interleukin 17


Summary: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.

Top Publications

  1. Alcorn J, Crowe C, Kolls J. TH17 cells in asthma and COPD. Annu Rev Physiol. 2010;72:495-516 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, the T lymphocyte subset T(H)17 was shown to play a role in regulating neutrophilic and macrophage inflammation in the lung, suggesting a potential role for T(H)17 cells in severe, steroid-insensitive asthma and COPD. ..
  2. Cosmi L, Maggi L, Santarlasci V, Capone M, Cardilicchia E, Frosali F, et al. Identification of a novel subset of human circulating memory CD4(+) T cells that produce both IL-17A and IL-4. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:222-30.e1-4 pubmed publisher
  3. Desvignes L, Ernst J. Interferon-gamma-responsive nonhematopoietic cells regulate the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Immunity. 2009;31:974-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a previously unsuspected role for IFN-gamma responsiveness in nonhematopoietic cells in regulation of immunity to M. tuberculosis and illustrate the role of IDO in the inhibition of Th17 cell responses...
  4. Torchinsky M, Blander J. T helper 17 cells: discovery, function, and physiological trigger. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:1407-21 pubmed publisher
    ..As our knowledge of T(H)17 and T regulatory cells grows, we are building on a new framework for the understanding of effector T cell differentiation and the biology of CD4(+) T cell adaptive immune responses. ..
  5. Datta S, Novotny M, Pavicic P, Zhao C, Herjan T, Hartupee J, et al. IL-17 regulates CXCL1 mRNA stability via an AUUUA/tristetraprolin-independent sequence. J Immunol. 2010;184:1484-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that IL-17-mediated chemokine mRNA stabilization in nonmyeloid cells uses a mechanism that is distinct from that operating to control AU-rich mRNA stability in myeloid cells. ..
  6. Iyoda M, Shibata T, Kawaguchi M, Hizawa N, Yamaoka T, Kokubu F, et al. IL-17A and IL-17F stimulate chemokines via MAPK pathways (ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK) in mouse cultured mesangial cells: synergy with TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F779-87 pubmed publisher
  7. Colin E, Asmawidjaja P, van Hamburg J, Mus A, van Driel M, Hazes J, et al. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates Th17 polarization and interleukin-22 expression by memory T cells from patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:132-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) may contribute its bone-sparing effects in RA patients taking corticosteroids by the modulation of Th17 polarization, inhibition of Th17 cytokines, and stimulation of IL-4. ..
  8. Madhur M, Lob H, McCann L, Iwakura Y, Blinder Y, Guzik T, et al. Interleukin 17 promotes angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular dysfunction. Hypertension. 2010;55:500-7 pubmed publisher
    ..T helper 17 cells represent a novel subset that produces the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 17 (IL-17)...
  9. Leavenworth J, Schellack C, Kim H, Lu L, Spee P, Cantor H. Analysis of the cellular mechanism underlying inhibition of EAE after treatment with anti-NKG2A F(ab')2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2562-7 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Hueber A, Asquith D, Miller A, Reilly J, Kerr S, Leipe J, et al. Mast cells express IL-17A in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. J Immunol. 2010;184:3336-40 pubmed publisher
  2. Li F, Yang P, Liu X, Wang C, Hou S, Kijlstra A. Upregulation of interleukin 21 and promotion of interleukin 17 production in chronic or recurrent Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:1449-54 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze the expression and potential role of interleukin (IL) 21 in the pathogenesis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease...
  3. Wilson M, Madala S, Ramalingam T, Gochuico B, Rosas I, Cheever A, et al. Bleomycin and IL-1beta-mediated pulmonary fibrosis is IL-17A dependent. J Exp Med. 2010;207:535-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies identify a critical role for IL-17A in fibrosis, illustrating the potential utility of targeting IL-17A in the treatment of drug and inflammation-induced fibrosis. ..
