tumor necrosis factor alpha


Summary: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.

Top Publications

  1. Martinho F, Chiesa W, Leite F, Cirelli J, Gomes B. Antigenic activity of bacterial endodontic contents from primary root canal infection with periapical lesions against macrophage in the release of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha. J Endod. 2010;36:1467-74 pubmed publisher
    ..determined their antigenicity against macrophages through the levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and evaluated their relationship with clinical and radiographic findings...
  2. Kumar S, Rizvi M. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and C-reactive protein in pediatric patients with sepsis and its correlation with microbiologic findings. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2010;53:494-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum TNF-alpha was a more sensitive marker for different categories of sepsis compared to CRP and microbiology culture. ..
  3. Lotrich F, Ferrell R, Rabinovitz M, Pollock B. Labile anger during interferon alfa treatment is associated with a polymorphism in tumor necrosis factor alpha. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2010;33:191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence also indicates a central nervous system role for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), whose expression may be increased by interferon alfa...
  4. Spicarova D, Palecek J. Tumor necrosis factor alpha sensitizes spinal cord TRPV1 receptors to the endogenous agonist N-oleoyldopamine. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:49 pubmed publisher
    ..The proinflamatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), is an established pain modulator in both the peripheral and the central nervous system...
  5. Liu Z, Ma Y, Wu J, Gan J, Xu S, Jiang G. Effect of cholinesterase inhibitor galanthamine on circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced peritonitis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:1727-30 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to evaluate the effect of galanthamine on circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced peritonitis and the possible role of the vagus ..
  6. Norata G, Cattaneo P, Poletti A, Catapano A. The androgen derivative 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha and lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory response in human endothelial cells and in mice aorta. Atherosclerosis. 2010;212:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..3beta-Adiol reverts in vitro the TNF-alpha and LPS induced pro-inflammatory activation of endothelial cells and macrophages. 3beta-Adiol in vivo modulates the inflammatory response induced by LPS in the arterial vascular wall. ..
  7. Levy C, Slomiansky V, Gattelli A, Nahmod K, Pelisch F, Blaustein M, et al. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces LIF expression through ERK1/2 activation in mammary epithelial cells. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:857-65 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these proteins, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), is a major mediator of inflammation that is able to induce expression of several cytokines...
  8. Lentz E, Cherla R, Jaspers V, Weeks B, Tesh V. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in disease using a mouse model of Shiga toxin-mediated renal damage. Infect Immun. 2010;78:3689-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the role of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the development of toxin-mediated renal disease in mice...
  9. Hirata K, Miyashiro M, Ogawa H, Taki H, Tobe K, Sugita T. Inhibition of tumor progression locus 2 protein kinase decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha production due to the inhibition of the tip-associated protein induction in RAW264.7 cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:1233-7 pubmed
    ..extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signaling pathway plays an essential role in the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...

More Information


  1. Carroll M, Forgione M. Use of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patients: a literature review and potential mechanisms of action. Clin Rheumatol. 2010;29:1021-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Jedlickova H, Durčanská V, Vasku V. Paraneoplastic Scleroderma: Are There Any Clues?. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2016;24:78-80 pubmed
    ..g. Interleukin-1 (IL1), Interleukin-6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF ?), collagen alpha 1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) (3), and basic fibroblast growth ..
  3. Xu H, Jiang W, Feng L, Liu Y, Wu P, Jiang J, et al. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depresses the growth, head kidney and spleen immunity and structural integrity by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, apoptosis and MLCK signaling in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;52:111-38 pubmed publisher
    ..2, 137.5, 135.8 and 129.8 mg/kg diet, respectively. ..
  4. Roy S, Esmaeilniakooshkghazi A, Patnaik S, Wang Y, George S, Ahrorov A, et al. Villin-1 and Gelsolin Regulate Changes in Actin Dynamics That Affect Cell Survival Signaling Pathways and Intestinal Inflammation. Gastroenterology. 2018;154:1405-1420.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..IRGM regulates necroptosis and release of DAMPs to induce gastrointestinal inflammation, linking IRGM activity with CD. ..
