interleukin 13


Summary: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.

Top Publications

  1. Shimamura T, Fujisawa T, Husain S, Joshi B, Puri R. Interleukin 13 mediates signal transduction through interleukin 13 receptor alpha2 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: role of IL-13 Pseudomonas exotoxin in pancreatic cancer therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:577-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, IL13-PE cytotoxin may be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. ..
  2. Moynihan B, Tolloczko B, El Bassam S, Ferraro P, Michoud M, Martin J, et al. IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-13 modulate responsiveness of human airway smooth muscle cells to IL-13. Respir Res. 2008;9:84 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism of IL-4 and IL-13 induced desensitization does not appear to involve either downregulation of receptor expression or induction of the IL-13Ralpha2 or the SOCS proteins. ..
  3. Huang F, Wachi S, Thai P, Loukoianov A, Tan K, Forteza R, et al. Potentiation of IL-19 expression in airway epithelia by IL-17A and IL-4/IL-13: important implications in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:1415-21, 1421.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that an IL-17A- and IL-13-induced synergism in IL-19 stimulation in airway epithelia occurs through a STAT6-dependent pathway. ..
  4. Kisich K, Carspecken C, Fiéve S, Boguniewicz M, Leung D. Defective killing of Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis is associated with reduced mobilization of human beta-defensin-3. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus by skin from patients with AD. Patients with AD have problems with S. aureus skin infection. This is a result of increased levels of T(H)2 cytokines, which inhibit keratinocyte mobilization of HBD-3. ..
  5. Nedoszytko B, Niedoszytko M, Lange M, van Doormaal J, Glen J, Zabłotna M, et al. Interleukin-13 promoter gene polymorphism -1112C/T is associated with the systemic form of mastocytosis. Allergy. 2009;64:287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The -1112C/T IL-13 gene polymorphism and the resulting 'hypertranscription' may predispose for the development of SM. ..
  6. Li Y, Liu X, Liu C, Xu Y, Xiong W. Role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in regulating expression of interleukin 13 in lymphocytes from an asthmatic rat model. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:1715-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we intend to explore the role of ERK in the expression of the Th2 cytokine, interleukin 13 (IL-13) in lymphocytes in asthma...
  7. Bottema R, Nolte I, Howard T, Koppelman G, Dubois A, de Meer G, et al. Interleukin 13 and interleukin 4 receptor-? polymorphisms in rhinitis and asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;153:259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..IL13 and IL4R polymorphisms are associated with asthma and show gene-gene interaction in asthma. Their role in rhinitis has not been extensively studied...
  8. Tomasiak Łozowska M, Bodzenta Łukaszyk A, Tomasiak M, Skiepko R, Zietkowski Z. [The role of interleukin 13 and interleukin 5 in asthma]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2010;64:146-55 pubmed
    ..The results of these studies seem very interesting and induced the authors to discuss this issue. ..
  9. Cooper P, Poll C, Barnes P, Sturton R. Involvement of IL-13 in tobacco smoke-induced changes in the structure and function of rat intrapulmonary airways. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;43:220-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic TS exposure induces increased responsiveness in intrapulmonary airways of rats that may be mediated in part by an increase in IL-13. ..

More Information


  1. Pesce J, Ramalingam T, Wilson M, Mentink Kane M, Thompson R, Cheever A, et al. Retnla (relmalpha/fizz1) suppresses helminth-induced Th2-type immunity. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000393 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the Th2-inducible gene Retnla suppresses resistance to GI nematode infection, pulmonary granulomatous inflammation, and fibrosis by negatively regulating Th2-dependent responses...
  2. Black S, Teixeira A, Loh A, Vinall L, Holloway J, Hardy R, et al. Contribution of functional variation in the IL13 gene to allergy, hay fever and asthma in the NSHD longitudinal 1946 birth cohort. Allergy. 2009;64:1172-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In a longitudinal population cohort we have established a role for polymorphism of IL13 in determining susceptibility to both atopy and asthma. ..
  3. Kato A, Xiao H, Chustz R, Liu M, Schleimer R. Local release of B cell-activating factor of the TNF family after segmental allergen challenge of allergic subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123:369-75 pubmed publisher
    ..875, P < .001) and IL-13 (r = 0.812, P < .001). The antigen-induced production of BAFF in the airway might contribute to local class-switch recombination and immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells. ..
