interleukin 11


Summary: A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.

Top Publications

  1. Dimitriadis E, White C, Jones R, Salamonsen L. Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in endometrium related to implantation. Hum Reprod Update. 2005;11:613-30 pubmed
    ..It examines what is known of their regulation and action along with alterations in clinically relevant situations. ..
  2. Mehler M, Rozental R, Dougherty M, Spray D, Kessler J. Cytokine regulation of neuronal differentiation of hippocampal progenitor cells. Nature. 1993;362:62-5 pubmed
    ..Further, they define an in vitro model system that may facilitate molecular analysis of graded stages of mammalian neuronal differentiation. ..
  3. Dimitriadis E, Stoikos C, Baca M, Fairlie W, McCoubrie J, Salamonsen L. Relaxin and prostaglandin E(2) regulate interleukin 11 during human endometrial stromal cell decidualization. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:3458-65 pubmed
    ..Blocking IL-11 signaling reduced RLX+P- or PGE(2)+P-induced decidualization, suggesting that RLX and PGE(2) act via IL-11. This is important in understanding implantation and regulation of fertility. ..
  4. Menkhorst E, Salamonsen L, Robb L, Dimitriadis E. IL11 antagonist inhibits uterine stromal differentiation, causing pregnancy failure in mice. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:920-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In women, uterine epithelial expression of interleukin 11 (IL11) and its receptor (IL11RA) suggests IL11 is critical for blastocyst attachment during implantation...
  5. Klein W, Rohde G, Arinir U, Hagedorn M, Dürig N, Schultze Werninghaus G, et al. A promotor polymorphism in the Interleukin 11 gene is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Electrophoresis. 2004;25:804-8 pubmed
    ..In order to evaluate the role of the Interleukin 11 (IL 11) gene in the genetic predisposition for COPD, a dinucleotide microsatellite polymorphism in the ..
  6. Karpovich N, Chobotova K, Carver J, Heath J, Barlow D, Mardon H. Expression and function of interleukin-11 and its receptor alpha in the human endometrium. Mol Hum Reprod. 2003;9:75-80 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that IL-11-receptor interactions may perform different functions in the human endometrium at different stages of the cycle, and that secretion of IL-11 is modulated by local growth factors. ..
  7. Robb L, Dimitriadis E, Li R, Salamonsen L. Leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-11: cytokines with key roles in implantation. J Reprod Immunol. 2002;57:129-41 pubmed
    ..This review describes the insights into the role of interleukin-6 family cytokines in female fertility that have come from gene targeting experiments in mice. ..
  8. Paiva P, Salamonsen L, Manuelpillai U, Walker C, Tapia A, Wallace E, et al. Interleukin-11 promotes migration, but not proliferation, of human trophoblast cells, implying a role in placentation. Endocrinology. 2007;148:5566-72 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that IL-11 stimulates human EVT migration, but not proliferation, likely via signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, indicating an important role for IL-11 in placentation. ..
  9. Dimitriadis E, Stoikos C, Tan Y, Salamonsen L. Interleukin 11 signaling components signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) regulate human endometrial stromal cell differentiation. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3809-17 pubmed
    ..These data support a role for IL-11 via pSTAT3 and SOCS3 in initiating and progressing decidualization. ..

More Information


  1. Li R, Hartley L, Robb L. Cloning of rat interleukin 11 and interleukin 11 receptor alpha chain and analysis of their expression in rat uterus in the peri-implantation period. Reproduction. 2001;122:593-600 pubmed
    Studies in mice have shown that interleukin 11 (IL-11) signalling is required for female fertility. In the absence of IL-11, decidualization is markedly retarded and implantation fails...
  2. Andersson By U, Tani E, Andersson U, Henter J. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 11, and leukemia inhibitory factor produced by Langerhans cells in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004;26:706-11 pubmed
    ..These three cytokines are all osteoclastogenic, suggesting a pathogenetic pathway for the osteolytic lesions in LCH. Furthermore, thrombocytosis in LCH may be explained by IL-11 and LIF activity. ..
