growth differentiation factor 15


Summary: A growth differentiation factor that is secreted in response to cell stress and in response to MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION. In addition growth differentiation factor 15 demonstrates a diverse array of biological properties including the induction of cartilage formation, the inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, and the induction of neuronal migration.

Top Publications

  1. Mullican S, Lin Schmidt X, Chin C, Chavez J, Furman J, Armstrong A, et al. GFRAL is the receptor for GDF15 and the ligand promotes weight loss in mice and nonhuman primates. Nat Med. 2017;23:1150-1157 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), a distant member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-? family, is a secreted protein that circulates as a 25-kDa dimer...
  2. Tentzeris I, Farhan S, Freynhofer M, Rohla M, Jarai R, Vogel B, et al. Usefulness of Elevated Levels of Growth Differentiation Factor-15 to Classify Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Having Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Who Would Benefit from High-Dose Statin Therapy. Am J Cardiol. 2017;120:747-752 pubmed publisher
    ..320; 95% CI 0.029 to 3.534; p?=?0.353). In conclusion, increased GDF-15 plasma concentrations at the time of PCI and stent implantation might classify high-risk patients with ACS who benefit from high-dose, highly efficient statins. ..
  3. Loosen S, Neumann U, Trautwein C, Roderburg C, Luedde T. Current and future biomarkers for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317692231 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we aim to review current and future diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment-predictive biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. ..
  4. Yang L, Chang C, Sun Z, Madsen D, Zhu H, Padkjær S, et al. GFRAL is the receptor for GDF15 and is required for the anti-obesity effects of the ligand. Nat Med. 2017;23:1158-1166 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15; also known as MIC-1) is a divergent member of the TGF-? superfamily and is associated with body-weight regulation in humans and rodents. However, the cognate receptor of GDF15 is unknown...
  5. Arafat K, Iratni R, Takahashi T, Parekh K, Al Dhaheri Y, Adrian T, et al. Inhibitory Effects of Salinomycin on Cell Survival, Colony Growth, Migration, and Invasion of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 and LNM35: Involvement of NAG-1. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66931 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify salinomycin as a promising novel therapeutic agent for lung cancer. ..
  6. Teng M, Hsu L, Juan S, Lin W, Lee M, Su C, et al. A GDF15 3' UTR variant, rs1054564, results in allele-specific translational repression of GDF15 by hsa-miR-1233-3p. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183187 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in individuals with or without cardiovascular diseases...
  7. Eggers K, Lindahl B. Prognostic Biomarkers in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Risk Stratification Beyond Cardiac Troponins. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2017;19:29 pubmed publisher
    ..The NPs and GDF-15 provide the strongest prognostic increment to cTn levels in ACS. However, the role of these biomarkers for clinical decision-making in contemporary settings has still to be defined. ..
  8. Lindholm D, Hagström E, James S, Becker R, Cannon C, Himmelmann A, et al. Growth Differentiation Factor 15 at 1 Month After an Acute Coronary Syndrome Is Associated With Increased Risk of Major Bleeding. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..GDF-15 levels may therefore be useful as part of decision support concerning long-term antithrombotic treatment in patients post-ACS. URL: Unique identifier: NCT00391872. ..
  9. Lytle K, Wong C, Jump D. Docosahexaenoic acid blocks progression of western diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in obese Ldlr-/- mice. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0173376 pubmed publisher
    ..While these studies establish that DHA supplementation of the WD blocks WD-induced NASH progression, DHA alone does not promote full remission of diet-induced MetS or NASH. ..