  4. Llanes E, Quiralte J, Lopez E, Sastre B, Chacártegui M, del Pozo V, et al. Analysis of polymorphisms in olive pollen allergy: IL13, IL4RA, IL5 and ADRB2 genes. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;148:228-38 pubmed publisher
    ..IL13 and IL4RA could be relevant markers for allergy to olive pollen and asthma development. ..
  5. Munitz A, Brandt E, Mingler M, Finkelman F, Rothenberg M. Distinct roles for IL-13 and IL-4 via IL-13 receptor alpha1 and the type II IL-4 receptor in asthma pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7240-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data provide a comprehensive mechanistic analysis of the critical role by which IL-13Ralpha1 mediates allergic lung pathology and highlight unforeseen roles for the type II IL-4R. ..
  6. Zhao A, Urban J, Anthony R, Sun R, Stiltz J, Van Rooijen N, et al. Th2 cytokine-induced alterations in intestinal smooth muscle function depend on alternatively activated macrophages. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:217-225.e1 pubmed publisher
  7. Yeh T, Lee S, Hsu W. Expression of SPLUNC1 protein in nasal polyp epithelial cells in air-liquid interface culture treated with IL-13. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2010;24:17-20 pubmed publisher
    ..A microenvironmental milieu containing IL-13 may be detrimental to the host innate immunity response, at least in part, through the inhibition of SPLUNC1 production. ..
  8. Guo L, Wei G, Zhu J, Liao W, Leonard W, Zhao K, et al. IL-1 family members and STAT activators induce cytokine production by Th2, Th17, and Th1 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13463-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Newcomb D, Zhou W, Moore M, Goleniewska K, Hershey G, Kolls J, et al. A functional IL-13 receptor is expressed on polarized murine CD4+ Th17 cells and IL-13 signaling attenuates Th17 cytokine production. J Immunol. 2009;182:5317-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, therapeutic intervention inhibiting IL-13 production could have adverse consequences by up-regulating Th17 inflammation in certain disease states. ..
  10. Martinez F, Helming L, Gordon S. Alternative activation of macrophages: an immunologic functional perspective. Annu Rev Immunol. 2009;27:451-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence for in vivo alternative activation of macrophages is also analyzed, with nematode infection as prototypic disease. Finally, we revisit the concept of macrophage activation in the context of the immune response. ..
  11. Wilson M, Wynn T. Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation. Mucosal Immunol. 2009;2:103-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Restoring homeostasis to these dysregulated healing responses, or simply neutralizing the key pro-fibrotic mediators may prevent or slow the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. ..
  12. Pichavant M, Goya S, Meyer E, Johnston R, Kim H, Matangkasombut P, et al. Ozone exposure in a mouse model induces airway hyperreactivity that requires the presence of natural killer T cells and IL-17. J Exp Med. 2008;205:385-93 pubmed publisher
  13. Katsoulotos G, Qi M, Qi J, Tanaka K, Hughes W, Molloy T, et al. The Diacylglycerol-dependent translocation of ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein 4 inside a human mast cell line results in substantial phenotypic changes, including expression of interleukin 13 receptor alpha2. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1610-21 pubmed
  14. Nath P, Leung S, Williams A, Noble A, Xie S, McKenzie A, et al. Complete inhibition of allergic airway inflammation and remodelling in quadruple IL-4/5/9/13-/- mice. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37:1427-35 pubmed
    ..Both redundancy or complementariness of Th2 cytokines can occur in vivo, according to specific aspects of the allergic response. ..
  15. Leung T, Chan I, Wong G, Li C, Tang N, Yung E, et al. Association between candidate genes and lung function growth in Chinese asthmatic children. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37:1480-6 pubmed
    ..045). Our data suggest that STAT6 may influence lung function growth in asthmatic children. We also found significant interactions among several atopy-related genetic polymorphisms for influencing FVC change. ..
  16. Ballantyne S, Barlow J, Jolin H, Nath P, Williams A, Chung K, et al. Blocking IL-25 prevents airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120:1324-31 pubmed
    ..We define a novel pathway for the induction of AHR and suggest that IL-25 represents an important therapeutic target for the treatment of asthma. Significantly, our antibody also blocks the binding of human IL-25 to its receptor. ..
