macrophage inflammatory proteins


Summary: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.

Top Publications

  1. Arakelyan A, Kriegova E, Kubistova Z, Mrazek F, Kverka M, du Bois R, et al. Protein levels of CC chemokine ligand (CCL)15, CCL16 and macrophage stimulating protein in patients with sarcoidosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;155:457-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, chemokines CCL15, CCL16 and MSP were found elevated for the first time in BALF from sarcoidosis patients; our results showed that CCL15 and MSP may affect disease course. ..
  2. Hosokawa Y, Hosokawa I, Ozaki K, Nakae H, Matsuo T. Increase of CCL20 expression by human gingival fibroblasts upon stimulation with cytokines and bacterial endotoxin. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005;142:285-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, CCL20 by HGF might be involved in inflammatory cells infiltration, and promote the progression of periodontal disease. ..
  3. Shimizu Y, Dobashi K, Fueki N, Fueki M, Okada T, Tomioka S, et al. Changes of immunomodulatory cytokines associated with omalizumab therapy for severe persistent asthma. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2011;25:177-86 pubmed
    ..Both MIP1-? and IL-16 decreased as asthma improved over the 4-month period of omalizumab therapy. These findings suggest that omalizumab may act via IgE-mediated immunoregulation of MIP1-? and IL-16. ..
  4. Pharoah D, Varsani H, Tatham R, Newton K, de Jager W, Prakken B, et al. Expression of the inflammatory chemokines CCL5, CCL3 and CXCL10 in juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and demonstration of CCL5 production by an atypical subset of CD8+ T cells. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R50 pubmed
    ..We believe this to be the first in depth analysis of these mediators of inflammation in JIA. ..
  5. Rimoldi M, Chieppa M, Larghi P, Vulcano M, Allavena P, Rescigno M. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells activated by bacteria or by bacteria-stimulated epithelial cells are functionally different. Blood. 2005;106:2818-26 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ECs are not simply a barrier to bacteria entering via the oral route, but they actively influence the activating properties of DCs. ..
  6. Joubert P, Lajoie Kadoch S, Wellemans V, Letuve S, Tulic M, Halayko A, et al. Expression and regulation of CCL15 by human airway smooth muscle cells. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012;42:85-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting the production of CCL15 by ASMC might reduce the inflammatory response within the airways of asthmatic patients. ..
  7. Kotarsky K, Sitnik K, Stenstad H, Kotarsky H, Schmidtchen A, Koslowski M, et al. A novel role for constitutively expressed epithelial-derived chemokines as antibacterial peptides in the intestinal mucosa. Mucosal Immunol. 2010;3:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify a novel role for constitutively expressed, epithelial-derived chemokines as antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal mucosa. ..
  8. Iqbal S, Ball T, Kimani J, Kiama P, Thottingal P, Embree J, et al. Elevated T cell counts and RANTES expression in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant Kenyan commercial sex workers. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:728-38 pubmed
    ..This is the first study to show elevated levels of beta chemokines and CD4+ T cells in the genital tracts of women who are exposed to HIV-1 and yet are uninfected. ..
  9. Richter R, Bistrian R, Escher S, Forssmann W, Vakili J, Henschler R, et al. Quantum proteolytic activation of chemokine CCL15 by neutrophil granulocytes modulates mononuclear cell adhesiveness. J Immunol. 2005;175:1599-608 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings indicate that activation of monocytes by neutrophils is at least in part induced by quantum proteolytic processing of circulating or endothelium-bound CCL15 by neutrophil cathepsin G. ..

More Information


  1. Grivel J, García M, Moss W, Margolis L. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication in human lymphoid tissues ex vivo by measles virus. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:71-8 pubmed
  2. Le Borgne M, Etchart N, Goubier A, Lira S, Sirard J, Van Rooijen N, et al. Dendritic cells rapidly recruited into epithelial tissues via CCR6/CCL20 are responsible for CD8+ T cell crosspriming in vivo. Immunity. 2006;24:191-201 pubmed
    ..Thus, newly recruited DCs likely derived from circulating monocytes are responsible for efficient crosspriming of CD8+ CTL after mucosal or skin immunization. ..
  3. Gilmartin L, Tarleton C, Schuyler M, Wilson B, Oliver J. A comparison of inflammatory mediators released by basophils of asthmatic and control subjects in response to high-affinity IgE receptor aggregation. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;145:182-92 pubmed
    ..Evidence is provided for the production of leptin, GM-CSF, eotaxin and MIP-5 by peripheral blood basophils. IL-3 preincubation enhances the production and release of IL-8 upon IgE receptor cross-linking. ..