  5. Thenappan T, Ormiston M, Ryan J, Archer S. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: pathogenesis and clinical management. BMJ. 2018;360:j5492 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of PAH. ..
  6. Sil R, Ray D, Chakraborti A. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates metabolic syndrome-induced liver damage in experimental rat model. Mol Cell Biochem. 2015;409:177-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that glycyrrhizin possesses therapeutic potential against hepatocellular damage in metabolic syndrome. ..
  7. Feng L, Yang X, Shi Y, Liang S, Zhao T, Duan J, et al. Co-exposure subacute toxicity of silica nanoparticles and lead acetate on cardiovascular system. Int J Nanomedicine. 2018;13:7819-7834 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-exposure to SiNPs and Pb could aggravate the cardiovascular toxicity via endothelial damage, hypercoagulation, and cardiac injury in vivo. ..
  8. Li S, Feng L, Jiang W, Liu Y, Jiang J, Wu P, et al. Deficiency of dietary niacin impaired gill immunity and antioxidant capacity, and changes its tight junction proteins via regulating NF-?B, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;55:212-22 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In conclusion, niacin deficiency decreased gill immunity, impaired gill antioxidant system, as well as regulated mRNA expression of gill tight junction proteins and related signaling molecules of fish. ..
  9. Li J, Shi J, Li P, Guo X, Wang T, Liu A. Genipin attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury and pulmonary hypertension via targeting glycogen synthase kinase-3 β in neonatal rats. Nutrition. 2019;57:237-244 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, genipin may provide a novel therapeutic option for preventing and treating infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. ..
  10. Tian Y, Xu J, Li Y, Zhao R, Du S, Lv C, et al. MicroRNA-31 Reduces Inflammatory Signaling and Promotes Regeneration in Colon Epithelium, and Delivery of Mimics in Microspheres Reduces Colitis in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..OKGM peptosome-MIR31 microspheres localize to the colon epithelium of mice to reduce features of colitis. Transcript Profiling: GSE123556. ..
  11. Zhong W, Qian K, Xiong J, Ma K, Wang A, Zou Y. Curcumin alleviates lipopolysaccharide induced sepsis and liver failure by suppression of oxidative stress-related inflammation via PI3K/AKT and NF-?B related signaling. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;83:302-313 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies to inhibit inflammation and apoptosis signaling may provide alternatives to the current clinical approaches to improve oxidative responses of endotoxemia. ..
  12. Tao G, Pan L, Jing R, Lin F, Dai H, Ge W. [Study on Rac1/MAPK/ERK pathway mediated mechanism and role in rats with ventilator induced lung injury]. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2017;29:249-254 pubmed publisher
    ..01]. F-actin expression in lung tissue was up-regulated in rats with VILI, which resulted in reconstruction of AEC II cyto-skeleton, and variation of cell membrane permeability through Rac1/MAPK/ERK signaling pathway during VILI. ..
  13. Ansari R, Husain K, Rizvi S. Role of Transcription Factors in Steatohepatitis and Hypertension after Ethanol: The Epicenter of Metabolism. Biomolecules. 2016;6: pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to these transcription factors, activator protein-1 may also be activated in hepatocytes due to its association with resolution of increased ROS. These transcription factors are central to alcohol-mediated hepatotoxicity. ..
  14. Li Z, Sun B, Gong T, Guo S, Zhang J, Wang J, et al. GNAI1 and GNAI3 Reduce Colitis-Associated Tumorigenesis in Mice by Blocking IL6 Signaling and Downregulating Expression of GNAI2. Gastroenterology. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies to induce GNAI1;3, or block GNAI2 and IL6, might be developed for prevention or therapy of CAC in patients. ..
  15. Liu S, Feng L, Jiang W, Liu Y, Jiang J, Wu P, et al. Impact of exogenous lipase supplementation on growth, intestinal function, mucosal immune and physical barrier, and related signaling molecules mRNA expression of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;55:88-105 pubmed publisher
    ..The optimal level of exogenous lipase supplementation in young grass carp (255-771 g) was estimated to be 1193 U kg(-1) diet. ..
