thrombopoietin

Summary

Summary: A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.

Top Publications

  1. Caraganis A, Benn S, Cudkowicz M, Brown R. Thrombopoietin is ineffective in a mouse model of motor neuron disease. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2008;9:354-8 pubmed publisher
    This study assessed the therapeutic efficacy of thrombopoietin (TPO) in the mouse model of ALS using two treatment paradigms. TPO was administered either daily or in 13-day treatment cycles to SOD1-G93A mice...
  2. Ramella R, Gallo M, Spatola T, Lupia E, Alloatti G. A novel role of thrombopoietin as a physiological modulator of coronary flow. Regul Pept. 2011;167:5-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombopoietin (TPO) is known for its ability to stimulate platelet production. However, little is currently known whether TPO plays a physiological function in the heart...
  3. Umemoto T, Yamato M, Ishihara J, Shiratsuchi Y, Utsumi M, Morita Y, et al. Integrin-?v?3 regulates thrombopoietin-mediated maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. Blood. 2012;119:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The actions required activation of ?v?3-integrin "inside-out" signaling, which is dependent on thrombopoietin (TPO), an essential cytokine for activation of dormant HSCs...
  4. Zhang J, Freyer D, Rung O, Im A, Hoffmann O, Dame C. Inflammation stimulates thrombopoietin (Tpo) expression in rat brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells, but suppresses Tpo in astrocytes and microglia. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2010;30:465-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombopoietin (Tpo) and its receptor (c-Mpl; TpoR), which primary regulate megakaryopoiesis and platelet production, are also expressed in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  5. Saur S, Sangkhae V, Geddis A, Kaushansky K, Hitchcock I. Ubiquitination and degradation of the thrombopoietin receptor c-Mpl. Blood. 2010;115:1254-63 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thrombopoietin (Tpo), acting through its receptor c-Mpl, is required for hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and ..
  6. Lupia E, Bosco O, Mariano F, Dondi A, Goffi A, Spatola T, et al. Elevated thrombopoietin in plasma of burned patients without and with sepsis enhances platelet activation. J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7:1000-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that does not induce platelet aggregation per se, but enhances platelet activation in response to several agonists...
  7. Jeanpierre S, Nicolini F, Kaniewski B, Dumontet C, Rimokh R, Puisieux A, et al. BMP4 regulation of human megakaryocytic differentiation is involved in thrombopoietin signaling. Blood. 2008;112:3154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight for the first time that, in the absence of thrombopoietin, BMP4 is able to induce CD34(+) progenitor differentiation into megakaryocytes through all stages...
  8. Chen W, Yu B, Zhang Q, Xu P. Identification of the residues in the extracellular domain of thrombopoietin receptor involved in the binding of thrombopoietin and a nuclear distribution protein (human NUDC). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:26697-709 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombopoietin (TPO) and its receptor (Mpl) have long been associated with megakaryocyte proliferation, differentiation, and platelet formation...
  9. Maury E, Brichard S, Pataky Z, Carpentier A, Golay A, Bobbioni Harsch E. Effect of obesity on growth-related oncogene factor-alpha, thrombopoietin, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 serum levels. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:1503-9 pubmed publisher
    ..tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), an interleukin-7 (IL-7) and a megakaryocytic growth-factor (thrombopoietin (TPO)). These adipokines are involved in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Chou F, Mulloy J. The thrombopoietin/MPL pathway in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:1491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of the role of the thrombopoietin/MPL signaling pathway in HSC maintenance during adult and fetal hematopoiesis...
  2. Kuter D, Rummel M, Boccia R, Macik B, Pabinger I, Selleslag D, et al. Romiplostim or standard of care in patients with immune thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:1889-99 pubmed publisher
    Romiplostim, a thrombopoietin mimetic, increases platelet counts in patients with immune thrombocytopenia, with few adverse effects...
  3. Michel M, Te Boekhorst P, Janssens A, Pabinger Fasching I, Sanz M, Nie K, et al. Reduced corticosteroid use in adult patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia receiving romiplostim. Hematology. 2011;16:274-7 pubmed publisher
    ..phase III trials, corticosteroid use decreased from 30 to 26% among patients treated with the novel thrombopoietin-mimetic romiplostim (n = 83) and remained above 30% for placebo-treated patients (n = 42)...
