cxc chemokines


Summary: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.

Top Publications

  1. Hu W, Zhen X, Xiong B, Wang B, Zhang W, Zhou W. CXCR6 is expressed in human prostate cancer in vivo and is involved in the in vitro invasion of PC3 and LNCap cells. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:1362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that besides CXCL12/CXCR4, CXCL16/CXCR6 might be another important factor involved in PCa bone metastasis. ..
  2. Koskimaki J, Karagiannis E, Rosca E, Vesuna F, Winnard P, Raman V, et al. Peptides derived from type IV collagen, CXC chemokines, and thrombospondin-1 domain-containing proteins inhibit neovascularization and suppress tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts. Neoplasia. 2009;11:1285-91 pubmed
    ..These peptides are derived from several protein families including type IV collagen, CXC chemokines, and thrombospondin-1 domain-containing proteins...
  3. Issa R, Xie S, Khorasani N, Sukkar M, Adcock I, Lee K, et al. Corticosteroid inhibition of growth-related oncogene protein-alpha via mitogen-activated kinase phosphatase-1 in airway smooth muscle cells. J Immunol. 2007;178:7366-75 pubmed
    ..Glucocorticoids and IL-1beta or TNF-alpha modulate GRO-alpha release partly through the inhibition of JNK pathway, resulting from an up-regulation of MKP-1 expression. ..
  4. O Hayer K, Brady D, Counter C. ELR+ CXC chemokines and oncogenic Ras-mediated tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:1841-7 pubmed publisher
    ..two belong to the ELR+ Cys-X-Cys (CXC) chemokine family, we investigated whether the entire family of ELR+ CXC chemokines plays a role in oncogenic Ras-mediated tumorigenesis...
  5. Morris M, Gentle D, Abdulrahman M, Clarke N, Brown M, Kishida T, et al. Functional epigenomics approach to identify methylated candidate tumour suppressor genes in renal cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:496-501 pubmed publisher
  6. Keeley E, Mehrad B, Strieter R. CXC chemokines in cancer angiogenesis and metastases. Adv Cancer Res. 2010;106:91-111 pubmed publisher
    ..been discovered that regulate angiogenesis, increasing evidence is growing to support the important role of CXC chemokines in this process...
  7. Antoniou K, Soufla G, Proklou A, Margaritopoulos G, Choulaki C, Lymbouridou R, et al. Different activity of the biological axis VEGF-Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase 1) and CXC chemokines between pulmonary sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a bronchoalveolar lavage study. Clin Dev Immunol. 2009;2009:537929 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown a different local and systemic angiogenic profile of CXC chemokines in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) patients compared to sarcoidosis...
  8. Hojo S, Koizumi K, Tsuneyama K, Arita Y, Cui Z, Shinohara K, et al. High-level expression of chemokine CXCL16 by tumor cells correlates with a good prognosis and increased tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 2007;67:4725-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, CXCL16 is a new prognostic biomarker and may be useful for the development of a more effective therapeutic strategy for CRC. ..
  9. Clarke C, Kuboki S, Tevar A, Lentsch A, Edwards M. CXC chemokines play a critical role in liver injury, recovery, and regeneration. Am J Surg. 2009;198:415-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CXC chemokines have been implicated as key mediators in the deleterious inflammatory cascade after hepatic I/R and also as ..

More Information


  1. Nedachi T, Hatakeyama H, Kono T, Sato M, Kanzaki M. Characterization of contraction-inducible CXC chemokines and their roles in C2C12 myocytes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E866-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In an effort to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of the expressions of two contraction-inducible CXC chemokines, CXCL1/KC and CXCL5/LIX, in contracting skeletal muscle cells, we took advantage of our in vitro exercise ..
  2. Wang J, Lu Y, Wang J, Koch A, Zhang J, Taichman R. CXCR6 induces prostate cancer progression by the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. Cancer Res. 2008;68:10367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Blocking the CXCR6/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway may prove beneficial to prevent metastasis and provide a more effective therapeutic strategy for PCa. ..
  3. Darash Yahana M, Gillespie J, Hewitt S, Chen Y, Maeda S, Stein I, et al. The chemokine CXCL16 and its receptor, CXCR6, as markers and promoters of inflammation-associated cancers. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6695 pubmed publisher
  4. Antoniou K, Tzanakis N, Tzortzaki E, Malagari K, Koutsopoulos A, Alexandrakis M, et al. Different angiogenic CXC chemokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after interferon gamma-1b therapy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2008;21:840-4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, IFN gamma-1b decreases MIG levels, finding that in association with no alteration in IP-10 and I-TAC levels, could explain in part the nonbeneficial effect of this drug in IPF. ..