  4. Liu Z, Yadav P, Su J, Wang J, Fei K. Potential role of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:5784-8 pubmed
    ..The identification of Th17 cells helps us to explain some of the anomalies seen in the Th1/Th2 axis and has broadened our understanding of the immunopathological effects of Th17 cells in the development of IBD. ..
  5. Cruz A, Fraga A, Fountain J, Rangel Moreno J, Torrado E, Saraiva M, et al. Pathological role of interleukin 17 in mice subjected to repeated BCG vaccination after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1609-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding that repeated exposure to mycobacterial antigen promotes enhanced IL-17-dependent pathological consequences has important implications for the design of effective vaccines against Mtb...
  6. Jacobs J, Wu H, Benoist C, Mathis D. IL-17-producing T cells can augment autoantibody-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21789-94 pubmed publisher
  7. Semik Orzech A, Barczyk A, Wiaderkiewicz R, Pierzchala W. Interleukin 17 and RANTES levels in induced sputum of patients with allergic rhinitis after a single nasal allergen challenge. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;103:418-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is produced by T(H)17 cells and was recently implicated in the development of the T(H)2 cell response...
  8. Yen H, Harris T, Wada S, Grosso J, Getnet D, Goldberg M, et al. Tc17 CD8 T cells: functional plasticity and subset diversity. J Immunol. 2009;183:7161-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Tc17 also accumulated to a greater extent than did Tc1 cells, suggesting that adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells cultured in Tc17 conditions may have therapeutic potential for diseases in which IFN-gamma-producing cells are desired. ..
  9. Shen W, Durum S. Synergy of IL-23 and Th17 cytokines: new light on inflammatory bowel disease. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:940-6 pubmed publisher
  10. Munoz M, Heimesaat M, Danker K, Struck D, Lohmann U, Plickert R, et al. Interleukin (IL)-23 mediates Toxoplasma gondii-induced immunopathology in the gut via matrixmetalloproteinase-2 and IL-22 but independent of IL-17. J Exp Med. 2009;206:3047-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IL-23 regulates small intestinal inflammation via IL-22 but independent of IL-17. Gelatinases may be useful targets for treatment of intestinal inflammation. ..
  11. Roussel L, Rousseau S. IL-17 primes airway epithelial cells lacking functional Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) to increase NOD1 responses. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:505-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore preventing IL-17 function in CF may prove an important strategy in decreasing lung inflammation due to both direct and indirect effects. ..
  12. Kochi Y, Okada Y, Suzuki A, Ikari K, Terao C, Takahashi A, et al. A regulatory variant in CCR6 is associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility. Nat Genet. 2010;42:515-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, CCR6DNP was associated with susceptibility to Graves' and Crohn's diseases. These results suggest that CCR6 is critically involved in IL-17-driven autoimmunity in human diseases. ..
  13. Yu H, Angkasekwinai P, Chang S, Chung Y, Dong C. Protease allergens induce the expression of IL-25 via Erk and p38 MAPK pathway. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:829-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that the protease allergens induce IL-25 and TSLP via the MAP kinase signal pathways, and their protease activities are essential to this pathway. ..
  14. Hu Y, Ota N, Peng I, Refino C, Danilenko D, Caplazi P, et al. IL-17RC is required for IL-17A- and IL-17F-dependent signaling and the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2010;184:4307-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, Il-17rc(-/-) mice develop much milder disease in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, supporting an essential role for IL-17RC in mediating immune-mediated CNS inflammation. ..
  15. Son J, Lee J, Kim H, Ha H, Lee Z. cAMP-response-element-binding protein positively regulates breast cancer metastasis and subsequent bone destruction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;398:309-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that breast cancer cells acquire CREB overexpression during their development and that this CREB upregulation plays an important role in multiple steps of breast cancer bone metastasis. ..
  16. Chaudhary N, Staab J, Marr K. Healthy human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus antigens. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9036 pubmed publisher
    ..Defining the specificity of the human T cell repertoire, and identifying factors that govern early responses may allow for development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for both invasive and allergic Aspergillus diseases. ..