  4. Baran Marszak F, Magdoud H, Desterke C, Alvarado A, Roger C, Harel S, et al. Expression level and differential JAK2-V617F-binding of the adaptor protein Lnk regulates JAK2-mediated signals in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Blood. 2010;116:5961-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice lacking the inhibitory adaptor protein Lnk display deregulation of thrombopoietin/thrombopoietin receptor signaling pathways and exhibit similar myeloproliferative characteristics to those ..
  5. Pulikkan J, Madera D, Xue L, Bradley P, Landrette S, Kuo Y, et al. Thrombopoietin/MPL participates in initiating and maintaining RUNX1-ETO acute myeloid leukemia via PI3K/AKT signaling. Blood. 2012;120:868-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene, MPL, a homodimeric receptor activated by thrombopoietin (THPO), is mutated in myeloproliferative disorders but rarely in AML...
  6. Chou F, Griesinger A, Wunderlich M, Lin S, Link K, Shrestha M, et al. The thrombopoietin/MPL/Bcl-xL pathway is essential for survival and self-renewal in human preleukemia induced by AML1-ETO. Blood. 2012;120:709-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation revealed that Bcl-xL expression is regulated by thrombopoietin (THPO)/MPL-signaling induced by AE expression...
  7. Segerer S, Martignoni F, Bogdan A, Muller N, Kapp M, Dietl J, et al. Thrombopoietin modulates the proliferation, migration and cytokine profile of decidual cell subsets during early gestation. Mol Hum Reprod. 2013;19:361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies on hepatoblastoma cells identified thrombopoietin (TPO) as a novel factor, which elicits dose-dependent chemotactic and chemokinetic effects...
  8. Kantarjian H, Fenaux P, Sekeres M, Becker P, Boruchov A, Bowen D, et al. Safety and efficacy of romiplostim in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and thrombocytopenia. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:437-44 pubmed publisher
    ..No neutralizing antibodies to either romiplostim or endogenous thrombopoietin were seen...
  9. Shin S, Pack S, Oh J, Kang N, Chang M, Chung Y, et al. Anti-erythropoietin and anti-thrombopoietin antibodies induced after administration of recombinant human erythropoietin. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11:2237-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The hematological parameters were collected. Anti-EPO, anti-platelet, and anti-thrombopoietin (TPO) Ab assays were performed to test the presence of autoreactive Abs...
  10. Lupia E, Bosco O, Goffi A, Poletto C, Locatelli S, Spatola T, et al. Thrombopoietin contributes to enhanced platelet activation in cigarette smokers. Atherosclerosis. 2010;210:314-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that primes platelet activation in response to several agonists. We recently showed that TPO enhances platelet activation in unstable angina and sepsis...
  11. Eguchi M, Masuda H, Kwon S, Shirakura K, Shizuno T, Ito R, et al. Lesion-targeted thrombopoietin potentiates vasculogenesis by enhancing motility and enlivenment of transplanted endothelial progenitor cells via activation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6kinase signaling pathway. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008;45:661-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombopoietin (TPO), a physiological regulator of megakaryocyte and platelet development, is a multifunctional positive regulator in early hematopoiesis by hematopoietic stem cells...
  12. Cohn C, Bussel J. Romiplostim: a second-generation thrombopoietin agonist. Drugs Today (Barc). 2009;45:175-88 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the major regulator of both megakaryopoiesis and platelet production. TPO is a glycoprotein primarily produced in the liver...
  13. Murata S, Hashimoto I, Nakano Y, Myronovych A, Watanabe M, Ohkohchi N. Single administration of thrombopoietin prevents progression of liver fibrosis and promotes liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in cirrhotic rats. Ann Surg. 2008;248:821-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effect of thrombopoietin on liver regeneration after hepatectomy and antifibrosis under conditions of liver cirrhosis in rats...
  14. Sanz M, Aledort L, Mathias S, Wang X, Isitt J. Analysis of EQ-5D scores from two phase 3 clinical trials of romiplostim in the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Value Health. 2011;14:90-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Health utility scores derived using the EQ-5D in this study may be useful for determining quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in economic evaluations of romiplostim for treatment of chronic ITP. ..
  15. Rongvaux A, Willinger T, Takizawa H, Rathinam C, Auerbach W, Murphy A, et al. Human thrombopoietin knockin mice efficiently support human hematopoiesis in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2378-83 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thrombopoietin (TPO) has been demonstrated as a crucial cytokine supporting maintenance and self-renewal of HSCs...
