interleukin 5


Summary: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.

Top Publications

  1. Gevaert P, Hellman C, Lundblad L, Lundahl J, Holtappels G, Van Cauwenberge P, et al. Differential expression of the interleukin 5 receptor alpha isoforms in blood and tissue eosinophils of nasal polyp patients. Allergy. 2009;64:725-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Since, TM-IL-5Ralpha is down-regulated and SOL-IL-5Ralpha (antagonistic) is upregulated in NP tissue, our findings are important to understand the clinical trials with anti-IL-5 in humans. ..
  2. Takatsu K, Kouro T, Nagai Y. Interleukin 5 in the link between the innate and acquired immune response. Adv Immunol. 2009;101:191-236 pubmed publisher
  3. Chen W, Lu Z, Li C. Sensitive human interleukin 5 impedimetric sensor based on polypyrrole-pyrrolepropylic acid-gold nanocomposite. Anal Chem. 2008;80:8485-92 pubmed publisher
    ..As a model, a human interleukin 5 (IL-5) immunosensor, an important sensor for disease pathology study, clinic diagnosis, and pharmaceutical ..
  4. Tomasiak Łozowska M, Bodzenta Łukaszyk A, Tomasiak M, Skiepko R, Zietkowski Z. [The role of interleukin 13 and interleukin 5 in asthma]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2010;64:146-55 pubmed
    ..The results of these studies seem very interesting and induced the authors to discuss this issue. ..
  5. Klein Hessling S, Bopp T, Jha M, Schmidt A, Miyatake S, Schmitt E, et al. Cyclic AMP-induced chromatin changes support the NFATc-mediated recruitment of GATA-3 to the interleukin 5 promoter. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:31030-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate the functional importance of cyclic AMP signals for the interplay between GATA-3 and NFATc factors in the transcriptional control of lymphokine expression in Th2 effector cells. ..
  6. Figueiredo C, Alcântara Neves N, Veiga R, Amorim L, Dattoli V, Mendonça L, et al. Spontaneous cytokine production in children according to biological characteristics and environmental exposures. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:845-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased hygiene (lack of access to clean drinking water and sanitation) in the first 3 years of life is associated with higher spontaneous IL-10 production up to 8 years later in life. ..
  7. Esnault S, Rosenthal L, Shen Z, Sedgwick J, Szakaly R, Sorkness R, et al. A critical role for Pin1 in allergic pulmonary eosinophilia in rats. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120:1082-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that in vivo Pin1 blockade attenuates GM-CSF and IL-5 production and can selectively reduce eosinophilic allergic inflammation. Eosinophils can be selectively reduced by Pin1 blockade, despite allergen challenge. ..
  8. Chong L, Aicheler R, Llewellyn Lacey S, Tomasec P, Brennan P, Wang E. Proliferation and interleukin 5 production by CD8hi CD57+ T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:995-1000 pubmed publisher a distinct cytokine profile late after activation that includes the unexpected release of high levels of interleukin 5. These data indicate that CD8hi CD57+ T cells should not be considered as "end-stage" effector T ..
  9. Padigel U, Hess J, Lee J, Lok J, Nolan T, Schad G, et al. Eosinophils act as antigen-presenting cells to induce immunity to Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1844-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments demonstrate that eosinophils function as antigen-presenting cells for the induction of the primary and the expansion of the secondary Th2 immune responses to S. stercoralis in mice. ..

More Information


  1. Gorska M, Cen O, Liang Q, Stafford S, Alam R. Differential regulation of interleukin 5-stimulated signaling pathways by dynamin. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:14429-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have identified specific functions for dynamin in the IL-5 signaling pathway and demonstrated its role in receptor endocytosis and termination of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. ..
  2. Stewart V, McGrath S, Walsh D, Davis S, Hess A, Ware L, et al. Pre-clinical evaluation of new adjuvant formulations to improve the immunogenicity of the malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS02A. Vaccine. 2006;24:6483-92 pubmed
    ..Phase 1, 2a, and 2b clinical trials are underway to determine if RTS,S/AS01B demonstrates improved immunogenicity and protective efficacy against experimental challenge and natural mosquito-borne malaria. ..
  3. Itakura A, Kikuchi Y, Kouro T, Ikutani M, Takaki S, Askenase P, et al. Interleukin 5 plays an essential role in elicitation of contact sensitivity through dual effects on eosinophils and B-1 cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2006;140 Suppl 1:8-16 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a new insight into complicated mechanisms of CS elicitation and suggest a novel role of IL-5 in the regulation of immune responses. ..