  4. Lisignoli G, Piacentini A, Cristino S, Grassi F, Cavallo C, Cattini L, et al. CCL20 chemokine induces both osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast differentiation: Increased levels of CCL20 are expressed in subchondral bone tissue of rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Cell Physiol. 2007;210:798-806 pubmed
  5. Castellino F, Huang A, Altan Bonnet G, Stoll S, Scheinecker C, Germain R. Chemokines enhance immunity by guiding naive CD8+ T cells to sites of CD4+ T cell-dendritic cell interaction. Nature. 2006;440:890-5 pubmed
  6. Kominsky S, Abdelmagid S, Doucet M, Brady K, Weber K. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 delta: a novel osteoclast stimulating factor secreted by renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis. Cancer Res. 2008;68:1261-6 pubmed publisher
  7. Reckamp K, Gardner B, Figlin R, Elashoff D, Krysan K, Dohadwala M, et al. Tumor response to combination celecoxib and erlotinib therapy in non-small cell lung cancer is associated with a low baseline matrix metalloproteinase-9 and a decline in serum-soluble E-cadherin. J Thorac Oncol. 2008;3:117-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A randomized phase II trial is planned comparing erlotinib and celecoxib with erlotinib plus placebo in advanced NSCLC. This study will prospectively assess these and other biomarkers in serum and tumor tissue. ..
  8. Durand C, Robin C, Bollerot K, Baron M, Ottersbach K, Dzierzak E. Embryonic stromal clones reveal developmental regulators of definitive hematopoietic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:20838-43 pubmed
    ..We suggest that Bmp4 plays a relatively late role in the regulation of HSCs as they emerge in the midgestation AGM...
  9. Lee J, Kim I. Leukotactin-1/CCL15 induces cell migration and differentiation of human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells through PKCdelta activation. Mol Biol Rep. 2010;37:2149-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests the pivotal roles of Lkn-1 in the regulation of the movement and development of eosinophils...
  10. Simon L, Ekman G, Garcia T, Carnes K, Zhang Z, Murphy T, et al. ETV5 regulates sertoli cell chemokines involved in mouse stem/progenitor spermatogonia maintenance. Stem Cells. 2010;28:1882-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, changes in chemokine production and consequent decreases in chemoattraction by Etv5(-/-) Sertoli cells helps to explain stem/progenitor spermatogonia loss in Etv5(-/-) mice. ..
  11. Berahovich R, Miao Z, Wang Y, Premack B, Howard M, Schall T. Proteolytic activation of alternative CCR1 ligands in inflammation. J Immunol. 2005;174:7341-51 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that alternative CCR1 ligands are converted into potent chemoattractants by proteases released during inflammatory responses in vivo. ..
  12. Kleinewietfeld M, Puentes F, Borsellino G, Battistini L, Rotzschke O, Falk K. CCR6 expression defines regulatory effector/memory-like cells within the CD25(+)CD4+ T-cell subset. Blood. 2005;105:2877-86 pubmed
    ..Importantly, these cells are also present in humans. Here the expression of CCR6 fully cosegregates with CD45RO, an established marker of human memory T cells. ..
  13. Hwang J, Kim C, Son K, Han K, Lee K, Kleinman H, et al. Angiogenic activity of human CC chemokine CCL15 in vitro and in vivo. FEBS Lett. 2004;570:47-51 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that CCL15(25-92) has in vitro and in vivo angiogenic activity, and suggest roles of the chemokine in angiogenesis. ..
  14. Xiang J, George S, Wunschmann S, Chang Q, Klinzman D, Stapleton J. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by GB virus C infection through increases in RANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and SDF-1. Lancet. 2004;363:2040-6 pubmed
    ..of ligands for CCR5 (RANTES [regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted] and macrophage inflammatory proteins [MIP] 1alpha and 1beta) and CXCR4 (stromal-derived factor [SDF-1]), and with decreased expression of ..
  15. Grygorczuk S, Pancewicz S, Zajkowska J, Kondrusik M, Rwierzbińska R, Hermanowska Szpakowicz T. Concentrations of macrophage inflammatory proteins MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta and interleukin 8 (il-8) in lyme borreliosis. Infection. 2004;32:350-5 pubmed
    ..Of the chemokines studied, Il-8 created a chemotactic gradient towards the inflammation site, and thus might be responsible for leukocyte migration. ..