  16. Batool R, Rashid Khan M, Ahmed Zai J, Ali S, Maryam S, Naz I, et al. Brachychiton populneus (Schott & Endl.) R.Br. ameliorate carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress through regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and inflammatory mediators in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;107:1601-1610 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested the presence of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents in methanol extract of B. populneus. ..
  17. Elmallah M, Elkhadragy M, Al Olayan E, Abdel Moneim A. Protective Effect of Fragaria ananassa Crude Extract on Cadmium-Induced Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes Suppression, and Apoptosis in Rat Testes. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..In terms of the summarized results, the SME of Fragaria ananassa has a protective effect against cadmium-induced oxidative damage of testes. ..
  18. Zhao X, Sun P, Li G, Yi R, Qian Y, Park K. Polyphenols in Kuding tea help prevent HCl/ethanol-induced gastric injury in mice. Food Funct. 2018;9:1713-1725 pubmed publisher
    ..These constituents contributed to the preventive effects of KTPs on gastric injury. According to these results, KTPs are a kind of active component that have a strong preventive effect on gastric injury. ..
  19. Bai R, Yin X, Feng X, Cao Y, Wu Y, Zhu Z, et al. Corydalis hendersonii Hemsl. protects against myocardial injury by attenuating inflammation and fibrosis via NF-?B and JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;207:174-183 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates such protection for the first time and provides a basis for development of CH-based drugs for treatment of ischemic heart disease in clinical settings. ..
  20. Mao Z, Shen S, Wan Y, Sun W, Chen H, Huang M, et al. Huangkui capsule attenuates renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy rats through regulating oxidative stress and p38MAPK/Akt pathways, compared to α-lipoic acid. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;173:256-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus provide the useful information about a clinical combination of HKC and LA in early DN patients. ..
  21. Chen L, Feng L, Jiang W, Jiang J, Wu P, Zhao J, et al. Dietary riboflavin deficiency decreases immunity and antioxidant capacity, and changes tight junction proteins and related signaling molecules mRNA expression in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;45:307-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on percent weight gain, gill lysozyme activity and reduced glutathione content, the dietary riboflavin requirements for young grass carp (275-722 g) were estimated to be 5.85, 7.39 and 6.34 mg/kg diet, respectively. ..
  22. Maryam S, Khan M, Shah S, Zahra Z, Batool R, Zai J. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of the leaves of Wendlandia heynei (Schult.) Santapau & Merchant in Sprague Dawley rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2019;238:111849 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that WHLM fractions have marked anti-inflammatory activity and this study endorsed the folklore use of W. heynei leaves for swelling related disorders. ..
  23. Viswanathan G, Dan V, Radhakrishnan N, Nair A, Rajendran Nair A, Baby S. Protection of mouse brain from paracetamol-induced stress by Centella asiatica methanol extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..The present results provide pharmacological evidence that CAM acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Furthermore, this study validates the use of CA as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in ethnomedicine. ..
  24. Fulton R, Meyerholz D, Varga S. Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells limit pulmonary immunopathology by modulating the CD8 T cell response during respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Immunol. 2010;185:2382-92 pubmed publisher
  25. Esposito M, Giunta A, Mazzotta A, Babino G, Talamonti M, Chimenti M, et al. Continuous treatment of plaque-type psoriasis with etanercept: an observational long-term experience. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010;23:503-9 pubmed
    ..At week 96, patients showed statistically significant and meaningful improvements. The continuous etanercept regimen provided a consistent improvement in both clinical disease parameters and PRO measures. ..
  26. Clift M, Bhattacharjee S, Brown D, Stone V. The effects of serum on the toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles. Toxicol Lett. 2010;198:358-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results of the present study show that the interaction of NPs with serum can significantly affect their resultant toxicity in vitro. ..
  27. Ceponis A, Kavanaugh A. Use of methotrexate in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010;28:S132-7 pubmed
    ..This report addresses mechanistic rationale, available clinical evidence, safety considerations, and a potential research agenda regarding the use of MTX in the management of PsA...