  17. Khodoun M, Lewis C, Lewis C, Yang J, Orekov T, Potter C, et al. Differences in expression, affinity, and function of soluble (s)IL-4Ralpha and sIL-13Ralpha2 suggest opposite effects on allergic responses. J Immunol. 2007;179:6429-38 pubmed
  18. Blanchard C, Mingler M, Vicario M, Abonia J, Wu Y, Lu T, et al. IL-13 involvement in eosinophilic esophagitis: transcriptome analysis and reversibility with glucocorticoids. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120:1292-300 pubmed
    ..IL-13-induced pathways and genes are fundamental processes in the cause and manifestations of EE; as such, therapeutic agents that interfere with IL-13 might be particularly useful for disease treatment. ..
  19. Allahverdian S, Harada N, Singhera G, Knight D, Dorscheid D. Secretion of IL-13 by airway epithelial cells enhances epithelial repair via HB-EGF. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;38:153-60 pubmed
    ..Dysregulation of EGFR phosphorylation may contribute to a persistent repair phenotype and chronically increased IL-13 release, and in turn result in airway remodeling. ..
  20. Loza M, Foster S, Peters S, Penn R. Interactive effects of steroids and beta-agonists on accumulation of type 2 T cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:750.e1-5.e3 pubmed
    ..The corticosteroid budesonide potently reverses this effect. ..
  21. Farghaly H, Blagbrough I, Medina Tato D, Watson M. Interleukin 13 increases contractility of murine tracheal smooth muscle by a phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110delta-dependent mechanism. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;73:1530-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to previously reported effects on airway inflammation, inhibition of PI3K p110delta may be a useful target for the treatment of asthma by preventing IL-13-induced airway smooth muscle hyper-responsiveness. ..
  22. Coste A, Lagane C, Filipe C, Authier H, Gales A, Bernad J, et al. IL-13 attenuates gastrointestinal candidiasis in normal and immunodeficient RAG-2(-/-) mice via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation. J Immunol. 2008;180:4939-47 pubmed
    ..albicans infection of the GI tract through PPARgamma activation and hence suggest that PPARgamma ligands may be of therapeutic value in esophageal and GI candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. ..
  23. Arshad S, Karmaus W, Kurukulaaratchy R, Sadeghnejad A, Huebner M, Ewart S. Polymorphisms in the interleukin 13 and GATA binding protein 3 genes and the development of eczema during childhood. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158:1315-22 pubmed publisher
    Atopic eczema is characterized by Th2-dominant immunity with the cytokine interleukin 13 and the transcription factor GATA binding protein 3 playing a critical role...
  24. Chibana K, Trudeau J, Mustovich A, Mustovitch A, Hu H, Zhao J, et al. IL-13 induced increases in nitrite levels are primarily driven by increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase as compared with effects on arginases in human primary bronchial epithelial cells. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:936-46 pubmed publisher
    ..While arginase 1 protein decreases in response to IL-13, neither arginase appears to substantially impact nitrite levels in this system. ..
  25. Xiang J, Rir Sim Ah J, Tesfaigzi Y. IL-9 and IL-13 induce mucous cell metaplasia that is reduced by IFN-gamma in a Bax-mediated pathway. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;38:310-7 pubmed
    ..These studies show that allergen-induced MCM is a response to a combination of various cytokines at defined concentrations and that IFN-gamma requires Bax for the resolution of MCM. ..
  26. Bottema R, Reijmerink N, Kerkhof M, Koppelman G, Stelma F, Gerritsen J, et al. Interleukin 13, CD14, pet and tobacco smoke influence atopy in three Dutch cohorts: the allergenic study. Eur Respir J. 2008;32:593-602 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study indicates that atopy is importantly influenced by interleukin 13 at age 1-8 yrs and by CD14 in interaction with pet exposure at ages 4 and 8 yrs...
  27. Saha S, Berry M, Parker D, Siddiqui S, Morgan A, May R, et al. Increased sputum and bronchial biopsy IL-13 expression in severe asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:685-91 pubmed publisher
    ..7, P = .007). IL-13+ cells within the submucosa and ASM correlated with sputum eosinophilia (R(s) = 0.4, P < or = .05). IL-13 overexpression in sputum and bronchial biopsy specimens is a feature of severe asthma. ..
  28. Heller N, Qi X, Junttila I, Shirey K, Vogel S, Paul W, et al. Type I IL-4Rs selectively activate IRS-2 to induce target gene expression in macrophages. Sci Signal. 2008;1:ra17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IL-4 activates signaling pathways through type I IL-4Rs qualitatively differently from IL-13, which cooperate to induce optimal gene expression. ..
