interleukin 3


Summary: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.

Top Publications

  1. Chen X, Kendler K. Interleukin 3 and schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:13-4 pubmed publisher
  2. Yen J, Yang Yen H. Transcription factors mediating interleukin-3 survival signals. Vitam Horm. 2006;74:147-63 pubmed
    ..The biological significance of the existence of these multiple survival-specific transcription pathways will also be discussed. ..
  3. Lim L, Burdick M, Hudson S, Mustafa F, Konstantopoulos K, Bochner B. Stimulation of human endothelium with IL-3 induces selective basophil accumulation in vitro. J Immunol. 2006;176:5346-53 pubmed
  4. Ghanem L, Steinman R. p21Waf1 inhibits granulocytic differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells. Leuk Res. 2006;30:1285-92 pubmed
  5. Numata A, Shimoda K, Kamezaki K, Haro T, Kakumitsu H, Shide K, et al. Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 augments the transcriptional activity of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:12621-9 pubmed
    ..Additionally, cooperation of C/EBPalpha with other Stat3-activated proteins are required for the induction of some G-CSF responsive genes including lysozyme M and the G-CSF receptor. ..
  6. Liu J, Joha S, Idziorek T, Corm S, Hetuin D, Philippe N, et al. BCR-ABL mutants spread resistance to non-mutated cells through a paracrine mechanism. Leukemia. 2008;22:791-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In co-culture, mutated cells were able to spread resistance to non-mutated cells through overexpression of interleukin 3, activation of MEK/ERK and JAK2/STAT5 pathways, and downregulation of Bim...
  7. FRANKEL A, Liu J, Rizzieri D, Hogge D. Phase I clinical study of diphtheria toxin-interleukin 3 fusion protein in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2008;49:543-53 pubmed publisher
    DT(388)IL3 fusion protein containing the catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to human interleukin 3 was administered in an inter-patient dose escalation trial by 15 min i.v...
  8. Edwards T, Wang X, Chen Q, Wormly B, Riley B, O Neill F, et al. Interaction between interleukin 3 and dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2008;106:208-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We also observed a significant main effect in DTNBP1, which survived correction for multiple comparisons, and numerous nominally significant effects in several genes. ..
  9. Stachon A, Bolulu O, Holland Letz T, Krieg M. Association between nucleated red blood cells in blood and the levels of erythropoietin, interleukin 3, interleukin 6, and interleukin 12p70. Shock. 2005;24:34-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the increased number of reticulocytes in the blood of NRBC-positive patients may indicate that the appearance of NRBC is not associated with disturbed bone marrow function as far as the erythropoiesis is concerned. ..

More Information


  1. Ghanem L, Steinman R. A proapoptotic function of p21 in differentiating granulocytes. Leuk Res. 2005;29:1315-23 pubmed
    ..Our results also indicate there are distinct and opposing effects of p21 on monocytic and granulocytic survival. Aberrantly high levels of p21 may contribute to disease processes involving excessive apoptosis of granulocyte precursors. ..
  2. Chen X, Wang X, Hossain S, O Neill F, Walsh D, van den Oord E, et al. Interleukin 3 and schizophrenia: the impact of sex and family history. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12:273-82 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we report evidence that multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in and around interleukin 3 (IL3) are associated with the disease in the Irish Study of High-Density Schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF), the ..
  3. Matsui H, Asou H, Inaba T. Cytokines direct the regulation of Bim mRNA stability by heat-shock cognate protein 70. Mol Cell. 2007;25:99-112 pubmed
    ..This unanticipated role of a chaperone/cochaperone complex in mRNA stability appears to be critical for hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. ..
  4. Corradini F, Bussolari R, Cerioli D, Lidonnici M, Calabretta B. A degradation-resistant c-Myb mutant cooperates with Bcl-2 in enhancing proliferative potential and survival of hematopoietic cells. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2007;39:292-6 pubmed
  5. Maurer U, Charvet C, Wagman A, Dejardin E, Green D. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulates mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and apoptosis by destabilization of MCL-1. Mol Cell. 2006;21:749-60 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that the control of MCL-1 stability by GSK-3 is an important mechanism for the regulation of apoptosis by growth factors, PI3K, and AKT. ..
