2C12 cell line: effect of FGF6. Physiol Genomics. 2005;23:132-49 pubmed
    ..C2C12 myogenic cell line contains a side population (SP) that is largely increased in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6)...
  9. Neuhaus P, Oustanina S, Loch T, Kruger M, Bober E, Dono R, et al. Reduced mobility of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-deficient myoblasts might contribute to dystrophic changes in the musculature of FGF2/FGF6/mdx triple-mutant mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6037-48 pubmed
    ..We propose that FGFs are critical components of the muscle regeneration machinery that enhance skeletal muscle regeneration, probably by stimulation of muscle stem cell migration. ..
  10. Ollendorff V, Rosnet O, Marics I, Birnbaum D, Delapeyriere O. Isolation and sequence of the murine Fgf6 cDNA. Biochimie. 1992;74:1035-8 pubmed
    ..The Fgf6 cDNA contains a very long 3' untranslated portion of 4015 nucleotides. ..
  11. Armand A, Laziz I, Chanoine C. FGF6 in myogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:773-8 pubmed
    ..A role for FGF6 in the maintenance of a reserve pool of progenitor cells in the skeletal muscle has been also strongly suggested. The aim of this review is to summarize our knowledge on the involvement of FGF6 in myogenesis. ..
  12. Uehara T. Localization of FGF-6 and FGFR-4 during prenatal and early postnatal development of the mouse sublingual gland. J Oral Sci. 2006;48:9-14 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that FGF-6/FGFR-4 might be involved in the changes of secretory granule content of acinar cells in the sublingual gland during the late gestational and early neonatal stages. ..
  13. Han J, Martin G. Embryonic expression of Fgf-6 is restricted to the skeletal muscle lineage. Dev Biol. 1993;158:549-54 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in comparison with what is known about the expression patterns of the genes encoding other FGF family members, as well as their high-affinity receptors. ..
  14. Doukas J, Blease K, Craig D, Ma C, Chandler L, Sosnowski B, et al. Delivery of FGF genes to wound repair cells enhances arteriogenesis and myogenesis in skeletal muscle. Mol Ther. 2002;5:517-27 pubmed
  15. Floss T, Arnold H, Braun T. A role for FGF-6 in skeletal muscle regeneration. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2040-51 pubmed
    ..We conclude that FGF-6 is a critical component of the muscle regeneration machinery in mammals, possibly by stimulating or activating satellite cells. ..
  16. Boink M, van den Broek L, Roffel S, Nazmi K, Bolscher J, Gefen A, et al. Different wound healing properties of dermis, adipose, and gingiva mesenchymal stromal cells. Wound Repair Regen. 2016;24:100-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the superior oral wound healing will aid us to develop advanced strategies for optimal skin regeneration, wound healing and scar formation. ..
  17. Al Qattan M. Preaxial polydactyly of the upper limb viewed as a spectrum of severity of embryonic events. Ann Plast Surg. 2013;71:118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, the development of this axis is detailed and all molecular events that are known to lead to PPD are reviewed. Finally, based on the review, PPD is viewed as a spectrum of severity of embryonic events. ..
  18. Katoh Y, Katoh M. Comparative genomics on mammalian Fgf6-Fgf23 locus. Int J Mol Med. 2005;16:355-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first report on comparative genomics analyses on human FGF6-FGF23 gene cluster and rodents Fgf6-Fgf23 gene cluster. ..
  19. Kumar M, Chapman S. Cloning and expression analysis of Fgf5, 6 and 7 during early chick development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2012;12:245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..FGF7 is similarly conserved except for the zebrafish, which has considerably diverged. ..
  20. Han D, Zhao H, Parada C, Hacia J, Bringas P, Chai Y. A TGF?-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade controls myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion during tongue development. Development. 2012;139:1640-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study demonstrates that a TGF?-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade plays a crucial role in myogenic cell fate determination and lineage progression during tongue myogenesis...
  21. Xiong Y, Pan T, Ye Z. [The mRNA expression of P16(ink4a) and HST2 in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues: a pilot study]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2008;14:224-6 pubmed
    ..2783 +/- 0.0268, with a statistical difference in between (P < 0. 05). P16(ink4a) might play an important role in the pathogenesis of BPH and is probably one of the factors of cell aging escape. ..