  5. Dean R, Cox J, Bellac C, Doucet A, Starr A, Overall C. Macrophage-specific metalloelastase (MMP-12) truncates and inactivates ELR+ CXC chemokines and generates CCL2, -7, -8, and -13 antagonists: potential role of the macrophage in terminating polymorphonuclear leukocyte influx. Blood. 2008;112:3455-64 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-12 specifically cleaves human ELR(+) CXC chemokines (CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, and -8) at E-LR, the critical receptor-binding motif or, for CXCL6, carboxyl-terminal to ..
  6. Cortes Perez N, da Costa Medina L, Lefèvre F, Langella P, Bermúdez Humarán L. Production of biologically active CXC chemokines by Lactococcus lactis: evaluation of its potential as a novel mucosal vaccine adjuvant. Vaccine. 2008;26:5778-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Mig and IP-10 are two CXC chemokines that recruit mononuclear cells in vivo and inhibit angiogenesis...
  7. Zhonghua C, Chunpin G, Yong Z, Kezhi X, Yaou Z. Cloning and bioactivity analysis of a CXC ligand in black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegeli: the evolutionary clues of ELR+CXC chemokines. BMC Immunol. 2008;9:66 pubmed publisher
    The ELR+CXC chemokines are multifunctional mediators that are mainly responsible for the recruitment of leucocytes to sites of inflammation and infection...
  8. Hayashida K, Parks W, Park P. Syndecan-1 shedding facilitates the resolution of neutrophilic inflammation by removing sequestered CXC chemokines. Blood. 2009;114:3033-43 pubmed publisher
    ..However, high levels of CXC chemokines (KC and MIP-2), particularly at later times after LPS, were specifically sustained in multiple organs in ..
  9. Ozawa S, Kato Y, Ito S, Komori R, Shiiki N, Tsukinoki K, et al. Restoration of BRAK / CXCL14 gene expression by gefitinib is associated with antitumor efficacy of the drug in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:2202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data showing an inverse relationship between BRAK expression levels in tumor cells and the tumor growth rate indicate that the gefitinib-induced increase in BRAK expression is beneficial for tumor suppression in vivo. ..
  10. Kroenke M, Carlson T, Andjelkovic A, Segal B. IL-12- and IL-23-modulated T cells induce distinct types of EAE based on histology, CNS chemokine profile, and response to cytokine inhibition. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1535-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that autoimmunity can be mediated by distinct effector populations that use disparate immunological pathways to achieve a similar clinical outcome...
  11. Moldobaeva A, Baek A, Eldridge L, Wagner E. Differential activity of pro-angiogenic CXC chemokines. Microvasc Res. 2010;80:18-22 pubmed publisher
    ..previously in a mouse model of lung ischemia-induced angiogenesis, enhanced expression of the three ELR+ CXC chemokines (KC, LIX, and MIP-2) and that blockade of the ligand receptor CXCR(2) limited neovascularization...
  12. Shan L, Redhu N, Saleh A, Halayko A, Chakir J, Gounni A. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor-mediated IL-6 and CC/CXC chemokines expression in human airway smooth muscle cells: role of MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and STAT3 pathways. J Immunol. 2010;184:7134-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, it may be inferred that TSLPR is involved in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma through the activation of HASM cells by TSLP. ..
  13. Levashova Z, Sharma N, Timofeeva O, Dome J, Perantoni A. ELR+-CXC chemokines and their receptors in early metanephric development. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:2359-70 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence for a prosurvival and proangiogenic role of ELR(+)-CXC chemokines and their receptor CXCR2 during metanephric development and suggest a novel mechanism for chemotherapeutic ..
  14. Furuya M, Suyama T, Usui H, Kasuya Y, Nishiyama M, Tanaka N, et al. Up-regulation of CXC chemokines and their receptors: implications for proinflammatory microenvironments of ovarian carcinomas and endometriosis. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:1676-87 pubmed
    ..In this study, the expression patterns of CXC chemokines (IL-8, ENA-78, GRO-alpha, I-TAC, Mig, and SDF-1) and their receptors (CXCR2, CXCR3, and CXCR4) were compared ..
  15. Gauthier J, Fortin A, Bergeron Y, Dumas M, Champagne M, Bergeron M. Differential contribution of bacterial N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl- phenylalanine and host-derived CXC chemokines to neutrophil infiltration into pulmonary alveoli during murine pneumococcal pneumonia. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5361-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that fMLP and chemokines play important roles in pneumococcal pneumonia and that these roles vary according to bacterial and host genetic backgrounds, implying redundancy among chemoattractant molecules...
  16. Nishi K, Morimoto Y, Ogami A, Murakami M, Myojo T, Oyabu T, et al. Expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant in rat lungs by intratracheal instillation of nickel oxide nanoparticles. Inhal Toxicol. 2009;21:1030-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In lung tissue, infiltration of mainly neutrophils and alveolar macrophages was observed from day 3 to 6 months in alveoli. These results suggest that CINC was involved in lung injury by nickel oxide nanoparticles. ..