  6. Wright H, Bailey D, Kashyap M, Kepley C, Drutskaya M, Nedospasov S, et al. IL-3-mediated TNF production is necessary for mast cell development. J Immunol. 2006;176:2114-21 pubmed
    ..Finally, TNF-deficient mice demonstrated a 50% reduction in peritoneal mast cell numbers, indicating that TNF is an important mast cell survival factor both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  7. Chu X, Dong C, Lei R, Sun L, Wang Z, Dong Y, et al. Polymorphisms in the interleukin 3 gene show strong association with susceptibility to Graves' disease in Chinese population. Genes Immun. 2009;10:260-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial analysis suggested that a non-synonymous SNP rs40401 (P27S) of interleukin 3 (IL3) was associated with GD, and further fine-mapping showed that rs40401, or its perfect proxy SNP rs31480 ..
  8. Bilko N, Votyakova I, Vasylovska S, Bilko D. Characterization of the interactions between stromal and haematopoietic progenitor cells in expansion cell culture models. Cell Biol Int. 2005;29:83-6 pubmed
  9. Nelson E, Walker S, Alvarez J, Frank D. Isolation of unique STAT5 targets by chromatin immunoprecipitation-based gene identification. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54724-30 pubmed
  10. Park B, Kim L, Choi Y, Lee J, Rhim T, Lee Y, et al. Interleukin 3 (IL3) polymorphisms associated with decreased risk of asthma and atopy. J Hum Genet. 2004;49:517-27 pubmed
    ..007). This information about the genetic association of important genes with asthma might provide valuable insights into strategies for the pathogenesis of asthma and atopy. ..
  11. Dentelli P, Rosso A, Calvi C, Ghiringhello B, Garbarino G, Camussi G, et al. IL-3 affects endothelial cell-mediated smooth muscle cell recruitment by increasing TGF beta activity: potential role in tumor vessel stabilization. Oncogene. 2004;23:1681-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, the positive immunostaining for IL-3 by TILs in 'in situ' breast cancers sustains the possibility that early in tumor development, IL-3 can contribute to the chronic immaturity of these vessels. ..
  12. Rascle A, Lees E. Chromatin acetylation and remodeling at the Cis promoter during STAT5-induced transcription. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6882-90 pubmed
    ..These data reveal novel implications of STAT5 in chromatin regulation during cytokine-induced transcription, thus contributing to a better understanding of the mechanism of transcriptional activation by STAT5. ..
  13. White E. The pims and outs of survival signaling: role for the Pim-2 protein kinase in the suppression of apoptosis by cytokines. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1813-6 pubmed
  14. Martinez Moczygemba M, Huston D. Biology of common beta receptor-signaling cytokines: IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:653-65; quiz 666 pubmed
    ..Delineating the biology of these cytokines is enabling the development of new strategies for diagnosing and treating these diseases and modulating immune responses. ..
  15. Fox C, Hammerman P, Cinalli R, Master S, Chodosh L, Thompson C. The serine/threonine kinase Pim-2 is a transcriptionally regulated apoptotic inhibitor. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1841-54 pubmed
    ..These results establish Pim-2 as a direct link between growth factor-induced transcription and a novel, kinase-dependent pathway that promotes cell-autonomous survival. ..
  16. Huntly B, Shigematsu H, Deguchi K, Lee B, Mizuno S, Duclos N, et al. MOZ-TIF2, but not BCR-ABL, confers properties of leukemic stem cells to committed murine hematopoietic progenitors. Cancer Cell. 2004;6:587-96 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that some, but not all, leukemia oncogenes can confer properties of leukemic stem cells to hematopoietic progenitors destined to undergo apoptotic cell death. ..
  17. Cohen K, Liu T, Cline J, Wagner J, Hall P, Frankel A. Toxicology and pharmacokinetics of DT388IL3, a fusion toxin consisting of a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT388) linked to human interleukin 3 (IL3), in cynomolgus monkeys. Leuk Lymphoma. 2004;45:1647-56 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose this agent is a promising drug for AML patients. ..