  16. Lupia E, Spatola T, Cuccurullo A, Bosco O, Mariano F, Pucci A, et al. Thrombopoietin modulates cardiac contractility in vitro and contributes to myocardial depressing activity of septic shock serum. Basic Res Cardiol. 2010;105:609-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that has been shown to increase platelet activation in response to several agonists...
  17. Eissa L, Gad L, Rabie A, El Gayar A. Thrombopoietin level in patients with chronic liver diseases. Ann Hepatol. 2008;7:235-44 pubmed
    ..So, this study aimed to evaluate the role of thrombopoietin (TPO) on the occurrence of thrombocytopenia and in differentiation between these diseases...
  18. Cooper K, Fitzgerald P, Dillingham K, Helme K, Akehurst R. Romiplostim and eltrombopag for immune thrombocytopenia: methods for indirect comparison. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2012;28:249-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This analysis uses a Bayesian metaregression model to indirectly compare effectiveness of the thrombopoietin mimetics romiplostim and eltrombopag for increasing platelet counts, and contrasts the results with those of ..
  19. Ng A, Kauppi M, Metcalf D, Di Rago L, Hyland C, Alexander W. Characterization of thrombopoietin (TPO)-responsive progenitor cells in adult mouse bone marrow with in vivo megakaryocyte and erythroid potential. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:2364-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Shen J, Wan R, Hu G, Wang F, Shen J, Wang X. Involvement of thrombopoietin in acinar cell necrosis in L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Cytokine. 2012;60:294-301 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombopoietin (TPO) plays an important role in injuries of different tissues. However, the role of TPO in acute pancreatitis (AP) is not yet known. The aim of the study was to determine the involvement of TPO in AP...
  21. Ikeda Y, Miyakawa Y. Development of thrombopoietin receptor agonists for clinical use. J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7 Suppl 1:239-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombopoietin (TPO) is an essential hematopoietic cytokine for megakaryopoiesis...
  22. Bussel J, Buchanan G, Nugent D, Gnarra D, Bomgaars L, Blanchette V, et al. A randomized, double-blind study of romiplostim to determine its safety and efficacy in children with immune thrombocytopenia. Blood. 2011;118:28-36 pubmed publisher
    Romiplostim, a thrombopoietin-mimetic peptibody, increases and maintains platelet counts in adults with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)...
  23. Newland A. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists in the treatment of thrombocytopenia. Curr Opin Hematol. 2009;16:357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..An interesting initial observation has been that the platelet response is associated with an improved quality of life in many patients when compared with conventional management. ..
  24. Wang Y, Wang Z, Wu L, Zhang J, Wang J, Yan L. Recombinant human thrombopoietin is an effective treatment for thrombocytopenia in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Ann Hematol. 2013;92:1695-9 pubmed publisher
    ..safety in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) by recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO)...
  25. Chan K, Xiang P, Zhou L, Li K, Ng P, Wang C, et al. Thrombopoietin protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy, improves cardiac function, and reversely alters specific signalling networks. Eur J Heart Fail. 2011;13:366-76 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of thrombopoietin (TPO) in acute and chronic rat models of heart damage and explored the mechanisms in terms of genome-wide transcriptional changes, phosphorylation signals, and bone marrow ..
  26. Ballmaier M, Germeshausen M. Advances in the understanding of congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol. 2009;146:3-16 pubmed publisher
    ..the cases of congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia are caused by defective expression or function of the thrombopoietin receptor due to homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the gene MPL...
  27. Köpke Aguiar L, de Leon C, Shigueoka D, Lourenco D, Kouyomdjian M, Borges D. Reticulated platelets and thrombopoietin in schistosomiasis patients. Int J Lab Hematol. 2009;31:69-73 pubmed publisher
    ..patients with portal hypertension, a decreased number of reticulated platelets associated with increased thrombopoietin serum levels were reported...
  28. Weitz I, Sanz M, Henry D, Schipperus M, Godeau B, Northridge K, et al. A novel approach to the evaluation of bleeding-related episodes in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia. Curr Med Res Opin. 2012;28:789-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated a new and possibly more accurate way of assessing the effects of a treatment intervention on bleeding-related outcomes. We developed a composite endpoint, termed bleeding-related episodes (BRE)...
