colony stimulating factors


Summary: Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).

Top Publications

  1. Barreda D, Hanington P, Belosevic M. Regulation of myeloid development and function by colony stimulating factors. Dev Comp Immunol. 2004;28:509-54 pubmed
    ..Although most of available knowledge about CSFs is on human and mouse CSFs, an attempt was made to integrate recent findings in other systems in order to highlight a more widespread role for CSFs throughout evolution. ..
  2. Pietropaolo M, Gianni W, Siliscavalli A, Marigliano V, Repetto L. The use of colony stimulating factors in elderly patients with cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2003;48:S33-7 pubmed
    ..The authors analyze published data on effectiveness and results of the use of colony stimulating factors for preventing and treating elderly patients affected by tumors during chemotherapy.
  3. Gridelli C, Aapro M, Barni S, Beretta G, Colucci G, Daniele B, et al. Role of colony stimulating factors (CSFs) in solid tumours: results of an expert panel. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2007;63:53-64 pubmed
    ..evidence has been produced in the last 2 decades, through clinical trials addressing the efficacy of colony stimulating factors (CSFs) in the prevention and treatment of febrile neutropenia...
  4. Calatayud S, Warner T, Breese E, Mitchell J. Relationship between endogenous colony stimulating factors and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells: role of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;134:1237-44 pubmed
    ..NSAIDs have been shown to modulate the release of colony stimulating factors (CSFs) in some cells...
  5. Geissler K, Harrington M, Srivastava C, Leemhuis T, Tricot G, Broxmeyer H. Effects of recombinant human colony stimulating factors (CSF) (granulocyte-macrophage CSF, granulocyte CSF, and CSF-1) on human monocyte/macrophage differentiation. J Immunol. 1989;143:140-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the interaction of GM-CSF, G-CSF, and CSF-1 may play a fundamental role in the early and late stages of the human monocyte/macrophage differentiation process. ..
  6. Lovgren T, Tarantolo S, Evans C, Kuszynski C, Joshi S. Enhanced in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity of umbilical cord blood cells against human breast cancer following activation with IL-15 and colony stimulating factors. In Vivo. 2002;16:541-50 pubmed further improve the antitumor cytotoxic ability of cord blood MNC, IL-2 was combined with IL-15 and colony stimulating factors GMCSF, G-CSF and M-CSF for the activation...
  7. Parissis J, Filippatos G, Adamopoulos S, Li X, Kremastinos D, Uhal B. Hematopoietic colony stimulating factors in cardiovascular and pulmonary remodeling: promoters or inhibitors?. Curr Pharm Des. 2006;12:2689-99 pubmed
    Hemopoietic colony stimulating factors (HCSFs) are naturally occurred substances that are released in response to infection or inflammation and regulate the proliferation and differentiation of hemopoietic progenitor cells...
  8. Metcalf D. The granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factors. Cell. 1985;43:5-6 pubmed
  9. Bath P, Sprigg N. Colony stimulating factors (including erythropoietin, granulocyte colony stimulating factor and analogues) for stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;:CD005207 pubmed
    b>Colony stimulating factors (CSFs), also called haematopoietic growth factors, regulate bone marrow production of circulating red and white cells, and platelets. They have been shown to be neuroprotective in experimental stroke...

More Information


  1. Blevins G, Fedoroff S. Microglia in colony-stimulating factor 1-deficient op/op mice. J Neurosci Res. 1995;40:535-44 pubmed
    ..Based on our experiments, it seems that microglia are CSF-1 dependent but in op/op mice (in which CSF-1 is absent) microglia may use other locally produced factors. ..
  2. Branch D, Turner A, Guilbert L. Synergistic stimulation of macrophage proliferation by the monokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and colony-stimulating factor 1. Blood. 1989;73:307-11 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest an autocrine rule for TNF that involves synergy with (and perhaps obligatory cooperation with) CSF-1 in the regulation of macrophage proliferation. ..