  16. Capoulade Metay C, Ma L, Truong L, Dudoit Y, Versmisse P, Nguyen N, et al. New CCR5 variants associated with reduced HIV coreceptor function in southeast Asia. AIDS. 2004;18:2243-52 pubmed
  17. Menard L, Minns L, Darche S, Mielcarz D, Foureau D, Roos D, et al. B cells amplify IFN-gamma production by T cells via a TNF-alpha-mediated mechanism. J Immunol. 2007;179:4857-66 pubmed
    ..However, TNF-alpha expressed on the surface of B cells appears to mediate in part the up-regulation of IFN-gamma by the effector T cells. ..
  18. Zhang L, Da Cunha V, Martin McNulty B, Rutledge J, Vergona R, Sullivan M, et al. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 or macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha deficiency does not affect angiotensin II-induced intimal hyperplasia in carotid artery ligation model. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2007;16:231-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that MCP-1 or MIP-1alpha may not be essential in mediating the proliferative effects of Ang II, a major pathological changes in intimal hyperplasia in the carotid artery ligation model. ..
  19. Kitamura T, Kometani K, Hashida H, Matsunaga A, Miyoshi H, Hosogi H, et al. SMAD4-deficient intestinal tumors recruit CCR1+ myeloid cells that promote invasion. Nat Genet. 2007;39:467-75 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that loss of transforming growth factor-beta family signaling in tumor epithelium causes accumulation of iMCs that promote tumor invasion. ..
  20. Inamoto S, Itatani Y, Yamamoto T, Minamiguchi S, Hirai H, Iwamoto M, et al. Loss of SMAD4 Promotes Colorectal Cancer Progression by Accumulation of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells through the CCL15-CCR1 Chemokine Axis. Clin Cancer Res. 2016;22:492-501 pubmed publisher
    ..Blocking the recruitment of CCR1(+) MDSCs may represent a novel molecular-targeted therapy, and serum CCL15 concentration can be a novel biomarker for colorectal cancer. ..
  21. Choi S, Choi E, Oh H, Lee S, Lee J, Lee M, et al. DA-9601, a standardized extract of Artemisia asiatica, blocks TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 and CCL20 production by inhibiting p38 kinase and NF-kappaB pathways in human gastric epithelial cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:4850-8 pubmed
    ..DA-9601 blocked TNF-alpha-mediated inflammatory signals by potentially modulating the p38 kinase pathway and/or a signal leading to NF-kappaB-dependent pathways in gastric epithelial cells. ..
  22. Williams I. CCR6 and CCL20: partners in intestinal immunity and lymphorganogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1072:52-61 pubmed
    ..CCR6 can be included with CXCR5 and CCR7 in a list of chemokine receptors that participate in shaping the organized lymphoid structures that are part of the intestinal immune system. ..
  23. Wood A, Armour D. The discovery of the CCR5 receptor antagonist, UK-427,857, a new agent for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS. Prog Med Chem. 2005;43:239-71 pubmed
  24. Chintalacharuvu S, Evans G, Shih C, Bryant H, Sandusky G, Zuckerman S. Inhibition of glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase results in selective inhibition of macrophage cytokine secretion in vitro and in vivo efficacy in rat adjuvant arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2005;23:438-46 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GARFT inhibitors should be tested in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by considering their mechanism of action, here successfully tested on activated macrophages. ..
  25. Ek S, Björck E, Hogerkorp C, Nordenskjold M, Porwit MacDonald A, Borrebaeck C. Mantle cell lymphomas acquire increased expression of CCL4, CCL5 and 4-1BB-L implicated in cell survival. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:2092-7 pubmed
    ..Signaling through 4-1BB-L allows B cells to proliferate and the expression of its ligand, by the intra-tumoral mesh of follicular dendritic cells (FDC), could thus serve as a paracrine loop facilitating growth and survival of MCL cells. ..
  26. Hirota M, Moro O. MIP-1beta, a novel biomarker for in vitro sensitization test using human monocytic cell line. Toxicol In Vitro. 2006;20:736-42 pubmed
    ..MIP-1 beta may be useful as a novel biomarker in in vitro sensitization assay using THP-1 cells, either alone or in combination with known markers. ..
  27. Chandy A, Nurkkala M, Josefsson A, Eriksson K. Therapeutic dendritic cell vaccination with Ag coupled to cholera toxin in combination with intratumoural CpG injection leads to complete tumour eradication in mice bearing HPV 16 expressing tumours. Vaccine. 2007;25:6037-46 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that combined treatment with CT-Ag pulsed DCs and local CpG administration offers an efficient strategy to eradicate an already existing HPV-E7 expressing tumour in mice. ..