  29. Bersenev A, Wu C, Balcerek J, Tong W. Lnk controls mouse hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and quiescence through direct interactions with JAK2. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2832-44 pubmed publisher
    In addition to its role in megakaryocyte production, signaling initiated by thrombopoietin (TPO) activation of its receptor, myeloproliferative leukemia virus protooncogene (c-Mpl, or Mpl), controls HSC homeostasis and self-renewal...
  30. Köhler A, De Filippo K, Hasenberg M, van den Brandt C, Nye E, Hosking M, et al. G-CSF-mediated thrombopoietin release triggers neutrophil motility and mobilization from bone marrow via induction of Cxcr2 ligands. Blood. 2011;117:4349-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This production of KC is strongly increased by thrombopoietin (TPO). Systemic G-CSF rapidly induces the increased production of TPO in BM...
  31. Erhardt J, Erickson Miller C, Aivado M, Abboud M, Pillarisetti K, Toomey J. Comparative analyses of the small molecule thrombopoietin receptor agonist eltrombopag and thrombopoietin on in vitro platelet function. Exp Hematol. 2009;37:1030-7 pubmed publisher
    The thrombopoietin receptor (TPOR) is a therapeutic target for treatment of thrombocytopenia because stimulation of this receptor results in enhanced megakaryocyte proliferation, differentiation, and ultimately platelet production...
  32. Simanek R, Vormittag R, Ay C, Alguel G, Dunkler D, Schwarzinger I, et al. High platelet count associated with venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: results from the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study (CATS). J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..undergoing discriminative anti-cancer treatments and investigated whether platelet count correlates with thrombopoietin (TPO) levels...
  33. Kuter D. Biology and chemistry of thrombopoietic agents. Semin Hematol. 2010;47:243-8 pubmed publisher
    Endogenous thrombopoietin (eTPO) regulates platelet production by increasing the number, ploidy, and maturation rate of bone marrow megakaryocytes...
  34. Zhou J, Li J, Rosenbaum D, Barone F. Thrombopoietin protects the brain and improves sensorimotor functions: reduction of stroke-induced MMP-9 upregulation and blood-brain barrier injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011;31:924-33 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to determine the protective efficacy and mechanisms of thrombopoietin (TPO) intervention in experimental focal stroke...
  35. Lam M. Review article: second-generation thrombopoietin agents for treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2010;16:89-103 pubmed publisher
  36. Pettigrew M, Garces K, Deuson R, Kassis J, Laroche V. Comparative net cost impact of the utilization of romiplostim and intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of patients with immune thrombocytopenia in Québec, Canada. J Med Econ. 2013;16:318-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Nplate® (romiplostim), a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), an expensive and occasionally scarce blood product, ..
  37. Yoshiuchi K, Takimoto Y, Moriya J, Inada S, Akabayashi A. Thrombopoietin and thrombocytopenia in anorexia nervosa with severe liver dysfunction. Int J Eat Disord. 2010;43:675-7 pubmed publisher
    ..One such problem is thrombocytopenia. However, no studies have investigated links between AN and thrombopoietin (TPO), which is the primary regulator of megakaryocyte and platelet production produced mainly in the liver, ..
  38. Lambert M, Jiang J, Batra V, Wu C, Tong W. A novel mutation in MPL (Y252H) results in increased thrombopoietin sensitivity in essential thrombocythemia. Am J Hematol. 2012;87:532-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a novel mutation (Y252H) in the thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor, or MPL, in a JAK2 mutation-negative ET patient...
  39. Hall M, Gegg C, Walker K, Spahr C, Ortiz R, Patel V, et al. Ligand-binding mass spectrometry to study biotransformation of fusion protein drugs and guide immunoassay development: strategic approach and application to peptibodies targeting the thrombopoietin receptor. AAPS J. 2010;12:576-85 pubmed publisher
    ..of LBMS to three peptibodies, AMG531 (romiplostim), AMG195(linear), and AMG195(loop), that target the thrombopoietin receptor...
  40. Evrard S, Bluteau O, Tulliez M, Rameau P, Gonin P, Zetterberg E, et al. Thrombospondin-1 is not the major activator of TGF-?1 in thrombopoietin-induced myelofibrosis. Blood. 2011;117:246-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that TSP-1 is not the major activator of TGF-?1 in TPO-induced myelofibrosis, suggesting the contribution of another mechanism in the megakaryocyte/platelet compartment. ..
  41. de Graaf C, Metcalf D. Thrombopoietin and hematopoietic stem cells. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:1582-9 pubmed
    b>Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the cytokine that is chiefly responsible for megakaryocyte production but increasingly attention has turned to its role in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)...