  17. da Matta Guedes P, Gutierrez F, Maia F, Milanezi C, Silva G, Pavanelli W, et al. IL-17 produced during Trypanosoma cruzi infection plays a central role in regulating parasite-induced myocarditis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e604 pubmed publisher
  18. Neuteboom R, Verbraak E, Wierenga Wolf A, van Meurs M, Steegers E, de Groot C, et al. Pregnancy-induced fluctuations in functional T-cell subsets in multiple sclerosis patients. Mult Scler. 2010;16:1073-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Third trimester amelioration is not related to the fluctuation of circulating Th17 cells. Furthermore, a paradoxical decrease of immunosuppressive circulating Tregs can be observed during this phase, both in MS patients and controls. ..
  19. Yates M, Li Y, Chlebeck P, Proctor T, Vandenbark A, Offner H. Progesterone treatment reduces disease severity and increases IL-10 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;220:136-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in the spinal cord also contributed to decreased lesions in the spinal cord. ..
  20. Chen G, Hardy K, Bunting K, Daley S, Ma L, Shannon M. Regulation of the IL-21 gene by the NF-?B transcription factor c-Rel. J Immunol. 2010;185:2350-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, c-Rel plays an important role in the expression of IL-21 in T cells and subsequently in IL-21-dependent T(FH) cell development. ..
  21. Su X, Ye J, Hsueh E, Zhang Y, Hoft D, Peng G. Tumor microenvironments direct the recruitment and expansion of human Th17 cells. J Immunol. 2010;184:1630-41 pubmed publisher
  22. Gnerlich J, Mitchem J, Weir J, Sankpal N, Kashiwagi H, Belt B, et al. Induction of Th17 cells in the tumor microenvironment improves survival in a murine model of pancreatic cancer. J Immunol. 2010;185:4063-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The delayed tumor growth and improved survival suggests that induction of Th17 in the tumor microenvironment produces an antitumor effect. ..
  23. Lazar Molnar E, Chen B, Sweeney K, Wang E, Liu W, Lin J, et al. Programmed death-1 (PD-1)-deficient mice are extraordinarily sensitive to tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13402-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our studies show that the PD-1 pathway is required to control excessive inflammatory responses after M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs. ..
  24. Mehling M, Lindberg R, Raulf F, Kuhle J, Hess C, Kappos L, et al. Th17 central memory T cells are reduced by FTY720 in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2010;75:403-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known to which of these memory T-cell subsets interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing T cells (Th17 cells) belong, which are considered to be key mediators of inflammation in MS, ..
  25. Redford P, Boonstra A, Read S, Pitt J, Graham C, Stavropoulos E, et al. Enhanced protection to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in IL-10-deficient mice is accompanied by early and enhanced Th1 responses in the lung. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2200-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that IL-17 may contribute to dissemination of Mtb. ..
  26. Schimke L, Sawalle Belohradsky J, Roesler J, Wollenberg A, Rack A, Borte M, et al. Diagnostic approach to the hyper-IgE syndromes: immunologic and clinical key findings to differentiate hyper-IgE syndromes from atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:611-7.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our patient cohort, we propose key findings that, when combined with T(H)17 cell numbers, predict patients with AD-HIES with STAT3 mutations, supporting early diagnosis of AD-HIES. ..
  27. Kagami S, Rizzo H, Kurtz S, Miller L, Blauvelt A. IL-23 and IL-17A, but not IL-12 and IL-22, are required for optimal skin host defense against Candida albicans. J Immunol. 2010;185:5453-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, recombinant IL-17A may serve as a potential therapy to enhance healing in individuals with chronic cutaneous candidiasis...
  28. Nelson D, Tolbert M, Clemens M, Bost K. Interleukin-27 expression following infection with the murine gammaherpesvirus 68. Cytokine. 2010;51:184-94 pubmed publisher
  29. Nogueira E, Hamour S, Sawant D, Henderson S, Mansfield N, Chavele K, et al. Serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels and autoantigen-specific Th17 cells are elevated in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:2209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These data implicate the Th17 axis and specifically IL-23 as mediators of more severe disease in AAV. Their persistence despite conventional treatment may contribute to high relapse rates. ..