  29. Vernal R, León R, Silva A, van Winkelhoff A, Garcia Sanz J, Sanz M. Differential cytokine expression by human dendritic cells in response to different Porphyromonas gingivalis capsular serotypes. J Clin Periodontol. 2009;36:823-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a differential potential of P. gingivalis capsular serotypes to induce DC responses and a higher capacity of strains K1 W83 and K2 HG184 than other K serotypes to trigger cytokine expression. ..
  30. Mahn K, Hirst S, Ying S, Holt M, Lavender P, Ojo O, et al. Diminished sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) expression contributes to airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:10775-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings implicate a deficiency in SERCA2 in ASM in asthma that contributes to its secretory and hyperproliferative phenotype in asthma, and which may play a key role in mechanisms of airway remodeling. ..
  31. Kariyawasam H, Pegorier S, Barkans J, Xanthou G, Aizen M, Ying S, et al. Activin and transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathways are activated after allergen challenge in mild asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124:454-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Both TGF-beta and activin signaling pathways are activated on allergen provocation in asthma. Activin-A may contribute to resolution of inflammation. ..
  32. Wadsworth S, Atsuta R, McIntyre J, Hackett T, Singhera G, Dorscheid D. IL-13 and TH2 cytokine exposure triggers matrix metalloproteinase 7-mediated Fas ligand cleavage from bronchial epithelial cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:366-74, 374.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Interaction of Fas receptor (CD95) with its ligand (FasL; CD95L) is an important mechanism of cell-mediated apoptosis. Bronchial epithelial FasL expression provides immune barrier protection from immune cell-mediated damage...
  33. Goto K, Chiba Y, Misawa M. IL-13 induces translocation of NF-kappaB in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells. Cytokine. 2009;46:96-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3 microM), an inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaB) kinase (IKK) inhibitor, markedly inhibited the translocation of NF-kappaB. Our results suggest for the first time that IL-13 activates NF-kappaB in hBSMCs. ..
  34. Gueders M, Hirst S, Quesada Calvo F, Paulissen G, Hacha J, Gilles C, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-19 deficiency promotes tenascin-C accumulation and allergen-induced airway inflammation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;43:286-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that MMP-19 may act on Th2 inflammation homeostasis by preventing the accumulation of tenascin protein. ..
  35. Hung C, Yang S, Kuo P, Chu Y, Chang H, Wei W, et al. Modulation of cytokine expression in human myeloid dendritic cells by environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals involves epigenetic regulation. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:67-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that NP and 4-OP may have functional effects on the response of mDCs via, in part, the ER, MKK3/6-p38 MAPK signaling pathway, and histone modifications, with subsequent influence on the T-cell cytokine responses. ..
  36. Fillon S, Robinson Z, Colgan S, Furuta G. Epithelial function in eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2009;29:171-8, xii-xiii pubmed publisher
  37. Sel S, Rost B, Yildirim A, Sel B, Kalwa H, Fehrenbach H, et al. Loss of classical transient receptor potential 6 channel reduces allergic airway response. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:1548-58 pubmed publisher
    ..TRPC6 deficiency inhibits specific allergic immune responses, pointing to an important immunological function of this cation channel in Th2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells and B cells. ..
  38. Turner J, Jones C. Regulation of mucin expression in respiratory diseases. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009;37:877-81 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of the origin and processes regulating goblet cell formation in human airway epithelial cells has important implications for the identification of therapeutic targets to treat respiratory diseases. ..
  39. Andrews A, Nordgren I, Kirby I, Holloway J, Holgate S, Davies D, et al. Cytoplasmic tail of IL-13Ralpha2 regulates IL-4 signal transduction. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009;37:873-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The receptor has more complicated functions than a simple decoy receptor. In this review, we discuss newly revealed functions of IL-13Ralpha2. ..
  40. Chen Z, Li M, Chen Y, Ji J, Li Y, Chen W, et al. Effects of dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen-specific immunotherapy on the serum interleukin-13 and pulmonary functions in asthmatic children. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009;122:1157-61 pubmed
    ..This study aimed at exploring the effects of dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) on the serum interleukin (IL)-13 and pulmonary functions in asthmatic children...
  41. Nekrasov A, Petrovskaya L, Toporova V, Kryukova E, Rodina A, Moskaleva E, et al. Design of a novel interleukin-13 antagonist from analysis of informational structure. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2009;74:399-405 pubmed
    ..The simultaneous addition of DV146 with full-length IL-13 suppresses proliferation depending on the concentration of the deletion form. Thus, the designed protein acts as an antagonist of IL-13. ..