  28. Chu S, Tam C, Wong H, Kam K, Lau Y, Chiang A. Association between RANTES functional polymorphisms and tuberculosis in Hong Kong Chinese. Genes Immun. 2007;8:475-9 pubmed
    ..1, two diplotypes GA/TT (P<0.001) and GG/TC (P<0.0001) showed strong association with TB. Our findings support the association between RANTES functional polymorphisms and TB. ..
  29. Bolovan Fritts C, Trout R, Spector S. High T-cell response to human cytomegalovirus induces chemokine-mediated endothelial cell damage. Blood. 2007;110:1857-63 pubmed
  30. Vila L, Molina M, Mayor A, Cruz J, Rios Olivares E, Ríos Z. Association of serum MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES with clinical manifestations, disease activity, and damage accrual in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:718-22 pubmed
    ..MIP-1alpha is associated with discoid lupus, and MIP-1beta correlates with damage accrual in SLE. This study suggests that chemokines may have a role in the pathogenesis of SLE. ..
  31. Marcet B, Horckmans M, Libert F, Hassid S, Boeynaems J, Communi D. Extracellular nucleotides regulate CCL20 release from human primary airway epithelial cells, monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J Cell Physiol. 2007;211:716-27 pubmed
    ..Our results could be relevant for further clinical investigations in CF. ..
  32. Tsukada K, Kitazawa T, Fukushima A, Okugawa S, Yanagimoto S, Tatsuno K, et al. Macrophage tolerance induced by stimulation with Toll-like receptor 7/8 ligands. Immunol Lett. 2007;111:51-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that macrophage tolerance induced by TLR7/8 ligands is regulated at least at the level of IRAK-1 activation. ..
  33. Zabel B, Zuniga L, Ohyama T, Allen S, Cichy J, Handel T, et al. Chemoattractants, extracellular proteases, and the integrated host defense response. Exp Hematol. 2006;34:1021-32 pubmed
  34. Laudanski P, Raba G, Kuc P, Lemancewicz A, Kisielewski R, Laudanski T. Assessment of the selected biochemical markers in predicting preterm labour. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25:2696-9 pubmed publisher
    ..588, sp. 0.609, p < 0.001); Eotaxin-1 >1.16 pg/ml (sens. 0.633, sp. 0.652). There have been reported statistically significant differences in serum concentrations of selected proteins in women with preterm labour and false labour. ..
  35. Soares D, Hiratsuka Veiga Souza F, Fabricio A, Javier Miñano F, Petto Souza G. CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha induces fever and increases prostaglandin E2 in cerebrospinal fluid of rats: effect of antipyretic drugs. Brain Res. 2006;1109:83-92 pubmed
    ..Such mechanisms do not seem to depend on cytokine synthesis and subsequent COX-2 induction. ..
  36. Zhang L, LiWang P. Resonance assignments of the 34 kD rabbitpox vCCI:human MIP-1beta complex. J Biomol NMR. 2006;36 Suppl 1:49 pubmed
  37. Soboll G, Crane Godreau M, Lyimo M, Wira C. Effect of oestradiol on PAMP-mediated CCL20/MIP-3 alpha production by mouse uterine epithelial cells in culture. Immunology. 2006;118:185-94 pubmed
  38. Nistala K, Moncrieffe H, Newton K, Varsani H, Hunter P, Wedderburn L. Interleukin-17-producing T cells are enriched in the joints of children with arthritis, but have a reciprocal relationship to regulatory T cell numbers. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:875-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that these highly proinflammatory cells contribute to joint pathology, as indicated by relationships with clinical phenotypes, and that the balance between IL-17+ T cells and Treg cells may be critical to outcome. ..
  39. Ravindran C, Cheng Y, Liang S. CpG-ODNs induces up-regulated expression of chemokine CCL9 in mouse macrophages and microglia. Cell Immunol. 2010;260:113-8 pubmed publisher
  40. Bassani S, Lopez M, Toro C, Jimenez V, Sempere J, Soriano V, et al. Influence of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 2 coinfection on virological and immunological parameters in HIV type 1-infected patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:105-10 pubmed
    ..A predominance of CCL4 single positive HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in HIV-HTLV-2-coinfected patients could explain this effect. ..
  41. Swamydas M, Ricci K, Rego S, Dreau D. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived CCL-9 and CCL-5 promote mammary tumor cell invasion and the activation of matrix metalloproteinases. Cell Adh Migr. 2013;7:315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these data highlight the role of CCL5 and CCL9 produced by mesenchymal stem cells in mammary tumor cell invasion. ..