  18. Holm M, Andersen H, Hetland T, Dahl C, Hoffmann H, Junker S, et al. Seven week culture of functional human mast cells from buffy coat preparations. J Immunol Methods. 2008;336:213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..g. bone marrow or cord blood-derived progenitors. Consequently, our protocol has great potential in studies on mast cell biology and mast cell pathology, and e.g. on evaluation of drug effects. ..
  19. Khapli S, Tomar G, Barhanpurkar A, Gupta N, Yogesha S, Pote S, et al. Irreversible inhibition of RANK expression as a possible mechanism for IL-3 inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;399:688-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, IL-3 inhibits in vivo RANK expression in mice. Thus, we provide the first evidence that IL-3 irreversibly inhibits RANK expression that results in inhibition of important signaling molecules induced by RANKL. ..
  20. Sun H, Tu X, Liu M, Baserga R. Dual regulation of upstream binding factor 1 levels by IRS-1 and ERKs in IGF-1-receptor signaling. J Cell Physiol. 2007;212:780-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that in 32D-derived myeloid cells expressing either the IGF-IR or the InR, UBF1 levels are regulated by signaling from both IRS proteins and ERKs. ..
  21. Chaturvedi A, Battmer K, Schaefer D, Ganser A, Eder M, Scherr M. Comparison between molecularly defined and conventional therapeutics in a conditional BCR-ABL cell culture model. Oligonucleotides. 2007;17:22-34 pubmed
    ..This model provides a tool to evaluate potential therapeutic targets and to quantify efficacy and specificity preclinically of new combination therapies in BCR-ABL-positive cells. ..
  22. Kamrul Hasan M, Komoike Y, Tsunesumi S, Nakao R, Nagao H, Matsuoka R, et al. Myogenic differentiation in atrium-derived adult cardiac pluripotent cells and the transcriptional regulation of GATA4 and myogenin on ANP promoter. Genes Cells. 2010;15:439-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these two transcription factors could be involved in the myogenesis of LA-PCs. ..
  23. Kashiwakura I, Takahashi K, Monzen S, Nakamura T, Takagaki K. Ex vivo expansions of megakaryocytopoiesis from placental and umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells in serum-free culture supplemented with proteoglycans extracted from the nasal cartilage of salmon heads and the nasal septum cartilage of whale. Life Sci. 2008;82:1023-31 pubmed publisher
  24. Yu Z, Liu W, Liu D, Huang Y, Shi X, You X, et al. [FK228 promotes the IL-3 mediated proliferation and differentiation of human erythroid progenitor cells]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;24:672-5 pubmed
    ..of cancer patients and cultured for 7 days with FK228 of different concentrations, stem cell factor(SCF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3) in serum-free medium...
  25. Kuroda E, Ho V, Ruschmann J, Antignano F, Hamilton M, Rauh M, et al. SHIP represses the generation of IL-3-induced M2 macrophages by inhibiting IL-4 production from basophils. J Immunol. 2009;183:3652-60 pubmed publisher
  26. Hong X, Zhou H, Tsai H, Wang X, Liu X, Wang B, et al. Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 gene variation and risk of asthma. Eur Respir J. 2009;33:42-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, sex-specific analysis was performed, but no sex difference was found. The present study provided coherent evidence that cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 gene variation is associated with risk of asthma. ..
  27. Kiyohara C, Yoshimasu K, Takayama K, Nakanishi Y. NQO1, MPO, and the risk of lung cancer: a HuGE review. Genet Med. 2005;7:463-78 pubmed
  28. Mohi M, Williams I, Dearolf C, Chan G, Kutok J, Cohen S, et al. Prognostic, therapeutic, and mechanistic implications of a mouse model of leukemia evoked by Shp2 (PTPN11) mutations. Cancer Cell. 2005;7:179-91 pubmed
    ..Shp2 mutants also cause myeloproliferation in Drosophila. Mek or Tor inhibitors potently inhibit transformation, suggesting new approaches to JMML therapy. ..