  3. Bao L, Devi Y, Devi S, Bowen Shauver J, Ferguson Gottschall S, Robb L, et al. The role of interleukin-11 in pregnancy involves up-regulation of alpha2-macroglobulin gene through janus kinase 2-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway in the decidua. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:3240-50 pubmed
  4. Zhu Z, Lee C, Zheng T, Chupp G, Wang J, Homer R, et al. Airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. Lessons from interleukin 11 and interleukin 13 transgenic mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:S67-70 pubmed
    ..we used constitutive and inducible overexpression transgenic systems to investigate the contributions that interleukin 11 (IL-11) and IL-13 might make to airway remodeling responses...
  5. White C, Dimitriadis E, Sharkey A, Stoikos C, Salamonsen L. Interleukin 1 beta is induced by interleukin 11 during decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells, but is not released in a bioactive form. J Reprod Immunol. 2007;73:28-38 pubmed
    ..Decidualization of human ESC in vitro is enhanced by interleukin 11 (IL11), with associated changes in gene expression...
  6. Estey E, Thall P, Giles F, Wang X, Cortes J, Beran M, et al. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin with or without interleukin 11 in patients 65 years of age or older with untreated acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: comparison with idarubicin plus continuous-infusion, high-dose cytosine arabinosid. Blood. 2002;99:4343-9 pubmed
    ..of body-surface area on days 1 and 8 or, therapeutically equivalently, on days 1 and 15, with or without interleukin 11 (IL-11; 15 microg/kg per day on days 3 to 28), with assignment to IL-11 treatment made randomly...
  7. Hanavadi S, Martin T, Watkins G, Mansel R, Jiang W. Expression of interleukin 11 and its receptor and their prognostic value in human breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2006;13:802-8 pubmed
    ..A higher level of IL-11 was linked to poorer survival with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. IL-11 can be a predictor of poor prognosis in human breast cancer. ..
  8. Wen C, Ito M, Matsuu M, Fukuda E, Shichijo K, Nakashima M, et al. Mechanism of the antiulcerogenic effect of IL-11 on acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Life Sci. 2002;70:2997-3005 pubmed
    ..IL-11alpha receptor expression was observed in the mucosal neck cells of the rhIL-11-treated rats and control rats. These findings suggest that IL-11 accelerates ulcer healing by inducing the proliferation of mucosal and muscular cells. ..
  9. Cork B, Tuckerman E, Li T, Laird S. Expression of interleukin (IL)-11 receptor by the human endometrium in vivo and effects of IL-11, IL-6 and LIF on the production of MMP and cytokines by human endometrial cells in vitro. Mol Hum Reprod. 2002;8:841-8 pubmed
  10. Karpovich N, Klemmt P, Hwang J, McVeigh J, Heath J, Barlow D, et al. The production of interleukin-11 and decidualization are compromised in endometrial stromal cells derived from patients with infertility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:1607-12 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that IL-11 expression is critically important during decidualization in the human endometrium, and that aberrant regulation of endometrial IL-11 production may be associated with some types of infertility. ..
  11. Tanaka T, Sakamoto T, Miyama M, Ogita S, Umesaki N. Interleukin-11 enhances cell survival of decidualized normal human endometrial stromal cells. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2001;15:272-8 pubmed
    ..IL-11 produced locally in decidual tissues may enhance the viability of decidualized stromal cells and possibly protect against cell damage during embryo implantation and trophoblastic invasion. ..
  12. Sales K, Grant V, Cook I, Maldonado Pérez D, Anderson R, Williams A, et al. Interleukin-11 in endometrial adenocarcinoma is regulated by prostaglandin F2alpha-F-prostanoid receptor interaction via the calcium-calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells pathway and negatively regulated by the regulator of calcineurin-1. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:435-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has highlighted a new mechanism regulating IL-11 expression in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells by the FP receptor via the calcium-calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells pathway. ..