  28. Kohlhof P. An additional long-term mechanism of NF-?B regulation after cytokine treatment in a human hepatoma cell line. Virchows Arch. 2010;457:585-95 pubmed publisher
  29. Al Mutairi M, Al Harthi S, Cadalbert L, Plevin R. Over-expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-2 enhances adhesion molecule expression and protects against apoptosis in human endothelial cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161:782-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These properties may make Adv.MKP-2 a potentially useful future therapy in cardiovascular diseases where endothelial dysfunction is a feature. ..
  30. Jiang W, Zhang S, Fu F, Zhu H, Hou J. Inhibition of nuclear factor-?B by 6-O-acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester protects brain against injury in a rat model of ischemia and reperfusion. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:55 pubmed publisher
  31. Akyol S, Eraslan B, Etyemez H, Tanriverdi T, Hanci M. Catabolic cytokine expressions in patients with degenerative disc disease. Turk Neurosurg. 2010;20:492-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that both local inflammatory responses occur in lumbar DDD. Using specific cytokines either by local or systemic application may reverse the degenerative process. ..
  32. Thitithanyanont A, Engering A, Uiprasertkul M, Ekchariyawat P, Wiboon ut S, Kraivong R, et al. Antiviral immune responses in H5N1-infected human lung tissue and possible mechanisms underlying the hyperproduction of interferon-inducible protein IP-10. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;398:752-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings strongly suggest that both the H5N1 virus and the locally produced antiviral cytokines; IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha may have an important role in inducing IP-10 hyperresponse, leading to inflammatory damage in infected lung. ..
  33. Guo S, Stins M, Ning M, Lo E. Amelioration of inflammation and cytotoxicity by dipyridamole in brain endothelial cells. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2010;30:290-6 pubmed publisher
    ..How these putative cellular mechanisms may relate to clinical outcomes and conditions in stroke patients remains to be elucidated. ..
  34. Tamarozzi F, Meroni V, Genco F, Piccoli L, Tinelli C, Filice C, et al. Ex vivo assessment of serum cytokines in patients with cystic echinococcosis of the liver. Parasite Immunol. 2010;32:696-700 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our results support recent findings suggesting the chronic activity of CE3b cysts and suggest that this might be partly because of a skewed Th2 response. ..
  35. Brenndörfer E, Weiland M, Frelin L, Derk E, Ahlen G, Jiao J, et al. Anti-tumor necrosis factor ? treatment promotes apoptosis and prevents liver regeneration in a transgenic mouse model of chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2010;52:1553-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, blocking NF?B activation (bortezomib) or administering anti-TNF? (infliximab) 4 hours after LPS/D-galN injection reversed the resistance of NS3/4A-Tg mice to TNF?-induced liver injury...
  36. Jules J, Shi Z, Liu J, Xu D, Wang S, Feng X. Receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK) cytoplasmic IVVY535-538 motif plays an essential role in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF)-mediated osteoclastogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37427-35 pubmed publisher
  37. Campanilho Marques R, Polido Pereira J, Rodrigues A, Ramos F, Saavedra M, Costa M, et al. BioRePortAP, an electronic clinical record coupled with a database: an example of its use in a single centre. Acta Reumatol Port. 2010;35:176-83 pubmed
    ..The results shown here elucidate the potential applications of BioRePortAP as a tool for efficacy and safety assessment of PsA patients treated with biotechnological drugs. ..
  38. Devignot S, Tolou H, Couissinier Paris P. [Dengue shock syndrome: decoding the pathophysiology]. Med Trop (Mars). 2010;70:288-301 pubmed
  39. Su D, Gu Y, Wang Z, Wang X. Lidocaine attenuates proinflammatory cytokine production induced by extracellular adenosine triphosphate in cultured rat microglia. Anesth Analg. 2010;111:768-74 pubmed publisher
  40. Hueber A, Asquith D, McInnes I, Miller A. Embracing novel cytokines in RA - complexity grows as does opportunity!. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2010;24:479-87 pubmed publisher
  41. Gao Q, Ma L, Gao X, Yan W, Williams P, Yin D. TLR4 mediates early graft failure after intraportal islet transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2010;10:1588-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of TLR4 activation represents a novel strategy to attenuate early graft failure following intraportal islet transplantation. ..