  17. Parsanejad R, Fields W, Steichen T, Bombick B, Doolittle D. Distinct regulatory profiles of interleukins and chemokines in response to cigarette smoke condensate in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2008;28:703-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest that specific genes involved in inflammatory pathways respond to CSC in chronic, sustained, or adaptive patterns with the chronic pattern as the predominant behavior. ..
  18. Zaja Milatovic S, Richmond A. CXC chemokines and their receptors: a case for a significant biological role in cutaneous wound healing. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:1399-407 pubmed publisher
    ..Murine excision wound healing, chemical burn wounds and skin organ culture systems are valuable models for examining the role of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in wound healing. ..
  19. Miura T, Wang J, Holmes K, Mason R. Rat coronaviruses infect rat alveolar type I epithelial cells and induce expression of CXC chemokines. Virology. 2007;369:288-98 pubmed
    ..SDAV and RCoV-P, and both live virus and UV-inactivated virus induced mRNA and protein expression of three CXC chemokines: CINC-2, CINC-3, and LIX, which are neutrophil chemoattractants...
  20. Matsuda A, Fukuda S, Matsumoto K, Saito H. Th1/Th2 cytokines reciprocally regulate in vitro pulmonary angiogenesis via CXC chemokine synthesis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;38:168-75 pubmed
    ..Of note, the CXCR2 chemokine-induced tube formation was independent of VEGF. Therefore, CXCR2 chemokines may represent potential therapeutic targets for bronchial asthma. ..
  21. Crawford M, Zhu Y, Green C, Burdick M, Sanz P, Alem F, et al. Antimicrobial effects of interferon-inducible CXC chemokines against Bacillus anthracis spores and bacilli. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1664-78 pubmed publisher
    ..activities against bacteria, we sought to determine whether the interferon-inducible Glu-Leu-Arg-negative CXC chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 exhibit antimicrobial activities against Bacillus anthracis...
  22. Dominguez M, Miquel R, Colmenero J, Moreno M, García Pagán J, Bosch J, et al. Hepatic expression of CXC chemokines predicts portal hypertension and survival in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1639-50 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-8 and Gro-alpha serum levels did not correlate with prognosis. Hepatic expression of CXC components correlates with prognosis of patients with AH. Reagents that target CXC chemokines might be developed as therapeutics.
  23. Vandercappellen J, Van Damme J, Struyf S. The role of CXC chemokines and their receptors in cancer. Cancer Lett. 2008;267:226-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, most of the CXC chemokines without ELR motif bind to CXCR3 and are angiostatic...
  24. Burdon P, Martin C, Rankin S. Migration across the sinusoidal endothelium regulates neutrophil mobilization in response to ELR + CXC chemokines. Br J Haematol. 2008;142:100-8 pubmed publisher
    ..rapid mobilization of neutrophils from the bone marrow, driven by inflammatory mediators, including the ELR + CXC chemokines. In this paper, using a combination of light and electron microscopy and an in situ perfusion system of the ..
  25. Cristino S, Piacentini A, Manferdini C, Codeluppi K, Grassi F, Facchini A, et al. Expression of CXC chemokines and their receptors is modulated during chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells grown in three-dimensional scaffold: evidence in native cartilage. Tissue Eng Part A. 2008;14:97-105 pubmed publisher
    Chemokines contribute to the maintenance of cartilage homeostasis. To evaluate the role of CXC chemokines CXCL8 (interleukin-8), CXCL10 (interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10), CXCL12 (stroma-derived factor-1) and CXCL13 (B-cell ..
  26. Nishioka Y, Manabe K, Kishi J, Wang W, Inayama M, Azuma M, et al. CXCL9 and 11 in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis: a role of alveolar macrophages. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;149:317-26 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Mig/CXCL9 and I-TAC/CXCL11 as well as IP-10/CXCL10 play important roles in the accumulation of Th1 lymphocytes in sarcoid lungs. ..
  27. Busuttil A, Weigt S, Keane M, Xue Y, Palchevskiy V, Burdick M, et al. CXCR3 ligands are augmented during the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Eur Respir J. 2009;34:676-86 pubmed publisher to date of interferon-inducible ELR(-) (lacking the sequence glutamic acid-leucine-arginine) CXC chemokines in sarcoid bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF)...
  28. Reutershan J, Harry B, Chang D, Bagby G, Ley K. DARC on RBC limits lung injury by balancing compartmental distribution of CXC chemokines. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1597-607 pubmed publisher
    The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) has a high affinity for CC and CXC chemokines. However, it lacks the ability to induce cell responses that are typical for classical chemokine receptors...