  29. Kurzrock R. Thrombopoietic factors in chronic bone marrow failure states: the platelet problem revisited. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:1361-7 pubmed
  30. De Bruyn C, Delforge A, Martiat P, Bron D. Ex vivo expansion of megakaryocyte progenitor cells: cord blood versus mobilized peripheral blood. Stem Cells Dev. 2005;14:415-24 pubmed
  31. Conran N, Saad S, Costa F, Ikuta T. Leukocyte numbers correlate with plasma levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in sickle cell disease. Ann Hematol. 2007;86:255-61 pubmed
    ..Our studies found that, although plasma levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 3, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor are elevated in steady-state patients with SCD, only plasma GM-CSF ..
  32. Westers L, Dijkstra D, Westers H, van Dijl J, Quax W. Secretion of functional human interleukin-3 from Bacillus subtilis. J Biotechnol. 2006;123:211-24 pubmed
    ..Using the eight-fold protease-deficient strain WB800 the hIL-3 accumulation in the growth medium was increased to levels up to 100 mg l(-1). ..
  33. Robin C, Ottersbach K, Durand C, Peeters M, Vanes L, Tybulewicz V, et al. An unexpected role for IL-3 in the embryonic development of hematopoietic stem cells. Dev Cell. 2006;11:171-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, our studies support an unexpected role for IL-3 during development and strongly suggest that IL-3 functions as a proliferation and/or survival factor for the earliest HSCs in the embryo...
  34. Shide K, Shimoda K, Kamezaki K, Kakumitsu H, Kumano T, Numata A, et al. Tyk2 mutation homologous to V617F Jak2 is not found in essential thrombocythaemia, although it induces constitutive signaling and growth factor independence. Leuk Res. 2007;31:1077-84 pubmed
    ..The expression of V678F Tyk2 in Ba/F3 cells induced autonomous cell growth and showed hyper-responsiveness to IL-3. Although V678F Tyk2 might cause MPD, no cases of ET patients lacking the V617F Jak2 mutation harbored the Tyk2 mutation. ..
  35. Horvath Z, Pallinger E, Horváth G, Jelinek I, Veszely G, Furesz J, et al. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is dysregulated in histamine-free histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC-/-) mice. Inflamm Res. 2010;59:429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..STAT5 mRNA expression was decreased in granulocyte-myeloid colonies by 72.9 +/- 8.6% (P < 0.001), compared to the wild-type. The absence of histamine adversely affects splenic hematopoiesis via direct and indirect mechanisms. ..
  36. Kyvelidou C, Chatzi K, Semitekolou M, Papathanassiou X, Vassiliadis S, Athanassakis I. Characterization of CD25-positive T cells during syngeneic pregnancy: production of stimulatory class II MHC molecules. Scand J Immunol. 2009;70:584-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that in the absence of paternal MHC alloantigens, maternal CD25(+) cells are involved in the development of immunostimulation to ensure foetal survival. ..
  37. Campana D, Iwamoto S, Bendall L, Bradstock K. Growth requirements and immunophenotype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia progenitors. Blood. 2005;105:4150 pubmed
  38. Lee Y, Byeon S, Kim J, Lee J, Rhee M, Hong S, et al. Immunomodulatory effect of Hibiscus cannabinus extract on macrophage functions. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;113:62-71 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that Kenaf may be able to modulate macrophage-mediated responses and that some of the activities may contribute to expand its therapeutic usage...
  39. Naranjo Gomez M, Fernandez M, Bofill M, Singh R, Navarrete C, Pujol Borrell R, et al. Primary alloproliferative TH1 response induced by immature plasmacytoid dendritic cells in collaboration with myeloid DCs. Am J Transplant. 2005;5:2838-48 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the interaction between both DC subsets is determinant to generate a potent Th1 response, at least in an allogeneic situation, and may be relevant to the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. ..
  40. Jakimiuk B, Mroczko B, Szmitkowski M. [Interleukin 3 (IL-3) and its clinical applications]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2004;112:1497-504 pubmed
  41. Macglashan D. Endocytosis, recycling, and degradation of unoccupied FcepsilonRI in human basophils. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:1003-10 pubmed
    ..These studies establish that the unoccupied receptor is lost by a process of endocytosis, partially recycled to the cell surface, and ultimately degraded by a lysosomal mechanism. ..