  42. Hyun C, Kim E, Flowers M, Liu X, Kim E, Strable M, et al. Adipose-specific deletion of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 up-regulates the glucose transporter GLUT1 in adipose tissue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;399:480-6 pubmed publisher
  43. Feng X, Zhang N, Tuo W. Neospora caninum tachyzoite- and antigen-stimulated cytokine production by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and spleen cells of naive BALB/c mice. J Parasitol. 2010;96:717-23 pubmed publisher
    ..caninum; these results may facilitate a better understanding of antigen priming and aid in the design of vaccines/adjuvants against neosporosis. ..
  44. Kiank C, Zeden J, Drude S, Domanska G, Fusch G, Otten W, et al. Psychological stress-induced, IDO1-dependent tryptophan catabolism: implications on immunosuppression in mice and humans. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11825 pubmed publisher
    ..Since patients showed Trp catabolism already prior to surgery, IDO is also a possible target enzyme for humans modulating immune homeostasis and mood. ..
  45. Mochizuki M, Tsuchie Y, Yamada N, Miyake Y, Osawa T. Effect of sesame lignans on TNF-alpha-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:1539-44 pubmed
    ..This suggests, that sesaminol-6-catehcol suppresses the expression of CAMs, and may be an active component of sesame lignans...
  46. Allie N, Keeton R, Court N, Abel B, Fick L, Vasseur V, et al. Limited role for lymphotoxin ? in the host immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol. 2010;185:4292-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings revise the notion that LT? might have a critical role in host defense to acute mycobacterial infection, independent of TNF, but suggest a contribution of LT? in the control of chronic M. tuberculosis infection. ..
  47. Nakao A, Ohkawa N, Nagasaki T, Kagari T, Doi H, Shimozato T, et al. Tetrahydropyridine derivatives with inhibitory activity on the production of proinflammatory cytokines: part 3. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:4774-8 pubmed publisher
    ..9 mg/kg, p.o.; (viii) analgesic effect on adjuvant-induced arthritic pain in rats: ID(50)=2.9 mg/kg, p.o.). As a result, compound 4a was chosen as a candidate for further pre-clinical studies. ..
  48. Gu Y, Bai Y, Wu J, Hu L, Gao B. Establishment and characterization of an experimental model of coronary thrombotic microembolism in rats. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:1122-30 pubmed publisher
    ..area as evaluated by Thioflavin S, myocardial leukocyte infiltration levels, myocardial expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6, the percentage of arterioles obstructed by thrombosis, and myocardial fibrosis were ..
  49. Tchoukalova Y, Votruba S, Tchkonia T, Giorgadze N, Kirkland J, Jensen M. Regional differences in cellular mechanisms of adipose tissue gain with overfeeding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18226-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Inherent differences in preadipocyte cell dynamics may contribute to the distinct responses of different fat depots to overfeeding, and fat-cell number increases in certain depots in adults after only 8 wk of increased food intake. ..
  50. Sutherland J, de Jong B, Jeffries D, Adetifa I, Ota M. Production of TNF-alpha, IL-12(p40) and IL-17 can discriminate between active TB disease and latent infection in a West African cohort. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12365 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis. Our results provide further insight into the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and may enhance the specificity of the currently available diagnostic tests, particularly for diagnosis of active TB. ..
  51. Diao L, Li N, Brayman T, Hotz K, Lai Y. Regulation of MRP2/ABCC2 and BSEP/ABCB11 expression in sandwich cultured human and rat hepatocytes exposed to inflammatory cytokines TNF-{alpha}, IL-6, and IL-1{beta}. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:31185-92 pubmed publisher
  52. Chen S, Yeh C, Lin M, Kang C, Chu C, Chang F, et al. Premarin improves outcomes of spinal cord injury in male rats through stimulating both angiogenesis and neurogenesis. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:2043-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that Premarin therapy may protect against spinal cord apoptosis after spinal cord injury through mechanisms stimulating both angiogenesis and neurogenesis in male rats. ..