  42. Vuichard D, Ganter M, Schimmer R, Suter D, Booy C, Reyes L, et al. Hypoxia aggravates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005;141:248-60 pubmed
    ..The additional hypoxia-induced inflammatory reaction seems to be predominantly localized in the respiratory compartment, underlining the compartmentalized nature of the inflammatory response. ..
  43. Ohta H, Terao Y, Shintani Y, Kiyota Y. Therapeutic time window of post-ischemic mild hypothermia and the gene expression associated with the neuroprotection in rat focal cerebral ischemia. Neurosci Res. 2007;57:424-33 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the neuroprotective effects of post-ischemic mild hypothermia were strongly suggested to be mainly associated with the reduction of neuronal inflammation. ..
  44. Ottersbach K, McLean J, Isaacs N, Graham G. A310 helical turn is essential for the proliferation-inhibiting properties of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (CCL3). Blood. 2006;107:1284-91 pubmed
    ..In addition, this study further attests to the alternative mechanisms of action used by MIP-1alpha in inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor-cell proliferation and regulation of leukocyte migration. ..
  45. Yang X, Lu P, Fujii C, Nakamoto Y, Gao J, Kaneko S, et al. Essential contribution of a chemokine, CCL3, and its receptor, CCR1, to hepatocellular carcinoma progression. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:1869-76 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest the contribution of the CCR1-CCL3 axis to HCC progression. ..
  46. Springael J, de Poorter C, Deupi X, Van Durme J, Pardo L, Parmentier M. The activation mechanism of chemokine receptor CCR5 involves common structural changes but a different network of interhelical interactions relative to rhodopsin. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1446-56 pubmed
    ..However, the molecular interactions locking the inactive state must be different in receptors devoid of D/E6.30. ..
  47. Uchida H, Iwashita Y, Sasaki A, Shibata K, Matsumoto T, Ohta M, et al. Chemokine receptor CCR6 as a prognostic factor after hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21:161-8 pubmed
    ..05). It was indicated that CCR6 might be associated with intrahepatic metastasis of HCC and might be able to become one of the prognostic factor after hepatic resection for HCC. ..
  48. Huang L, Jean D, Proske R, Reins R, McDermott A. Ocular surface expression and in vitro activity of antimicrobial peptides. Curr Eye Res. 2007;32:595-609 pubmed
    ..The current data support a role for hBD-3 as an antimicrobial peptide in vivo, but call in to question the effectiveness of some other APs. However, further study is required to conclusively elucidate the physiological role of each AP. ..
  49. Luo X, Yu Y, Liang A, Xie Y, Liu S, Guo J, et al. Intratumoral expression of MIP-1beta induces antitumor responses in a pre-established tumor model through chemoattracting T cells and NK cells. Cell Mol Immunol. 2004;1:199-204 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that intratumoral expression of hMIP-1beta has the potential effect to induce host antitumor immunity and may prove to be a useful form of cancer gene therapy. ..
  50. Choi S, Kim T, Yi S, Hwang Y, Hwang W, Choe S, et al. Capsaicin attenuates palmitate-induced expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 and interleukin 8 by increasing palmitate oxidation and reducing c-Jun activation in THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell) cells. Nutr Res. 2011;31:468-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the attenuation of palmitate-induced MIP-1 and IL-8 gene expressions by capsaicin is associated with reduced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, c-Jun, and p38 and preserved ?-oxidation activity. ..
  51. Kim D, Lee S, Ku S, Cho S, Cho S, Yoon G, et al. Transduced PEP-1-FK506BP ameliorates corneal injury in Botulinum toxin A-induced dry eye mouse model. BMB Rep. 2013;46:124-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest PEP-1-FK506BP as a potential therapeutic agent for dry eye diseases. ..
  52. Lagergren A, Mansson R, Zetterblad J, Smith E, Basta B, Bryder D, et al. The Cxcl12, periostin, and Ccl9 genes are direct targets for early B-cell factor in OP-9 stroma cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:14454-62 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that EBF proteins might have dual roles in hematopoiesis acting both as intrinsic regulators of B-lymphopoiesis and as regulators of genes in bone marrow stroma cells. ..
  53. Facco M, Baesso I, Miorin M, Bortoli M, Cabrelle A, Boscaro E, et al. Expression and role of CCR6/CCL20 chemokine axis in pulmonary sarcoidosis. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:946-55 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, T cells expressing CCR6, CXCR3, and CXCR6 act coordinately with respective ligands and Th1 inflammatory cytokines in the alveolitic/granuloma phases of the disease...