  42. Patel N, Kreider T, Urban J, Gause W. Characterisation of effector mechanisms at the host:parasite interface during the immune response to tissue-dwelling intestinal nematode parasites. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:13-21 pubmed publisher
  43. Au K, Khanna D, Clements P, Furst D, Tashkin D. Current concepts in disease-modifying therapy for systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease: lessons from clinical trials. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2009;11:111-9 pubmed
    ..A randomized double-blind controlled trial by the Scleroderma Lung Study Research Group is currently comparing the efficacy and safety of mycophenolate mofetil versus oral cyclophosphamide. ..
  44. Lochmatter P, Beeler A, Kawabata T, Gerber B, Pichler W. Drug-specific in vitro release of IL-2, IL-5, IL-13 and IFN-gamma in patients with delayed-type drug hypersensitivity. Allergy. 2009;64:1269-78 pubmed publisher
  45. Macedo P, Hew M, Torrego A, Jouneau S, Oates T, Durham A, et al. Inflammatory biomarkers in airways of patients with severe asthma compared with non-severe asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:1668-76 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the most notable features are the increase in features of airway wall remodelling of SBM thickness and smooth muscle area. ..
  46. Margulis A, Nocka K, Brennan A, Deng B, Fleming M, Goldman S, et al. Mast cell-dependent contraction of human airway smooth muscle cell-containing collagen gels: influence of cytokines, matrix metalloproteases, and serine proteases. J Immunol. 2009;183:1739-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypercontractility is a hallmark of smooth muscle cells in the asthmatic lung. Our findings define novel mechanisms whereby mast cells may modulate HASM-driven contractile responses. ..
  47. Duffin K, Freeny I, Schrodi S, Wong B, Feng B, Soltani Arabshahi R, et al. Association between IL13 polymorphisms and psoriatic arthritis is modified by smoking. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2777-83 pubmed publisher
    ..88, P=0.74, CC/non-smoker, prevalence 42% (reference), CC/smoker prevalence 47%, OR 1.21, P=0.47). This study suggests that IL13 polymorphisms associate most strongly with PsA and that smoking may modulate this effect...
  48. Shinmoto H, Takase M, Naganawa Y, Takano Ishikawa Y. Production of IgE antibody to Japanese cedar pollen allergen Cry j1 by short term culture of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Hum Antibodies. 2009;18:41-3 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we failed to expand the culture with high IgE secretion. It was suggested that patient's PBL stimulated with IL-4 were useful for short term IgE production to Cry j1. ..
  49. Yang H, Wei J, Zhang H, Lin L, Zhang W, He S. Upregulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and release of cytokines from P815 mast cells by GM-CSF. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:37 pubmed publisher
  50. Chiba Y, Sato S, Misawa M. GGTI-2133, an inhibitor of geranylgeranyltransferase, inhibits infiltration of inflammatory cells into airways in mouse experimental asthma. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009;22:929-35 pubmed
    ..However, interestingly, the GGTI-2133 treatment did not affect the levels of these chemotactic factors and IgE. These findings suggest that selective inhibition of GGTase is effective for eosinophilic airway inflammation such as asthma. ..
  51. Deepak P, Kumar S, Acharya A. Interleukin-13 neutralization modulates interleukin-13 induced suppression of reactive oxygen species production in peritoneal macrophages in a murine T-cell lymphoma. Cell Immunol. 2008;251:72-7 pubmed publisher
  52. Simoes D, Xanthou G, Petrochilou K, Panoutsakopoulou V, Roussos C, Gratziou C. Osteopontin deficiency protects against airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness in chronic asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179:894-902 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that OPN deficiency protects against remodeling and AHR. Thus our data reveal OPN as a novel therapeutic target for airway remodeling and associated AHR in chronic asthma. ..
  53. Medeiros G, Silverio J, Marino A, Roffe E, Vieira V, Kroll Palhares K, et al. Treatment of chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice with a CCR1/CCR5 antagonist (Met-RANTES) results in amelioration of cardiac tissue damage. Microbes Infect. 2009;11:264-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results corroborate that therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of CCR1/CCR5-mediated cell migration and/or effector function may contribute to cardiac tissue damage limitation during chronic Chagas disease. ..