More Information


  1. Shimano M, Ouchi N, Walsh K. Cardiokines: recent progress in elucidating the cardiac secretome. Circulation. 2012;126:e327-32 pubmed publisher
  2. Ratnam N, Peterson J, Talbert E, Ladner K, Rajasekera P, Schmidt C, et al. NF-?B regulates GDF-15 to suppress macrophage surveillance during early tumor development. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:3796-3809 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, we propose that the NF-?B/GDF-15 regulatory axis is important for tumor cells in evading macrophage immune surveillance during the early stages of tumorigenesis. ..
  3. Hijazi Z, Oldgren J, Andersson U, Connolly S, Eikelboom J, Ezekowitz M, et al. Growth-differentiation factor 15 and risk of major bleeding in atrial fibrillation: Insights from the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial. Am Heart J. 2017;190:94-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, GDF-15 seems useful as a specific marker of bleeding in patients with AF on oral anticoagulant treatment. ..
  4. Shao Y, Wang H, Liu C, Cao Q, Fu R, Wang H, et al. Transforming growth factor 15 increased in severe aplastic anemia patients. Hematology. 2017;22:548-553 pubmed publisher
    ..739, p?=?0.000). Our data indicated that GDF-15 plays an important role in iron metabolism in SAA. GDF-15 might be a novel target for SAA therapy. ..
  5. Jonsdottir B, Jaworowski Å, San Miguel C, Melander O. IL-8 predicts early mortality in patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure treated with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. BMC Pulm Med. 2017;17:35 pubmed publisher
    ..GDF-15 was correlated in the same way, but when put into the same model as IL-8, the significance disappeared. IL-8 is a target to explore further as a predictor of 28 days mortality, in patients with AHRF treated with NPPV. ..
  6. Rohatgi A, de Lemos J. The report card on growth differentiation factor 15: consistent marks but not yet ready for promotion. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009;2:209-11 pubmed publisher
  7. Prystupa A, Kiciński P, Luchowska Kocot D, Błażewicz A, Niedziałek J, Mizerski G, et al. Association between Serum Selenium Concentrations and Levels of Proinflammatory and Profibrotic Cytokines-Interleukin-6 and Growth Differentiation Factor-15, in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..the concentration of selenium and pro-inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines-interleukin-6 (IL-6) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis...
  8. Planavila A, Fernández Solà J, Villarroya F. Cardiokines as Modulators of Stress-Induced Cardiac Disorders. Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol. 2017;108:227-256 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential of these cardiokines as clinical biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of cardiac disorders is also discussed. ..
  9. Zhang Y, Jiang W, Wang L, Lingappan K. Sex-specific differences in the modulation of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15) by hyperoxia in vivo and in vitro: Role of Hif-1?. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;332:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences could explain in part the mechanisms behind sex-specific differences in BPD. ..
  10. Tzikas S, Palapies L, Bakogiannis C, Zeller T, Sinning C, Baldus S, et al. GDF-15 predicts cardiovascular events in acute chest pain patients. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182314 pubmed publisher
    ..GDF-15 levels correlate with the severity of CAD and can identify and risk-stratify patients who need coronary revascularization. ..
  11. Clark B, Bull T, Benson A, Stream A, Macht M, Gaydos J, et al. Growth differentiation factor-15 and prognosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a retrospective cohort study. Crit Care. 2013;17:R92 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of GDF-15 were not useful in identifying the presence of PVD, as defined by hemodynamic measurements obtained by a PAC. In patients with ARDS, higher levels of GDF-15 are significantly associated with poor outcome but not PVD. ..
  12. Lange R. Can you predict what happens when EuroSCORE weds biomarker?. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61:682-4 pubmed publisher
  13. Lee S, Kang S, Choi M, Jung S, Ryu M, Chung H, et al. Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Mediates Systemic Glucose Regulatory Action of T-Helper Type 2 Cytokines. Diabetes. 2017;66:2774-2788 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant IL-13 induced expression of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) via the Janus kinase-activated STAT6 pathway...
  14. Emmerson P, Wang F, Du Y, Liu Q, Pickard R, Gonciarz M, et al. The metabolic effects of GDF15 are mediated by the orphan receptor GFRAL. Nat Med. 2017;23:1215-1219 pubmed publisher
    ..4,5,6). Together, our data demonstrate that GFRAL is a receptor for GDF15 that mediates the metabolic effects of GDF15. ..