  13. Kimura R, Maeda M, Arita A, Oshima Y, Obana M, Ito T, et al. Identification of cardiac myocytes as the target of interleukin 11, a cardioprotective cytokine. Cytokine. 2007;38:107-15 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that IL-11 mediates cytoprotective signals in cardiomyocytes, proposing that IL-11 has the potential to exhibit cardioprotection as a novel biological function. ..
  14. Wognum A, Visser T, Peters K, Bierhuizen M, Wagemaker G. Stimulation of mouse bone marrow cells with kit ligand, FLT3 ligand, and thrombopoietin leads to efficient retrovirus-mediated gene transfer to stem cells, whereas interleukin 3 and interleukin 11 reduce transduction of short- and long-term repopulat. Hum Gene Ther. 2000;11:2129-41 pubmed
  15. Tacken I, Dahmen H, Boisteau O, Minvielle S, Jacques Y, Grotzinger J, et al. Definition of receptor binding sites on human interleukin-11 by molecular modeling-guided mutagenesis. Eur J Biochem. 1999;265:645-55 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a common mechanism of receptor recruitment in the family of IL-6-type cytokines and offer considerable perspectives for the rational design of IL-11 antagonists and hyperagonists. ..
  16. Li F, Devi Y, Bao L, Mao J, Gibori G. Involvement of cyclin D3, CDKN1A (p21), and BIRC5 (Survivin) in interleukin 11 stimulation of decidualization in mice. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:127-33 pubmed
    b>Interleukin 11 receptor alpha (Il11ra) null mice are infertile due to defective decidualization and abnormal trophoblast invasion...
  17. Sands B, Bank S, Sninsky C, Robinson M, Katz S, Singleton J, et al. Preliminary evaluation of safety and activity of recombinant human interleukin 11 in patients with active Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 1999;117:58-64 pubmed
    Recombinant human interleukin 11 (rhIL-11) is a cytokine with thrombocytopoietic activity and anti-inflammatory and mucosal protective effects...
  18. Dimitriadis E, Sharkey A, Tan Y, Salamonsen L, Sherwin J. Immunolocalisation of phosphorylated STAT3, interleukin 11 and leukaemia inhibitory factor in endometrium of women with unexplained infertility during the implantation window. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2007;5:44 pubmed
    ..This suggests IL-11 and pSTAT3 may be involved in the secretory transformation of glandular epithelium during receptivity. Reduced IL-11 production and STAT3 phosphorylation may contribute to unexplained infertility in some women. ..
  19. Bilinski P, Roopenian D, Gossler A. Maternal IL-11Ralpha function is required for normal decidua and fetoplacental development in mice. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2234-43 pubmed
    ..Therefore, IL-11Ralpha signaling at the implantation site appears to be required for decidua development. ..
  20. Trepicchio W, Wang L, Bozza M, Dorner A. IL-11 regulates macrophage effector function through the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB. J Immunol. 1997;159:5661-70 pubmed
  21. Menkhorst E, Salamonsen L, Zhang J, Harrison C, Gu J, Dimitriadis E. Interleukin 11 and activin A synergise to regulate progesterone-induced but not cAMP-induced decidualization. J Reprod Immunol. 2010;84:124-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Locally produced and temporally regulated products such as interleukin 11 (IL11), and activin A are involved in this process; however, the molecular interactions that regulate ..
  22. Marwood M, Visser K, Salamonsen L, Dimitriadis E. Interleukin-11 and leukemia inhibitory factor regulate the adhesion of endometrial epithelial cells: implications in fertility regulation. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2915-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated that IL-11 and LIF regulated endometrial epithelial cell adhesion, suggesting that targeting IL-11 and LIF may be useful in regulating fertility by either enhancing or blocking implantation. ..