  30. Nath N, Morinaga O, Singh I. S-nitrosoglutathione a physiologic nitric oxide carrier attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010;5:240-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, GSNO attenuated EAE via modulation of Th17 cells and its effects are independent of Th1 or Th2 cells functions, indicating that it may have therapeutic potential for Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases. ..
  31. Chen X, Yu Y, Deng H, Sun J, Dai Z, Wu Y, et al. Plasma IL-17A is increased in new-onset SLE patients and associated with disease activity. J Clin Immunol. 2010;30:221-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that IL-17A might play a role in the pathogenesis of SLE and associated with disease activity. RORgammat-determined Th17 cell might be involved with increased IL-17A in SLE but not exclusively the unique source. ..
  32. Passos S, Silver J, O Hara A, Sehy D, Stumhofer J, Hunter C. IL-6 promotes NK cell production of IL-17 during toxoplasmosis. J Immunol. 2010;184:1776-83 pubmed publisher
  33. Lubberts E. Th17 cytokines and arthritis. Semin Immunopathol. 2010;32:43-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-positive Th17 cells are discussed as potential dangerous cells in driving persistent arthritis in human early RA. ..
  34. van de Veerdonk F, Teirlinck A, Kleinnijenhuis J, Kullberg B, van Crevel R, Van der Meer J, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces IL-17A responses through TLR4 and dectin-1 and is critically dependent on endogenous IL-1. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:227-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings contribute to a better understanding of the host response to mycobacteria and provide the opportunity to explore potential, novel, therapeutic strategies against TB. ..
  35. Godoy L. World Immune Regulation Meeting (WIRM)--III: special focus on regulatory and effector mechanisms. Drug News Perspect. 2009;22:623-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel targets for allergic inflammation were also discussed. ..
  36. Zhang L, Yang X, Cheng J, Hui R, Gao T. Increased Th17 cells are accompanied by FoxP3(+) Treg cell accumulation and correlated with psoriasis disease severity. Clin Immunol. 2010;135:108-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new information regarding the association between Th17 and Treg cells, which will further our understanding of the pathogenesis of psoriasis. ..
  37. Li X, Lv J, Xi N, Wang T, Shang X, Xu H, et al. Neonatal endotoxin exposure suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through regulating the immune cells responsivity in the central nervous system of adult rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;398:302-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These findings suggest that early-life exposure to LPS could provide an important neuroprotective effect on the development of EAE in adult rats due to modulation of inflammatory responses in the CNS...
  38. Sporici R, Issekutz T. CXCR3 blockade inhibits T-cell migration into the CNS during EAE and prevents development of adoptively transferred, but not actively induced, disease. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2751-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CXCR3 plays a major role in T-cell migration to the CNS and can be critical for encephalitogenic T-cell migration into the CNS to induce disease, but CXCR3-independent recruitment can also produce EAE...
  39. Wu W, Huang L, Mendez S. A live Leishmania major vaccine containing CpG motifs induces the de novo generation of Th17 cells in C57BL/6 mice. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2517-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also demonstrates that vaccines combining live pathogens with immunomodulatory molecules may strikingly modify the natural immune response to infection in an alternative manner to that induced by killed or subunit vaccines. ..
  40. Xie S, Li J, Wang J, Wu Q, Yang P, Hsu H, et al. IL-17 activates the canonical NF-kappaB signaling pathway in autoimmune B cells of BXD2 mice to upregulate the expression of regulators of G-protein signaling 16. J Immunol. 2010;184:2289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify the signaling pathway regulated by IL-17 to contribute to the development of spontaneous germinal centers in autoimmune BXD2 mice...
  41. Cheng S, van de Veerdonk F, Smeekens S, Joosten L, Van der Meer J, Kullberg B, et al. Candida albicans dampens host defense by downregulating IL-17 production. J Immunol. 2010;185:2450-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that these latter 5-hydroxytryptophan metabolites inhibit IL-17 production. In conclusion, live C. albicans inhibits host Th17 responses by modulatory effects on tryptophan metabolism. ..