  3. Akagawa K. Functional heterogeneity of colony-stimulating factor-induced human monocyte-derived macrophages. Int J Hematol. 2002;76:27-34 pubmed
    ..The characteristics of GM-Mphi resemble those of human alveolar macrophages. ..
  4. Bhana N. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in the management of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia: evidence based review. Curr Opin Oncol. 2007;19:328-35 pubmed
    ..4) Pegfilgrastim is at least as effective as filgrastim in the prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and has improved pharmacokinetics requiring reduced administration. ..
  5. Rennick D, Hunte B, Dang W, Thompson Snipes L, Hudak S. Interleukin-10 promotes the growth of megakaryocyte, mast cell, and multilineage colonies: analysis with committed progenitors and Thy1loSca1+ stem cells. Exp Hematol. 1994;22:136-41 pubmed
    ..The ability of IL-10 to cooperatively regulate various stages of hematopoietic development is discussed. ..
  6. Martin J, Bowen T, Steadman R. The pluripotent cytokine pleiotrophin is induced by wounding in human mesangial cells. Kidney Int. 2006;70:1616-22 pubmed
    ..This is the first description of the expression of PTN by human MCs and the data suggest that it is rapidly induced in cells that are triggered to migrate. The result of this induction is currently under investigation. ..
  7. Shalhoub V, Elliott G, Chiu L, Manoukian R, Kelley M, Hawkins N, et al. Characterization of osteoclast precursors in human blood. Br J Haematol. 2000;111:501-12 pubmed
  8. Winn R. Competing outcomes. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2005;3:467 pubmed
  9. Lyman G, Kuderer N. The economics of the colony-stimulating factors in the prevention and treatment of febrile neutropenia. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2004;50:129-46 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have demonstrated the potential value of targeting the CSFs toward patients at greatest risk based on accurate and valid predictive models. ..
  10. Cui G, Liu X, Yao J. The effect of costimulatory factors in the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2003;23:352-5 pubmed
    ..05). These showed the abnormality of costimulatory factors had important effect in the pathogenesis of CITP. ..
  11. Avilés A, Neri N, Huerta Guzman J, de Jesús Nambo M. ESHAP versus rituximab-ESHAP in frail patients with refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2010;10:125-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although ESHAP retains the clinical efficacy previously reported in nonfrail patients, the addition of rituximab did not improve response rate, PFS, or OS. ..
  12. Hellstrom Lindberg E, Malcovati L. Supportive care and use of hematopoietic growth factors in myelodysplastic syndromes. Semin Hematol. 2008;45:14-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe thrombocytopenia has recently been reported to respond to thrombopoietic agents, such as AMG 531. ..
  13. Wilson B, Gardner A. Nurses' guide to understanding and implementing the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for myeloid growth factors. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2007;34:347-53 pubmed
    ..Nurses are in an ideal position to implement a risk assessment tool and play an integral role in directing the quality of patient care. Implementing the NCCN guidelines is one way to facilitate standardization of care. ..
  14. Saleh O, Blalock W, Burrows C, Steelman L, Doshi P, McKearn J, et al. Enhanced ability of the progenipoietin-1 to suppress apoptosis in human hematopoietic cells. Int J Mol Med. 2002;10:385-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, ProGP-1 can be used to repopulate certain hematopoietic cells as a single entity rather than the introduction of two different cytokines. ..
  15. Rovera G, Valtieri M, Mavilio F, Reddy E. Effect of Abelson murine leukemia virus on granulocytic differentiation and interleukin-3 dependence of a murine progenitor cell line. Oncogene. 1987;1:29-35 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the ability of Abelson virus to transform immature progenitor cells is due to interference of the v-abl gene product with the mechanisms that control the commitment of the cells to differentiate...
  16. Cebon J, Nicola N, Ward M, Gardner I, Dempsey P, Layton J, et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor from human lymphocytes. The effect of glycosylation on receptor binding and biological activity. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:4483-91 pubmed
    ..coli (KD = 30 pM). These differences are due to differences in the kinetic association rate. ..