  42. Rhodes E, Stasi R. Current status of thrombopoietic agents. Expert Rev Hematol. 2010;3:217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, we shall discuss their potential clinical use in thrombocytopenias associated with other medical conditions where reduction in platelet production is an integral part of disease manifestations. ..
  43. Kantarjian H, Giles F, Greenberg P, Paquette R, Wang E, Gabrilove J, et al. Phase 2 study of romiplostim in patients with low- or intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndrome receiving azacitidine therapy. Blood. 2010;116:3163-70 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of romiplostim, a thrombopoietin mimetic, in patients with low- or intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) receiving azacitidine therapy...
  44. Shirasugi Y, Ando K, Miyazaki K, Tomiyama Y, Okamoto S, Kurokawa M, et al. Romiplostim for the treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenia in adult Japanese patients: a double-blind, randomized Phase III clinical trial. Int J Hematol. 2011;94:71-80 pubmed publisher
    The efficacy and safety of romiplostim, a thrombopoietin-mimetic peptibody, were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Japanese patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)...
  45. Liebman H, Pullarkat V. Diagnosis and management of immune thrombocytopenia in the era of thrombopoietin mimetics. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2011;2011:384-90 pubmed publisher
    The recognition of that patients with Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) have functional thrombopoietin deficiency and decreased platelet production due to immune-mediated megakaryocytic injury has challenged the traditional view of this ..
  46. Jung A, Kaushansky A, MacBeath G, Kaushansky K. Tensin2 is a novel mediator in thrombopoietin (TPO)-induced cellular proliferation by promoting Akt signaling. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:1838-44 pubmed
    b>Thrombopoietin (TPO) and its receptor c-Mpl are essential in the regulation of the hematopoietic stem and progenitors cells as well as for the differentiation of megakaryocytes into mature platelets...
  47. Fox N, Lim J, Chen R, Geddis A. F104S c-Mpl responds to a transmembrane domain-binding thrombopoietin receptor agonist: proof of concept that selected receptor mutations in congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia can be stimulated with alternative thrombopoietic agents. Exp Hematol. 2010;38:384-91 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether specific c-Mpl mutations might respond to thrombopoietin receptor agonists. We created cell line models of type II c-Mpl mutations identified in congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia...
  48. Salama A. Current treatment options for primary immune thrombocytopenia. Expert Rev Hematol. 2011;4:107-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of the newly developed thrombopoietin-receptor agonists, romiplostim and eltrombopag, are now available for the treatment of ITP...
  49. Hong K, Kim H, Kim J, Jung J, Han K, Cho H. Prognostic value of immature platelet fraction and plasma thrombopoietin in disseminated intravascular coagulation. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2009;20:409-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Reticulated platelet, measured as immature platelet fraction (IPF), and plasma thrombopoietin (TPO) are markers of platelet production...
  50. Ono M, Matsubara Y, Shibano T, Ikeda Y, Murata M. GSK-3? negatively regulates megakaryocyte differentiation and platelet production from primary human bone marrow cells in vitro. Platelets. 2011;22:196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects on MK lineage cells were thrombopoietin (TPO)-dependent...
  51. Stasi R, Murali M, Michel M, Viallard J, Giagounidis A, Janssens A, et al. Evaluation of bleeding-related episodes in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) receiving romiplostim or medical standard of care. Int J Hematol. 2012;96:26-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Bleeding-related hospitalizations were rare in both groups. Thus, romiplostim treatment provided greater reductions in all BREs, as well as BREs involving Ig rescue medications, than did SOC. ..
  52. Kuter D, Mufti G, Bain B, Hasserjian R, Davis W, Rutstein M. Evaluation of bone marrow reticulin formation in chronic immune thrombocytopenia patients treated with romiplostim. Blood. 2009;114:3748-56 pubmed publisher
    Romiplostim is a thrombopoietin receptor agonist that increases platelet counts in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)...
  53. Hoffmann O, Rung O, Im A, Freyer D, Zhang J, Held J, et al. Thrombopoietin contributes to neuronal damage in experimental bacterial meningitis. Infect Immun. 2011;79:928-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombopoietin (Tpo), which primarily regulates megakaryopoiesis, and its receptor (c-Mpl) are expressed in the brain, where Tpo exhibits proapototic effects on neurons...