  22. Kaul A, Koster M, Neuhaus H, Braun T. Myf-5 revisited: loss of early myotome formation does not lead to a rib phenotype in homozygous Myf-5 mutant mice. Cell. 2000;102:17-9 pubmed
  23. Herrmann A, Haake A, Ammerpohl O, Martin Guerrero I, Szafranski K, Stemshorn K, et al. Pipeline for large-scale microdroplet bisulfite PCR-based sequencing allows the tracking of hepitype evolution in tumors. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21332 pubmed publisher
  24. Laziz I, Ferry A, Armand A, Gallien C, Gaspera B, Charbonnier F, et al. Eccentric stimulation reveals an involvement of FGF6 in muscle resistance to mechanical stress. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111:1507-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations point out a crucial and unexpected role for FGF6 in muscle integrity and muscle protection against mechanical stress. ..
  25. Dichmann D, Rescan C, Frandsen U, Serup P. Unspecific labeling of pancreatic islets by antisera against fibroblast growth factors and their receptors. J Histochem Cytochem. 2003;51:397-400 pubmed
    ..In contrast, prominent staining of islets by anti-FGF4, -FGF5, -FGF7, and -FGF10 antisera is unspecific because the staining cannot be competed by preabsorption with the immunizing peptides. ..
  26. Delapeyriere O, Ollendorff V, Planche J, Ott M, Pizette S, Coulier F, et al. Expression of the Fgf6 gene is restricted to developing skeletal muscle in the mouse embryo. Development. 1993;118:601-11 pubmed
    ..In addition, recombinant FGF6 protein is able to repress the terminal differentiation of myoblasts in culture, providing additional support to the concept that FGF6 plays an important role in myogenesis. ..
  27. Armand A, Lecolle S, Launay T, Pariset C, Fiore F, Della Gaspera B, et al. IGF-II is up-regulated and myofibres are hypertrophied in regenerating soleus of mice lacking FGF6. Exp Cell Res. 2004;297:27-38 pubmed
    ..The potential regulating role of IGFBP5 on IGF-II expression is also discussed. This report shows for the first time a specific role for FGF6 in the regulation of myofibre size during a process of in vivo myogenesis. ..
  28. Bosetti M, Leigheb M, Brooks R, Boccafoschi F, Cannas M. Regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast functions by FGF-6. J Cell Physiol. 2010;225:466-71 pubmed publisher
    ..FGF-6 may be considered a regulator of bone metabolism as shown by its activity on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. ..
  29. Fiore F, Sebille A, Birnbaum D. Skeletal muscle regeneration is not impaired in Fgf6 -/- mutant mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;272:138-43 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that FGF6 does not play a role in muscle regeneration, i.e., in satellite cell proliferation and fusion, or that this role is strictly compensated by other factors, possibly other FGFs. ..
  30. Armand A, Launay T, Pariset C, Della Gaspera B, Charbonnier F, Chanoine C. Injection of FGF6 accelerates regeneration of the soleus muscle in adult mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1642:97-105 pubmed
    ..We also show a down-regulation of endogenous FGF6, acceleration of FGFR1 receptor expression and deceleration of the FGFR4 receptor expression, possibly accounting for biphasic effects of exogenous FGF6 on muscle regeneration. ..
  31. Laziz I, Armand A, Pariset C, Lecolle S, Della Gaspera B, Charbonnier F, et al. Sprouty gene expression is regulated by nerve and FGF6 during regeneration of mouse muscles. Growth Factors. 2007;25:151-9 pubmed
    ..Rescue experiments supported the idea of a specific relationship between FGF6 and Spry 2, both being known for their particular involvement in myogenesis. ..
  32. Israeli D, Benchaouir R, Ziaei S, Rameau P, Gruszczynski C, Peltekian E, et al. FGF6 mediated expansion of a resident subset of cells with SP phenotype in the C2C12 myogenic line. J Cell Physiol. 2004;201:409-19 pubmed
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6) is selectively expressed during muscle development and regeneration. We examined its effect on muscle precursor cells (mpc) by forcing stable FGF6 expression in C2C12 cells in vitro...