  17. Arellano M, K Waller E. Granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor and other cytokines: as adjuncts to cancer immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, and vaccines. Curr Hematol Rep. 2004;3:424-31 pubmed
    ..The successful use of myeloid acting cytokines to enhance anti-tumor responses will likely require targeting these drugs or activating DCs directly into the tumor microenvironment. ..
  18. Crawford J, Althaus B, Armitage J, Balducci L, Bennett C, Blayney D, et al. Myeloid growth factors. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2007;5:188-202 pubmed
  19. Schrimsher J, Rose K, Simona M, Wingfield P. Characterization of human and mouse granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factors derived from Escherichia coli. Biochem J. 1987;247:195-9 pubmed
    ..coli-derived proteins showed biological activity (colony stimulating assay for hGM-CSF, and cell proliferation assay for mGM-CSF) comparable with that reported for the respective proteins purified from animal cells. ..
  20. Koramaz I, Sonmez M, Pulathan Z, Cobanoglu U, Karti S. Successful coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with aplastic anemia and Sjogren syndrome. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:1251-2 pubmed
  21. Ladner M, Martin G, Noble J, Nikoloff D, Tal R, Kawasaki E, et al. Human CSF-1: gene structure and alternative splicing of mRNA precursors. EMBO J. 1987;6:2693-8 pubmed
    ..These alternatively spliced transcripts can encode either a 224 or a 522 amino acid CSF-1. Implications of differential splicing for the production and function of CSF-1 are discussed. ..
  22. Davis J, Rock C, Cheng M, Watson J, Ashmun R, Kirk H, et al. Complementation of growth factor receptor-dependent mitogenic signaling by a truncated type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:7398-406 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a role for PIP5K-Ibeta in receptor endocytosis and that the truncated enzyme compensated for a mitogenically defective CSF-1R by interfering with this process. ..
  23. Tse H, Lau C. Therapeutic angiogenesis with bone marrow--derived stem cells. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2007;12:89-97 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, many obstacles remain, such as long-term safety and optimal timing and treatment strategies for BM cell therapy, and these issues need to be addressed in rationally designed, randomized clinical trials. ..
  24. Ramprasad M, Amini A, Kararli T, Katre N. The sustained granulopoietic effect of progenipoietin encapsulated in multivesicular liposomes. Int J Pharm. 2003;261:93-103 pubmed
    ..These data suggest the possibility of administering a single dose of DepoFoam-encapsulated ProGP to improve hematopoietic recovery time after chemotherapy, and for other indications that require multiple daily doses of ProGP. ..
  25. Heuser M, Ganser A, Bokemeyer C. Use of colony-stimulating factors for chemotherapy-associated neutropenia: review of current guidelines. Semin Hematol. 2007;44:148-56 pubmed
    ..Strategies are being developed to tailor the use of CSFs to patients with a high risk of adverse outcome of FN. ..
  26. Zidan J, Shetver L, Gershuny A, Abzah A, Tamam S, Stein M, et al. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia by special honey intake. Med Oncol. 2006;23:549-52 pubmed
    ..The use of LMH in patients who are at high risk of developing neutropenia as a result of chemotherapy decreases the risk of pancytopenia and the need for CSFs. LMH is inexpensive, has no side effects, and is easy to administer. ..
  27. Buser C, Fleischer F, Mertens T, Michel D, Schmidt V, Walther P. Quantitative investigation of murine cytomegalovirus nucleocapsid interaction. J Microsc. 2007;228:78-87 pubmed
    ..Thereby, a quantification is provided for the effect that the deletion of M97 leads to a loss of typical nucleocapsid clustering in MCMV-infected nuclei...
  28. Devlin P, Drummond R, Toy P, Mark D, Watt K, Devlin J. Alteration of amino-terminal codons of human granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor increases expression levels and allows efficient processing by methionine aminopeptidase in Escherichia coli. Gene. 1988;65:13-22 pubmed
    ..Deletion of the threonine codon at the beginning of the coding region for the mature G-CSF resulted in efficient removal of the N-terminal methionine residue during expression in E. coli. ..