  4. Mir A, Benahmed D, Igual R, Borras R, O Connor J, Moreno M, et al. Eosinophil-selective mediators in human strongyloidiasis. Parasite Immunol. 2006;28:397-400 pubmed
    ..This rise suggests that selective mediators of the eosinophil can have a role in immunity against S. stercoralis in human infection...
  5. Horikawa K, Takatsu K. Interleukin-5 regulates genes involved in B-cell terminal maturation. Immunology. 2006;118:497-508 pubmed
    ..Taken together, preferential Aid and Blimp-1 expression plays a critical role in IL-5-induced immunoglobulin-secreting cell differentiation and micro to gamma 1 CSR in CD38-activated B cells. ..
  6. Coca A, Anolik J. Targeted biologic approaches to the treatment of systemic vasculitis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2008;35:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Although most of these agents remain unproven until ongoing randomized clinical trials are complete, their introduction heralds a new era of vasculitis treatment and has provided novel insights into disease pathogenesis. ..
  7. Okano M, Otsuki N, Azuma M, Fujiwara T, Kariya S, Sugata Y, et al. Allergen-specific immunotherapy alters the expression of B and T lymphocyte attenuator, a co-inhibitory molecule, in allergic rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:1891-900 pubmed publisher
    ..BTLA-mediated co-inhibition of IL-5 production may contribute to the regulation of allergen-specific T cell responses in patients receiving immunotherapy. ..
  8. Wang K, Shen H, Huang H, Chen J, Chen Z. Acetamide-45 inhibited hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in mice partly depending on phosphodiesterase activity suppression. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008;29:1195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated IL-4 and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in asthmatic mice were markedly decreased. Our results indicate that the agent has a potential role in inflammatory disease. ..
  9. Emad A, Emad Y. Relationship between eosinophilia and levels of chemokines (CCL5 and CCL11) and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with mustard gas-induced pulmonary fibrosis. J Clin Immunol. 2008;28:298-305 pubmed
  10. Schulz A, Vestweber A, Dressler D. [Anti-inflammatory action of a hyaluronic acid-chondroitin sulfate preparation in an in vitro bladder model]. Aktuelle Urol. 2009;40:109-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In additional, the presented work demonstrates the feasibility of the cell culture model for the screening of new therapeutic approaches. ..
  11. Mastrangeli G, Corinti S, Butteroni C, Afferni C, Bonura A, Boirivant M, et al. Effects of live and inactivated VSL#3 probiotic preparations in the modulation of in vitro and in vivo allergen-induced Th2 responses. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;150:133-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo studies on a mouse model of Par j 1 sensitization indicate that the prophylactic intranasal treatment with probiotic bacteria is able to modulate the development of Th2-biased responses. ..
  12. Minkis K, Kavanagh D, Alter G, Bogunovic D, O NEILL D, Adams S, et al. Type 2 Bias of T cells expanded from the blood of melanoma patients switched to type 1 by IL-12p70 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:9441-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IL-12p70 transfection of clinical DC preparations may enhance type 1 antitumor responses and may thereby contribute to effective immune-based therapy. ..
  13. Gonzalez Delgado P, de la Sen Fernández M, Soriano Gomis V, Perez Crespo M, Munoz Ruiz C, Hernández Niveiro E. Cyclical hypereosinophilia with skin manifestations and a clonal T cell population. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2008;18:401-3 pubmed
    ..We suggest that lymphocyte immunophenotyping analysis should be included in the diagnostic workup of patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome, including the variant type of episodic angioedema and eosinophilia (Gleich syndrome). ..
  14. Mamessier E, Nieves A, Lorec A, Dupuy P, Pinot D, Pinet C, et al. T-cell activation during exacerbations: a longitudinal study in refractory asthma. Allergy. 2008;63:1202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The Treg cell deficiency found at baseline in SRA increases during exacerbations. ..
  15. Matowicka Karna J, Dymicka Piekarska V, Kemona H. IFN-gamma, IL-5, IL-6 and IgE in patients infected with Giardia intestinalis. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2009;47:93-7 pubmed publisher
  16. Ito W, Takeda M, Fujita M, Kamada Y, Kato H, Chiba T, et al. Hepatocyte growth factor suppresses production of reactive oxygen species and release of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin from human eosinophils. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;147:331-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that in asthma, HGF attenuates allergic airway inflammation and AHR through at least the suppression of ROS production and EDN release from eosinophils. ..