  23. Howlett M, Giraud A, Lescesen H, Jackson C, Kalantzis A, van Driel I, et al. The interleukin-6 family cytokine interleukin-11 regulates homeostatic epithelial cell turnover and promotes gastric tumor development. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:967-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, mainly as a result of late-stage detection. Interleukin (IL)-11 is a multifunctional cytokine reported to be up-regulated in human gastric cancer...
  24. Howlett M, Judd L, Jenkins B, La Gruta N, Grail D, Ernst M, et al. Differential regulation of gastric tumor growth by cytokines that signal exclusively through the coreceptor gp130. Gastroenterology. 2005;129:1005-18 pubmed
  25. Dimitriadis E, Stoikos C, Stafford Bell M, Clark I, Paiva P, Kovacs G, et al. Interleukin-11, IL-11 receptoralpha and leukemia inhibitory factor are dysregulated in endometrium of infertile women with endometriosis during the implantation window. J Reprod Immunol. 2006;69:53-64 pubmed
    ..LIF staining intensity in glandular epithelium was significantly lower in I/E compared to controls. The results suggest that reduced endometrial IL-11 and/or LIF may contribute to infertility in some endometriotic women. ..
  26. Yamazumi K, Nakayama T, Kusaba T, Wen C, Yoshizaki A, Yakata Y, et al. Expression of interleukin-11 and interleukin-11 receptor alpha in human colorectal adenocarcinoma; immunohistochemical analyses and correlation with clinicopathological factors. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:317-21 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the expression of IL-11Ra is an important factor for the invasion of human colorectal adenocarcinoma. ..
  27. Nakayama T, Yoshizaki A, Izumida S, Suehiro T, Miura S, Uemura T, et al. Expression of interleukin-11 (IL-11) and IL-11 receptor alpha in human gastric carcinoma and IL-11 upregulates the invasive activity of human gastric carcinoma cells. Int J Oncol. 2007;30:825-33 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the IL-11/IL-11R pathway plays an important role in the progression and the differentiation of human gastric carcinomas. ..
  28. Mikolajczyk M, Wirstlein P, Skrzypczak J. Leukaemia inhibitory factor and interleukin 11 levels in uterine flushings of infertile patients with endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:3054-8 pubmed
    Exact aetiology of infertility in stage I/II endometriosis patients is not known. Interleukin 11 (IL-11) and leukaemia-inhibitory factor (LIF) are factors associated with implantation window in human eutopic endometrium...
  29. Yoshizaki A, Nakayama T, Yamazumi K, Yakata Y, Taba M, Sekine I. Expression of interleukin (IL)-11 and IL-11 receptor in human colorectal adenocarcinoma: IL-11 up-regulation of the invasive and proliferative activity of human colorectal carcinoma cells. Int J Oncol. 2006;29:869-76 pubmed
    ..These findings suggested that the IL-11/IL-11R pathway plays an important role in the progression of CRC. ..
  30. Maeshima K, Takahashi T, Nakahira K, Shimizu H, Fujii H, Katayama H, et al. A protective role of interleukin 11 on hepatic injury in acute endotoxemia. Shock. 2004;21:134-8 pubmed
    ..It has been reported that recombinant human interleukin 11 (rhIL-11), a pleiotropic cytokine, may be useful in the treatment of sepsis...
  31. Davidson A, Freeman S, Crosier K, Wood C, Crosier P. Expression of murine interleukin 11 and its receptor alpha-chain in adult and embryonic tissues. Stem Cells. 1997;15:119-24 pubmed
    b>Interleukin 11 (IL-11) is a multifunctional cytokine that has diverse effects on blood cells and their precursors and on a number of cell types outside of the hematopoietic system...