  29. Domaratskaya E, Michurina T, Bueverova E, Bragina E, Nikonova T, Starostin V, et al. Studies on clonogenic hemopoietic cells of vertebrate in space: problems and perspectives. Adv Space Res. 2002;30:771-6 pubmed
  30. Maliszewski C, Schoenborn M, Cerretti D, Wignall J, Picha K, Cosman D, et al. Bovine GM-CSF: molecular cloning and biological activity of the recombinant protein. Mol Immunol. 1988;25:843-50 pubmed
    ..In contrast, human GM-CSF was weakly active on bovine but not murine mouse bone marrow cells and mouse GM-CSF was only active on murine bone marrow cells. ..
  31. Frankel J, Boe D, Albright J, O Halloran E, Carter S, Davis C, et al. Age-related immune responses after burn and inhalation injury are associated with altered clinical outcomes. Exp Gerontol. 2018;105:78-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In the BAL fluid, MCP-1 was increased three-fold in the ≥65 group. This study suggests that changes in certain immune mediators were present in the older cohort, in association with in-hospital mortality. ..
  32. Nimer S, Gasson J, Hu K, Smalberg I, Williams J, Chen I, et al. Activation of the GM-CSF promoter by HTLV-I and -II tax proteins. Oncogene. 1989;4:671-6 pubmed
    ..Expression of GM-CSF by HTLV-I infected lymphocytes may be important in the granulocytosis and eosinophilia frequently seen in patients with HTLV-I-induced adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ..
  33. Chan P, Li C, Chik K, Lee V, Shing M, Ng K, et al. Risk factors and clinical consequences of human herpesvirus 7 infection in paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. J Med Virol. 2004;72:668-74 pubmed
    ..The administration of colony stimulating factor, occurrence of acute graft versus host disease, time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment showed no significant association with the occurrence of HHV-7 DNAaemia...
  34. Wagner L, Furman W. Haemopoietic growth factors in paediatric oncology: a review of the literature. Paediatr Drugs. 2001;3:195-217 pubmed
    ..Because HGFs do not benefit every child receiving chemotherapy and overuse increases costs and may result in unnecessary adverse effects, evidence-based guidelines for their rational use in paediatric oncology are proposed. ..
  35. Brilot F, Chehadeh W, Charlet Renard C, Martens H, Geenen V, Hober D. Persistent infection of human thymic epithelial cells by coxsackievirus B4. J Virol. 2002;76:5260-5 pubmed
  36. Gubinelli E, Cocuroccia B, Fazio M, Annessi G, Girolomoni G. Papular neutrophilic dermatosis and erythema elevatum diutinum following erythropoietin therapy in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome. Acta Derm Venereol. 2003;83:358-61 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge this is the first report of unclassified neutrophilic dermatosis and erythema elevatum diutinum occurring following the administration of erythropoietin. ..
  37. Violand B, Minnerly J, Feng Y, Polazzi J, Mathis K, Thomas K, et al. Purification and characterization of progenipoietins produced in Escherichia. coli. Protein Expr Purif. 2002;26:275-83 pubmed
    ..This study describes the purification and physico-chemical properties of this class of proteins generated using an E. coli expression system. ..
  38. Rothenberg M, Pomerantz J, Owen W, Avraham S, Soberman R, Austen K, et al. Characterization of a human eosinophil proteoglycan, and augmentation of its biosynthesis and size by interleukin 3, interleukin 5, and granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:13901-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, IL 3, IL 5, and GM-CSF induce human eosinophils to augment proteoglycan biosynthesis by increasing the size of the newly synthesized proteoglycans and their individual chondroitin sulfate chains. ..
  39. Cerretti D, Wignall J, Anderson D, Tushinski R, Gallis B, Stya M, et al. Human macrophage-colony stimulating factor: alternative RNA and protein processing from a single gene. Mol Immunol. 1988;25:761-70 pubmed
    ..However, when the membrane spanning region was present in the three M-CSF cDNAs, cell surface associated forms of M-CSF could be readily detected. ..