  17. Byeon J, Lee J, Choi I, Yoo Y, Park S, Choung J. Comparison of cytokine responses in nasopharyngeal aspirates from children with viral lower respiratory tract infections. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98:725-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that respiratory viruses can induce different local cytokine responses. However, Th2 biased responses are not unique for RSV but seem to be predominant in respiratory viruses of young children. ..
  18. Zhang J, Wenzel S. Tissue and BAL based biomarkers in asthma. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2007;27:623-32; vi pubmed
    ..Efforts are to compare tissue and lavage biomarkers with less invasive measures, such as sputum, serum, or exhaled breath, to improve the treatment and management of asthma. ..
  19. Gorskaya U, Danilova T, Lunin V, Grabko V, Sharapova N, Nesterenko V. Effect of serum from mice immunized with group A streptococcus antigens on the efficiency of in vitro cloning of stromal precursor cells. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008;146:756-8 pubmed
    ..These data attest to appreciable effect of immunization with streptococcal antigens on the bone marrow stromal tissue; this effect is presumably mediated through serum cytokines. ..
  20. Djuardi Y, Wibowo H, Supali T, Ariawan I, Bredius R, Yazdanbakhsh M, et al. Determinants of the relationship between cytokine production in pregnant women and their infants. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7711 pubmed publisher
  21. Otsuka A, Matsunaga I, Komori T, Tomita K, Toda Y, Manabe T, et al. Trehalose dimycolate elicits eosinophilic skin hypersensitivity in mycobacteria-infected guinea pigs. J Immunol. 2008;181:8528-33 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the TDM-elicited eosinophilic response defines a new form of hypersensitivity in mycobacterial infection, which may account for local infiltration of eosinophils often observed at the site of infection. ..
  22. Gauvreau G, Ellis A, Denburg J. Haemopoietic processes in allergic disease: eosinophil/basophil development. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:1297-306 pubmed publisher
  23. Song D, Min M, Miller M, Cho J, Yum H, Broide D. Toll-like receptor-9 agonist inhibits airway inflammation, remodeling and hyperreactivity in mice exposed to chronic environmental tobacco smoke and allergen. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;151:285-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that TLR-9-based therapies inhibit airway inflammation, remodeling and AHR in mice coexposed to ETS and allergen who exhibit enhanced airway inflammation and remodeling. ..
  24. Zhang G, Rowe J, Kusel M, Bosco A, McKenna K, de Klerk N, et al. Interleukin-10/interleukin-5 responses at birth predict risk for respiratory infections in children with atopic family history. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179:205-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but are suspected to involve imbalance(s) in host defense responses against pathogens stemming from functional immaturity of the immune system in this age group...
  25. Kitamura F, Kitamura N, Mori A, Tatsumi H, Nemoto S, Miyoshi H, et al. Selective down-regulation of Th2 cytokines by C-terminal binding protein 2 in human T cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;152 Suppl 1:18-21 pubmed publisher
    ..However, IFN-gamma expression was not affected by the introduction of CtBP2. CtBP2 selectively down-regulates Th2 cytokines, therefore it is a potential target for the treatment of allergic diseases. ..
  26. Cowden J, Zhang M, Dunford P, Thurmond R. The histamine H4 receptor mediates inflammation and pruritus in Th2-dependent dermal inflammation. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:1023-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the dual effects of H(4)R antagonists on pruritus and Th2-cell-mediated inflammation point to their therapeutic potential for the treatment of Th2-mediated skin disorders, including atopic dermatitis. ..
  27. Grindebacke H, Larsson P, Wing K, Rak S, Rudin A. Specific immunotherapy to birch allergen does not enhance suppression of Th2 cells by CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells during pollen season. J Clin Immunol. 2009;29:752-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the Th2-suppressive capacity of allergen-stimulated CD25(pos) Treg in vitro is not improved by SIT in spite of increased IL-10 production from T cells. ..
  28. Liu Y, Jiao F, Qiu Y, Li W, Qu Y, Tian C, et al. Immunostimulatory properties and enhanced TNF- alpha mediated cellular immunity for tumor therapy by C60(OH)20 nanoparticles. Nanotechnology. 2009;20:415102 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that C(60)(OH)(20) nanoparticles can improve the immune response to help to scavenge and kill tumor cells. ..
  29. Getting S, Riffo Vasquez Y, Pitchford S, Kaneva M, Grieco P, Page C, et al. A role for MC3R in modulating lung inflammation. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2008;21:866-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have highlighted the potential for selective MC3R agonists as novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics in lung inflammation. ..