  53. Mohamadkhani A, Sayemiri K, Ghanbari R, Elahi E, Poustchi H, Montazeri G. The inverse association of serum HBV DNA level with HDL and adiponectin in chronic hepatitis B infection. Virol J. 2010;7:228 pubmed publisher
    ..The hepatoprotective role of high density lipoproteins (HDL) and adiponectin as host factors on HBV persistence is less well understood...
  54. Koriyama C, Akiba S, Shimaoka S, Itoh T, Akiyama S, Eizuru Y. Frequent expression of thymidine phosphorylase in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma of diffuse type. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:2431-7 pubmed
  55. Gao J, Chen C, Wu Q, Gu W, Li X. Effect of sodium houttuyfonate on inhibiting ventricular remodeling induced by abdominal aortic banding in rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;88:693-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, its function seems to correlate with reduced blood pressure and heart rate. ..
  56. Kang H, Han S, Hong J, Sohn N. Suppression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha by Schizonepeta tenuifolia water extract via inhibition of IkappaBalpha degradation and Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase activation. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62:1069-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that the downregulation of TNF-alpha by S. tenuifolia water extract may have involved the inhibition of both IkappaBalpha degradation and activation of c-Jun and ATF-2 involving suppression of JNK/SAPK. ..
  57. Bao W, Min D, Twigg S, Shackel N, Warner F, Yue D, et al. Monocyte CD147 is induced by advanced glycation end products and high glucose concentration: possible role in diabetic complications. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C1212-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because MMPs play a role in monocyte migration, inhibition of their regulator CD147 may assist in the prevention of diabetic complications, particularly those where monocyte infiltration is an early initiating event. ..
  58. Chen C, Vijaya Krishna R, Tsai C, Wu W, Chao L, Hwang K, et al. Structure and functions of gamma-dodecalactone isolated from Antrodia camphorata for NK cell activation. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:6896-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Further assays of NK cells activation using each enantiomer showed that only the (R)-(+)-4-hydroxydodecanoic acid can activate NK cells. ..
  59. Chuang C, Martinez K, Xie G, Kennedy A, Bumrungpert A, Overman A, et al. Quercetin is equally or more effective than resveratrol in attenuating tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:1511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that quercetin is equally or more effective than trans-RSV in attenuating TNF-?-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes. ..
  60. Hoitsma E, Drent M, Sharma O. A pragmatic approach to diagnosing and treating neurosarcoidosis in the 21st century. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2010;16:472-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper an update on clinical manifestations of neurosarcoidosis, diagnostic dilemmas, and therapeutic options is provided. ..
  61. Shin T, Park S, Yoo J, Kim I, Lee H, Kwon T, et al. Anti-allergic inflammatory activity of the fruit of Prunus persica: role of calcium and NF-kappaB. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:2797-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide evidence that FPP inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammation and involvement of calcium and NF-kappaB in these effects...
  62. Tang H, Chen H, Jia Y, Liu X, Han Z, Wang A, et al. Effect of inhibitors of endocytosis and NF-kB signal pathway on folate-conjugated nanoparticle endocytosis by rat Kupffer cells. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:6937-6947 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), and IL-6 were tested in culture supernatants by bead-based ..
  63. Subramaniam S, Kwon B, Beura L, Kuszynski C, Pattnaik A, Osorio F. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus non-structural protein 1 suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha promoter activation by inhibiting NF-?B and Sp1. Virology. 2010;406:270-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal one of the important mechanisms underlying the innate immune evasion by PRRSV during infection...
  64. Zhang H, Park Y, Zhang C. Coronary and aortic endothelial function affected by feedback between adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor ? in type 2 diabetic mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2156-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A reciprocal suppression occurs between adiponectin and TNF-? that fundamentally affects the regulation of coronary and aortic endothelial function in type 2 diabetic mice. ..