  40. Weisbart R, Gasson J, Golde D. Colony-stimulating factors and host defense. Ann Intern Med. 1989;110:297-303 pubmed
  41. Bicknell D, Williams D, Broxmeyer H. Correlation between CSF-1 responsiveness and expression of (CSF-1 receptor) c-fms in purified murine granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM). Exp Hematol. 1988;16:88-91 pubmed
    ..These results indicate there is a correlation between the responsiveness of CFU-GM progenitor cells to CSF-1 and the expression of c-fms RNA. ..
  42. Nimer S, Morita E, Martis M, Wachsman W, Gasson J. Characterization of the human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor promoter region by genetic analysis: correlation with DNase I footprinting. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:1979-84 pubmed
  43. Mikkers H, Nawijn M, Allen J, Brouwers C, Verhoeven E, Jonkers J, et al. Mice deficient for all PIM kinases display reduced body size and impaired responses to hematopoietic growth factors. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6104-15 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that members of the PIM family of proteins are important but dispensable factors for growth factor signaling. ..
  44. Hansson M, Soderstrom T. The colony stimulating factors. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother. 1993;10:5-12 pubmed
    ..These growth factors for hematopoiesis were termed Colony Stimulating Factors (CSFs) since the assay system was to induce colonies...
  45. Estey E. Growth factors in acute myeloid leukaemia. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2001;14:175-87 pubmed
    ..Further therapies may target cytokine receptors on AML blasts, to improve anti-leukaemia therapy. ..
  46. Berger M, Christensen D, Lowry P, Jones O, Wiley A. Medical management of radiation injuries: current approaches. Occup Med (Lond). 2006;56:162-72 pubmed
    ..Assessments of haematopoietic, gastrointestinal and cutaneous syndromes have improved in recent years, but treatment options remain limited. Selected examples of current developments are presented. ..
  47. Rettenmier C, Roussel M, Wheeler E, Sherr C. Requirements for transformation by the fms oncogene product (CSF-1 receptor). Princess Takamatsu Symp. 1986;17:211-8 pubmed
  48. Lyman G. Balancing the benefits and costs of colony-stimulating factors: a current perspective. Semin Oncol. 2003;30:10-7 pubmed
    ..Preliminary results suggest that the targeted application of CSF support based on a risk model may improve the associated cost savings. ..
  49. Webb T. Under-dosing study raises questions about ways to improve regimen adherence. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:1201-2 pubmed
  50. Jantunen E, Itala M, Siitonen T, Kuittinen T, Heiskanen J, Koivunen E, et al. Blood stem cell mobilization and collection in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a nationwide analysis. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2008;41:239-44 pubmed
    ..001). A significant proportion of patients with CLL were difficult to mobilize. Adequate marrow function including platelet counts >100 x 10(9)/l seem to be important factors in terms of successful blood stem cell collection. ..
  51. Abernethy A, Barbour S, Uronis H, Zafar S, Coan A, Rowe K, et al. Quality management of potential chemotherapy-induced neutropenic complications: evaluation of practice in an academic medical center. Support Care Cancer. 2009;17:735-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Routine clinical practice in this academic oncology setting was poorly aligned with established guidelines; there is substantial opportunity to standardize clinical strategies and increase conformance with evidence-based guidelines. ..
  52. Balducci L, Carreca I. Supportive care of the older cancer patient. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2003;48:S65-70 pubmed
    ..When toxicity is properly prevented, cytotoxic chemotherapy may be as effective in older individuals as it is in the younger ones. ..
  53. Van Zant G, Shultz L. Hematologic abnormalities of the immunodeficient mouse mutant, viable motheaten (mev). Exp Hematol. 1989;17:81-7 pubmed
    ..These data and those from other studies suggest that the hematopoietic microenvironment of marrow may be impaired in this mutant. ..