  30. Clough G, Jackson C, Lee J, Jamal S, Church M. What can microdialysis tell us about the temporal and spatial generation of cytokines in allergen-induced responses in human skin in vivo?. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:2799-806 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, when used in conjunction with skin biopsies, it provides novel information about the mechanisms of dermal inflammation. ..
  31. Tan G, Su J, Wang C, Huang F, Wang H, Huang Y, et al. A recombinant DNA plasmid encoding the human interleukin-5 breaks immunological tolerance and inhibits airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;145:313-23 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that active vaccination against IL-5 may be a rational therapeutic approach for the treatment of asthma and potentially other eosinophilic disorders. ..
  32. Fan S, Liu X, Liao Q. Human defensins and cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid of women with bacterial vaginosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008;103:50-4 pubmed publisher
    ..05). HBD-2 and HD-5 may be involved in defending against invasion by BV-related microorganisms and the decrease in IL-4 concentration may increase susceptibility to BV. ..
  33. Chuang S, Hayes P, Ogundipe E, Haddad M, MacDonald T, Fell J. Cow's milk protein-specific T-helper type I/II cytokine responses in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009;20:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel findings provide a potential mechanism for a direct contributory role of CMP in the pathogenesis of NEC. ..
  34. Nomura N, Yoshikawa T, Kamoi H, Kanazawa H, Hirata K, Fujimoto S. Induced sputum analysis in asymptomatic young adults with bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Respirology. 2007;12:516-22 pubmed
    ..In young adult atopic subjects with asymptomatic BHR, airway inflammation does not necessarily play a determining role in the development of BHR to methacholine itself, though it might be an important factor in the onset of asthma. ..
  35. Kwon M, Kim H, Lee H, Kim T, Oh C, Ahn Y, et al. Plasmodium vivax: comparison of the immune responses between oral and parenteral immunization of rPv54 in BALB/c mice. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-5 and TNF-alpha were increased in both significantly. In conclusion, rPv54 might be a valuable potential vaccine candidate for the oral and parenteral immunization against vivax malaria. ..
  36. White O, Rowe J, Richmond P, Marshall H, McIntyre P, Wood N, et al. Th2-polarisation of cellular immune memory to neonatal pertussis vaccination. Vaccine. 2010;28:2648-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The correlation between T-cell memory profiles and other clinical outcomes should be evaluated in larger trials of neonatal aP vaccine. ..
  37. Bossios A, Sjostrand M, Dahlborn A, Samitas K, Malmhall C, Gaga M, et al. IL-5 expression and release from human CD34 cells in vitro; ex vivo evidence from cases of asthma and Churg-Strauss syndrome. Allergy. 2010;65:831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, targeting CD34(+) progenitor cells that produce and release IL-5 may be effective in reducing the mobilization of eosinophil lineage-committed cells in eosinophilic-driven diseases. ..
  38. Colic M, Gazivoda D, Majstorovic I, Dragicevic A, Vasilijic S, Rudolf R, et al. Immunomodulatory activity of IL-27 in human periapical lesions. J Dent Res. 2009;88:1142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that IL-27 is an immunomodulatory cytokine in periapical lesions, with complex biological effects. ..
  39. Lu F, Zhu Y, Dai Y, Wang X, Tang J, Zhang C. [Enhancing protective immunity effects of TPI DNA vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum through codon optimization]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2009;27:189-94 pubmed
    ..28%, 28.35%) and C (28.38%, 31.39%) (P<0.01) . The codon optimized TPI DNA vaccine induces higher level of protective effect and Th1-biased cellular immune response than those of non-optimized TPI DNA vaccine. ..
  40. Couch M, Ferris R, Brennan J, Koch W, Jaffee E, Leibowitz M, et al. Alteration of cellular and humoral immunity by mutant p53 protein and processed mutant peptide in head and neck cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:7199-206 pubmed
    ..This may lead to skewing of the CD4(+) T lymphocyte response toward a tumor-permissive T helper type 2 profile in head and neck cancer patients, as manifested by seropositivity for p53. ..
  41. Casset A, Purohit A, Birba E, Chenard M, Uring Lambert B, Bahram S, et al. Bronchial challenge test in asthmatics sensitized to mites: role of particle size in bronchial response. J Aerosol Med. 2007;20:509-18 pubmed
    ..Large particles clearly play a role in the immediate bronchial response in asthmatics sensitized to mites and, therefore, should be included in pharmacological studies in humans. ..