  42. Kawaguchi M, Kokubu F, Fujita J, Huang S, Hizawa N. Role of interleukin-17F in asthma. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2009;8:383-9 pubmed
    ..Hence, IL-17F may have a crucial role in allergic airway inflammation, and have important therapeutic implications in asthma. ..
  43. Adamopoulos I, Chao C, Geissler R, LaFace D, Blumenschein W, Iwakura Y, et al. Interleukin-17A upregulates receptor activator of NF-kappaB on osteoclast precursors. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R29 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively our data demonstrate anti-IL-17A treatment as a selective therapeutic target for bone loss associated with autoimmune diseases. ..
  44. Smith E, Prasad K, Butcher M, Dobrian A, Kolls J, Ley K, et al. Blockade of interleukin-17A results in reduced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation. 2010;121:1746-55 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-17A plays a proatherogenic inflammatory role during atherogenesis by promoting monocyte/macrophage recruitment into the aortic wall. ..
  45. Alex P, Ye M, Zachos N, Sipes J, Nguyen T, Suhodrev M, et al. Clcn5 knockout mice exhibit novel immunomodulatory effects and are more susceptible to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. J Immunol. 2010;184:3988-96 pubmed publisher
  46. Kimura A, Kishimoto T. IL-6: regulator of Treg/Th17 balance. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:1830-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the role of IL-6 in regulating Th17/Treg balance and describe the critical functions of IL-6 and Th17 in immunity and immune-pathology. ..
  47. Cua D, Tato C. Innate IL-17-producing cells: the sentinels of the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10:479-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These early sources have been shown to have a central role in the initiation of IL-17-dependent immune responses, even before the first CD4(+)T cell sees its cognate antigen and initiates the T(H)17 cell developmental programme...
  48. Christakos S, Dhawan P, Ajibade D, Benn B, Feng J, Joshi S. Mechanisms involved in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption and in non-classical actions of vitamin D. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;121:183-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This article will review new developments related to the function and regulation of vitamin D target proteins in classical and non-classical vitamin D target tissues that have provided novel insight into mechanisms of vitamin D action. ..
  49. Bodhankar S, Sun X, Woolard M, Simecka J. Interferon gamma and interleukin 4 have contrasting effects on immunopathology and the development of protective adaptive immunity against mycoplasma respiratory disease. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:39-51 pubmed publisher
  50. Cho M, Ahn S, Kim D, Yu H. Parasite excretory-secretory proteins elicit TRIF dependent CXCL1 and IL-6 mediated allergic inflammation. Parasite Immunol. 2010;32:354-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the ES proteins of helminthic parasite larva may elicit TRIF dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines, and this is not double-stranded RNA. ..
  51. Coomes S, Wilke C, Moore T, Moore B. Induction of TGF-beta 1, not regulatory T cells, impairs antiviral immunity in the lung following bone marrow transplant. J Immunol. 2010;184:5130-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results indicate that overexpression of TGF-beta1 following myeloablative conditioning post-BMT results in impaired effector T cell responses to viral infection...
  52. Tanasescu C, Balanescu E, Balanescu P, Olteanu R, Badea C, Grancea C, et al. IL-17 in cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Eur J Intern Med. 2010;21:202-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Serum anti Ro antibodies correlate with IL-17A+ lymphocytes from SCLE lesion and SLE normal skin (all p<0.05). IL-17 isoforms (IL-17A and IL-17F) are implicated in SLE but also in DLE and SCLE immunopathogenesis. ..
  53. Ratajczak P, Janin A, Peffault De Latour R, Leboeuf C, Desveaux A, Keyvanfar K, et al. Th17/Treg ratio in human graft-versus-host disease. Blood. 2010;116:1165-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These analyses in 96 patients suggest that Th17/Treg ratio could be a sensitive and specific pathologic in situ biomarker of GVHD. ..