  42. Wallberg F, Sundström H, Ledung E, Hewitt C, Enfors S. Monitoring and quantification of inclusion body formation in Escherichia coli by multi-parameter flow cytometry. Biotechnol Lett. 2005;27:919-26 pubmed
  43. Breckpot K, Corthals J, Bonehill A, Michiels A, Tuyaerts S, Aerts C, et al. Dendritic cells differentiated in the presence of IFN-{beta} and IL-3 are potent inducers of an antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;78:898-908 pubmed
    ..The antigen-specific T cells were functional as shown in cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma secretion assay. ..
  44. Morris K, Bean A, Bruce M, Broadway M, O Neil T, Andrew M, et al. Administration of porcine interleukin-3 induces increased levels of blood eosinophils. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2008;28:435-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that rPoIL-3 is a potent inducer of eosinophils in swine and supports the inclusion of rPoIL-3 in therapeutic strategies. ..
  45. Kurosu T, Ohki M, Wu N, Kagechika H, Miura O. Sorafenib induces apoptosis specifically in cells expressing BCR/ABL by inhibiting its kinase activity to activate the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Cancer Res. 2009;69:3927-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, sorafenib may provide an effective therapeutic measure to treat Ph+ leukemias, particularly those expressing the T315I mutant, which is totally resistant to imatinib and the second generation BCR/ABL inhibitors. ..
  46. Chen T, Jiang Y, Zhang Y, Liu J, Hou Y, Schatten H, et al. DNA hypomethylation of individual sequences in aborted cloned bovine fetuses. Front Biosci. 2005;10:3002-8 pubmed
    ..DNA methylation status of a repeated sequence (satellite I) and the promoter regions of two single-copy genes (interleukin 3/cytokeratin) in aborted cloned fetuses, aborted fetuses derived from artificial insemination (AI), cloned ..
  47. Vaccarino V, Brennan M, Miller A, Bremner J, Ritchie J, Lindau F, et al. Association of major depressive disorder with serum myeloperoxidase and other markers of inflammation: a twin study. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;64:476-83 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the association between inflammation and MDD is largely due to common genetic liability. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that genes promoting inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of MDD. ..
  48. Kincade P. Supplying the demand for granulocytes. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:701-2 pubmed
  49. Underhill Day N, Pierce A, Thompson S, Xenaki D, Whetton A, Owen Lynch P. Role of the C-terminal actin binding domain in BCR/ABL-mediated survival and drug resistance. Br J Haematol. 2006;132:774-83 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrated that the C-terminal actin-binding domain of BCR/ABL is important for some of BCR/ABL PTK-mediated leukaemogenic effects. ..
  50. Pufe T, Petersen W, Fandrich F, Varoga D, Wruck C, Mentlein R, et al. Programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO): a source of peripheral blood stem cells that generate collagen type II-producing chondrocytes. J Orthop Res. 2008;26:304-13 pubmed
    ..The ability to reprogram and differentiate PCMOs from peripheral blood into sizable quantities might enable their clinical application in cartilage repair after mechanical injury or in cases of osteoarthritis. ..
  51. Terada M, Tsutsui H, Imai Y, Yasuda K, Mizutani H, Yamanishi K, et al. Contribution of IL-18 to atopic-dermatitis-like skin inflammation induced by Staphylococcus aureus product in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8816-21 pubmed
    ..il18-/-BALB/c mice similarly evaded SDS/SpA-induced AD. Thus, IL-18 might be important for the development of infection-associated AD by induction of IL-3 from super Th1 cells. ..
  52. Zoller M, Rajasagi M, Vitacolonna M, Luft T. Thymus repopulation after allogeneic reconstitution in hematological malignancies. Exp Hematol. 2007;35:1891-905 pubmed
    ..The negative impact of hematological malignancies on thymus repopulation and central tolerance induction can, at least in part, be corrected by application of a small number of donor-derived T-progenitor cells. ..
  53. Rossetti S, Hoogeveen A, Liang P, Stanciu C, van der Spek P, Sacchi N. A distinct epigenetic signature at targets of a leukemia protein. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:38 pubmed
    ..These findings strengthen the conclusion that leukemia-specific oncoproteins can induce non-random epigenetic changes. ..