  42. Elias D, Britton S, Aseffa A, Engers H, Akuffo H. Poor immunogenicity of BCG in helminth infected population is associated with increased in vitro TGF-beta production. Vaccine. 2008;26:3897-902 pubmed publisher
    ..14). The data presented here demonstrate that chronic worm infection reduces the immunogenicity of BCG in humans and this was associated with increased TGF-beta production but not with enhanced Th2 immune response. ..
  43. Zen Y, Fujii T, Harada K, Kawano M, Yamada K, Takahira M, et al. Th2 and regulatory immune reactions are increased in immunoglobin G4-related sclerosing pancreatitis and cholangitis. Hepatology. 2007;45:1538-46 pubmed
    ..Tregs might be involved in the in situ production of IL-10 and TGF-beta, which could be followed by IgG4 class switching and fibroplasia...
  44. Desai F, Ramanathan M, Fink C, Wilding G, Weinstock Guttman B, Awad A. Comparison of the immunomodulatory effects of the plant sterol beta-sitosterol to simvastatin in peripheral blood cells from multiple sclerosis patients. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:153-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that SIT is effective in modulating the secretion of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines and suggest a potential beneficial effect of SIT in MS management without the side effects associated with statin therapy. ..
  45. Bracho G, Zayas C, Wang L, Coppel R, Perez O, Petrovsky N. AFCo1, a meningococcal B-derived cochleate adjuvant, strongly enhances antibody and T-cell immunity against Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 4 and 5. Malar J. 2009;8:35 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the proven safety of MBOMP, which is already in use in a licensed human vaccine, AFCo1 could assist the development of human malaria vaccines that require a potent and safe adjuvant. ..
  46. Chen S, Huang F, Tan G, Wang C, Huang Y, Wang H, et al. RNA interference against interleukin-5 attenuates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in an asthma model. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2009;10:22-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations demonstrate that siRNA delivered by means of the lentivirus system is possibly an efficacious therapeutic approach for asthma. ..
  47. Stoner G, Wang L, Seguin C, Rocha C, Stoner K, Chiu S, et al. Multiple berry types prevent N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced esophageal cancer in rats. Pharm Res. 2010;27:1138-45 pubmed publisher
    ..They also reduced the levels of the serum cytokines, interleukin 5 (IL-5) and GRO/KC, the rat homologue for human interleukin-8 (IL-8), and this was associated with increased ..
  48. Ge X, Bahaie N, Kang B, Hosseinkhani M, Ha S, Frenzel E, et al. Allergen-induced airway remodeling is impaired in galectin-3-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2010;185:1205-14 pubmed publisher
  49. Yang J, Gao L, Liu Y, Ren Y, Xie R, Fan H, et al. Adoptive therapy by transfusing expanded donor murine natural killer T cells can suppress acute graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Transfusion. 2010;50:407-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the therapy based on iNKT cells from MHC-mismatched donors has great potential in protection against GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. ..
  50. Ellis M, Zhao Z, Chen H, Montgomery G, Li Y, McManus D. Analysis of the 5q31 33 locus shows an association between single nucleotide polymorphism variants in the IL-5 gene and symptomatic infection with the human blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum. J Immunol. 2007;179:8366-71 pubmed
    ..This haplotype was located in the 3'-untranslated region of IL-5, suggesting that variants in this region of IL-5 may modulate the immune response in these individuals with symptomatic infection. ..
  51. Tonelli L, Stiller J, Rujescu D, Giegling I, Schneider B, Maurer K, et al. Elevated cytokine expression in the orbitofrontal cortex of victims of suicide. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008;117:198-206 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence of the presence of mRNA transcripts of type 2 T-helper cytokines in the human orbitofrontal cortex and their increased expression in the brain of suicides. ..
  52. Endo Y, Marusawa H, Kou T, Nakase H, Fujii S, Fujimori T, et al. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase links between inflammation and the development of colitis-associated colorectal cancers. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:889-98, 898.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that proinflammatory cytokine-mediated aberrant expression of AID in colonic epithelial cells is a genotoxic factor linking inflammation, somatic mutations, and colorectal cancer development. ..
  53. Wang H, Lu X, Cao P, Chu Y, Long X, Zhang X, et al. Histological and immunological observations of bacterial and allergic chronic rhinosinusitis in the mouse. Am J Rhinol. 2008;22:343-8 pubmed publisher
    ..BCRS and ACRS mouse models have distinct immunologic characteristics and are applicable for CRS research. ..