  65. Cheng H, Chang C, Wang H, Wang W. Interleukin-1beta and -10 polymorphisms influence erosive reflux esophagitis and gastritis in Taiwanese patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25:1443-51 pubmed publisher
    ..024-2.697; and P = 0.035, OR = 1.600, 95% CI: 1.024-2.499, respectively). Among Taiwanese patients, IL-1beta and -10 polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of erosive reflux esophagitis and gastritis, respectively. ..
  66. Kim M, Kim D, Na H, Surh Y. TNF-? induces expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and ?-catenin activation through generation of ROS in human breast epithelial cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:2092-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the above results suggest that eupatilin has chemopreventive effects on mammary tumorigenesis by targeting the ?-catenin-uPA axis stimulated by TNF-?. ..
  67. Nowag A, Platten M, Plum G, Hartmann P. [Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections]. Z Rheumatol. 2017;76:752-760 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the relationship between the immune response to NTM and intrinsic and iatrogenic dispositions for NTM infection, with an emphasis on RA. ..
  68. Tawfeek H, Bedi B, Li J, Adams J, Kobayashi T, Weitzmann M, et al. Disruption of PTH receptor 1 in T cells protects against PTH-induced bone loss. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12290 pubmed publisher
    ..that PTH activation of the T cell PPR stimulates T cell production of the osteoclastogenic cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)...
  69. Tavares A, da Rosa Araujo A, Baldo G, Matte U, Khaper N, Bello Klein A, et al. Bone marrow derived cells decrease inflammation but not oxidative stress in an experimental model of acute myocardial infarction. Life Sci. 2010;87:699-706 pubmed publisher
    ..8) vs. S (14.61±3.4) and AMIT (2.1±0.7) vs. ST (4.7±1.5). The data suggest that BMC promoted a redox status favorable to the oxidation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines in the myocardium, exerting an anti-inflammatory-like effect. ..
  70. Soria Castro I, Krzyzanowska A, Pelaéz M, Regadera J, Ferrer G, Montoliu L, et al. Cot/tpl2 (MAP3K8) mediates myeloperoxidase activity and hypernociception following peripheral inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:33805-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study demonstrates an important role of Cot/tpl2 in the NGF, G-CSF, and GM-CSF production and myeloperoxidase activity in the acute inflammatory response process and its implication in inflammatory hypernociception. ..
  71. Fujimoto S, Mochizuki K, Shimada M, Hori T, Murayama Y, Ohashi N, et al. Insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet is associated with the induction of genes related to leukocyte activation in rat peripheral leukocytes. Life Sci. 2010;87:679-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the expression of genes related to leukocyte activation in peripheral leukocytes is associated with the development of moderate insulin resistance. ..
  72. Zhang J, Chen J, Wang X, Li W, Wang B, Zhou J. [Protective effect of "neiguan" (PC 6)-electroacupuncture preconditioning on the myocardium in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion rats]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2010;35:182-7 pubmed
    ..05). "Neiguan" (PC 6)-EA preconditioning has a cardioprotective effect on the ischemia-reperfusion myocardium by promoting mast cell degranulation. ..
  73. De Gonzalo Calvo D, Neitzert K, Fernandez M, Vega Naredo I, Caballero B, García Macia M, et al. Differential inflammatory responses in aging and disease: TNF-alpha and IL-6 as possible biomarkers. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:733-7 pubmed publisher
  74. López Pérez I, Collantes Fernandez E, Rojo Montejo S, Navarro Lozano V, Risco Castillo V, Pérez Pérez V, et al. Effects of Neospora caninum infection at mid-gestation on placenta in a pregnant mouse model. J Parasitol. 2010;96:1017-20 pubmed publisher
    ..caninum at the materno-fetal interphase and favor transmission to the progeny. Finally, an increase in TNF-? expression in nested-PCR-positive placentas combined with necrosis may compromise the viability of the fetuses. ..
  75. Kuesap J, Hirayama K, Kikuchi M, Ruangweerayut R, Na Bangchang K. Study on association between genetic polymorphisms of haem oxygenase-1, tumour necrosis factor, cadmium exposure and malaria pathogenicity and severity. Malar J. 2010;9:260 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study in larger sample size is required. ..