  32. Reddy G, McAuliffe C, Pang L, Quesenberry P, Bertoncello I. Cytokine receptor repertoire and cytokine responsiveness of Ho(dull)/Rh(dull) stem cells with differing potentials for G1/S phase progression. Exp Hematol. 2002;30:792-800 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that primitive marrow stem cells can be further subsetted by degree of Rh staining to reveal important functional phenotypic differences between cells with different levels of Rh staining. ..
  33. Robb L, Li R, Hartley L, Nandurkar H, Koentgen F, Begley C. Infertility in female mice lacking the receptor for interleukin 11 is due to a defective uterine response to implantation. Nat Med. 1998;4:303-8 pubmed
    ..These observations reveal a previously unrecognized critical role for IL-11 signaling in female reproduction. ..
  34. Dimitriadis E, Robb L, Salamonsen L. Interleukin 11 advances progesterone-induced decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. Mol Hum Reprod. 2002;8:636-43 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IL-11 has both paracrine and autocrine actions on human endometrial stromal cells and plays an important role in preparing the human endometrium for implantation. ..
  35. Taguchi K, Saitoh M, Arai Y, Momose K, Ogawa Y, Yasuda S, et al. Disparate effects of interleukin 11 and thrombopoietin on megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro. Cytokine. 2001;15:241-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings thus demonstrate that IL-11 principally stimulates megakaryocyte maturation rather than the proliferation of megakaryocytes, whereas TPO stimulates both. ..
  36. Barton V, Hudson K, Heath J. Identification of three distinct receptor binding sites of murine interleukin-11. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5755-61 pubmed
    ..This supports the hypothesis that IL-11 signals via the formation of a hexameric receptor complex and indicates that site III is a generic feature of cytokines that signal via association with gp130. ..
  37. Ain R, Trinh M, Soares M. Interleukin-11 signaling is required for the differentiation of natural killer cells at the maternal-fetal interface. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:700-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the defect in NK precursor cell maturation was not intrinsic to the NK precursor cells but was dependent upon the tissue environment. In summary, IL-11 signaling is required for decidual-specific maturation of NK cells. ..
  38. Campbell C, Jiang Z, Savarese D, Savarese T. Increased expression of the interleukin-11 receptor and evidence of STAT3 activation in prostate carcinoma. Am J Pathol. 2001;158:25-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, the IL-11 receptor system is up-regulated in prostate carcinoma, and may be one part of a cytokine network that maintains STAT3 in its activated form in these tissues. ..
  39. Barton V, Hall M, Hudson K, Heath J. Interleukin-11 signals through the formation of a hexameric receptor complex. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:36197-203 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that IL-11 forms a hexameric receptor complex composed of two molecules each of IL-11, IL-11R, and gp130. ..
  40. Cork B, Li T, Warren M, Laird S. Interleukin-11 (IL-11) in human endometrium: expression throughout the menstrual cycle and the effects of cytokines on endometrial IL-11 production in vitro. J Reprod Immunol. 2001;50:3-17 pubmed
    ..Thus IL-11 may also play an important role in human endometrial function and embryo implantation. ..
  41. Yin T, Yang Y. Mitogen-activated protein kinases and ribosomal S6 protein kinases are involved in signaling pathways shared by interleukin-11, interleukin-6, leukemia inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M in mouse 3T3-L1 cells. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:3731-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that pp90rsk is one of the potential candidates for the H7-sensitive protein kinase(s), which is critical for the activation of primary response genes by these cytokines. ..
  42. Du X, Williams D. Interleukin-11: review of molecular, cell biology, and clinical use. Blood. 1997;89:3897-908 pubmed
  43. Curtis D, Hilton D, Roberts B, Murray L, Nicola N, Begley C. Recombinant soluble interleukin-11 (IL-11) receptor alpha-chain can act as an IL-11 antagonist. Blood. 1997;90:4403-12 pubmed
    ..We propose that the observed IL-11 antagonism by the sIL-11R may depend on limiting numbers of gp130 molecules on cells already expressing the transmembrane IL-11R. ..
  44. Paiva P, Salamonsen L, Manuelpillai U, Dimitriadis E. Interleukin 11 inhibits human trophoblast invasion indicating a likely role in the decidual restraint of trophoblast invasion during placentation. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In humans, during early pregnancy interleukin 11 (IL11) is maximally expressed in the decidua, with its receptor, IL11 receptor alpha (IL11RA), also identified ..
  45. Tafuri A, Lemoli R, Petrucci M, Ricciardi M, Fogli M, Bonsi L, et al. Thrombopoietin and interleukin 11 have different modulatory effects on cell cycle and programmed cell death in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells. Exp Hematol. 1999;27:1255-63 pubmed
    ..of platelet and megakaryocytic production, acting synergistically on thrombopoiesis with the growth factors interleukin 11 (IL-11), stem cell factor, interleukin 3 (IL-3), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-..
  46. Denis C, Kwack K, Saffaripour S, Maganti S, Andre P, Schaub R, et al. Interleukin 11 significantly increases plasma von Willebrand factor and factor VIII in wild type and von Willebrand disease mouse models. Blood. 2001;97:465-72 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a clinical evaluation of the effects of rhIL-11-induced vWf/FVIII elevation in maintaining hemostasis in mild hemophilia A or von Willebrand disease would be worthwhile. ..
  47. Meng L, Zhou J, Sasano H, Suzuki T, Zeitoun K, Bulun S. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 11 secreted by malignant breast epithelial cells inhibit adipocyte differentiation by selectively down-regulating CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: m. Cancer Res. 2001;61:2250-5 pubmed
    ..This tumor-induced block in adipocyte differentiation is mediated by the selective inhibition of expression of the essential adipogenic transcription factors, i.e., PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha. ..
  48. Chen H, Lin C, Chao K, Wu M, Yang Y, Ho H. Defective production of interleukin-11 by decidua and chorionic villi in human anembryonic pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:2320-8 pubmed
    ..The finding of decreased IL-11 expression in the absence of any change in IL-11Ralpha in AP suggests that defective expression of IL-11 but not IL-11Ralpha may account for certain cases of AP. ..
  49. Makkar G, Ng E, Yeung W, Ho P. Reduced expression of interleukin-11 and interleukin-6 in the periimplantation endometrium of excessive ovarian responders during in vitro fertilization treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:3181-8 pubmed
    ..01) compared with group A, whereas no difference in IL-6 concentration was noted in the three groups. Reduced expression of IL-11 and IL-6 in periimplantation endometrium may account for lower implantation in excessive responders. ..
  50. Cerny J, Dooner M, McAuliffe C, Habibian H, Stencil K, Berrios V, et al. Homing of purified murine lymphohematopoietic stem cells: a cytokine-induced defect. J Hematother Stem Cell Res. 2002;11:913-22 pubmed
    ..Exposure of marrow stem cells to IL-3, IL-6, IL-11, and steel factor induces a stem cell homing defect, which probably underlies the engraftment defect previously characterized under these conditions. ..
  51. Kang Y, Siegel P, Shu W, Drobnjak M, Kakonen S, Cordon Cardo C, et al. A multigenic program mediating breast cancer metastasis to bone. Cancer Cell. 2003;3:537-49 pubmed
  52. Harmegnies D, Wang X, Vandenbussche P, Leon A, Vusio P, Grötzinger J, et al. Characterization of a potent human interleukin-11 agonist. Biochem J. 2003;375:23-32 pubmed
    ..The results are interpreted on the basis of an IL-11 conformational change induced by the mutations, and the preferential use by the mutein of another unknown transducing receptor chain. ..
  53. Tenney R, Stansfield K, Pekala P. Interleukin 11 signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Cell Physiol. 2005;202:160-6 pubmed
    b>Interleukin 11 (IL-11) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine with receptors located on most cell types and tissues throughout the body...