  29. Bernatoniene J, Zhang Q, Dogan S, Mitchell T, Paton J, Finn A. Induction of CC and CXC chemokines in human antigen-presenting dendritic cells by the pneumococcal proteins pneumolysin and CbpA, and the role played by toll-like receptor 4, NF-kappaB, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1823-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of NF-kappaB and several mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways also reduced chemokine release. Chemokine induction in DCs by CbpA and Ply may be important for their potential use in future pneumococcal vaccines. ..
  30. Kesteman N, Vansanten G, Pajak B, Goyert S, Moser M. Injection of lipopolysaccharide induces the migration of splenic neutrophils to the T cell area of the white pulp: role of CD14 and CXC chemokines. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:640-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that neutrophils may interact with naïve T cells upon infection/inflammation and that the migration of neutrophils in the lymphoid organs and in the periphery is regulated differently by a signal transduced by CD14. ..
  31. McKinnon C, Lygoe K, Skelton L, Mitter R, Mellor H. The atypical Rho GTPase RhoBTB2 is required for expression of the chemokine CXCL14 in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. Oncogene. 2008;27:6856-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies identify CXCL14 as a gene target of RhoBTB2 and support downregulation of CXCL14 as a functional outcome of RhoBTB2 loss in cancer. ..
  32. Matsumura S, Wang B, Kawashima N, Braunstein S, Badura M, Cameron T, et al. Radiation-induced CXCL16 release by breast cancer cells attracts effector T cells. J Immunol. 2008;181:3099-107 pubmed
    ..The ability of IR to convert tumors into "inflamed" peripheral tissues could be exploited to overcome obstacles at the effector phase of the antitumor immune response and improve the therapeutic efficacy of immunotherapy...
  33. Bermejo Martin J, Garcia Arevalo M, de Lejarazu R, Ardura J, Eiros J, Alonso A, et al. Predominance of Th2 cytokines, CXC chemokines and innate immunity mediators at the mucosal level during severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in children. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2007;18:162-7 pubmed
    ..comparisons between patient NPAs and plasmas, a predominance of innate immunity mediators, Th2 cytokines and CXC chemokines was found at the mucosal level. No association between the level of each mediator in NPAs and plasma was found...
  34. Karagiannis E, Popel A. Novel anti-angiogenic peptides derived from ELR-containing CXC chemokines. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:1356-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these are the CXC chemokines, a set of multifunctional peptides...
  35. Lu Y, Wang J, Xu Y, Koch A, Cai Z, Chen X, et al. CXCL16 functions as a novel chemotactic factor for prostate cancer cells in vitro. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:546-54 pubmed publisher
    ..CXCL16 was found to promote prostate cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. Therefore, we concluded that CXCL16 functions, through CXCR6, as a novel chemotactic factor for prostate cancer cells. ..
  36. Bieche I, Chavey C, Andrieu C, Busson M, Vacher S, Le Corre L, et al. CXC chemokines located in the 4q21 region are up-regulated in breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007;14:1039-52 pubmed
    ..Analysis of CXCL8 chromosomal location showed that several CXC chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL4, CXCL4V1, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL7, and CXCL8) were localized in the same narrow region ..
  37. Strieter R, Gomperts B, Keane M. The role of CXC chemokines in pulmonary fibrosis. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:549-56 pubmed
    ..These functions of CXC chemokines are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and other fibroproliferative disorders...
  38. Erdem H, Pay S, Musabak U, Simsek I, Dinc A, Pekel A, et al. Synovial angiostatic non-ELR CXC chemokines in inflammatory arthritides: does CXCL4 designate chronicity of synovitis?. Rheumatol Int. 2007;27:969-73 pubmed
    In our previous studies, we found higher synovial fluid (SF) levels of angiogenic ELR(+) CXC chemokines such as CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL6 and CXCL8, which play an important role in neutrophil migration and angiogenesis, and more abundant ..
  39. Zarbock A, Lowell C, Ley K. Spleen tyrosine kinase Syk is necessary for E-selectin-induced alpha(L)beta(2) integrin-mediated rolling on intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Immunity. 2007;26:773-83 pubmed
    ..This identifies a second neutrophil-activation pathway that is as important as activation through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). ..
  40. Juarez J, Dela Pena A, Baraz R, Hewson J, Khoo M, Cisterne A, et al. CXCR4 antagonists mobilize childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells into the peripheral blood and inhibit engraftment. Leukemia. 2007;21:1249-57 pubmed
  41. Furuichi K, Wada T, Kaneko S, Murphy P. Roles of chemokines in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Front Biosci. 2008;13:4021-8 pubmed
    ..A number of challenges of chemokine targeted therapy is trying to prevent the ischemic injury, and will give some beneficial effect on the injury. ..
  42. Onoue A, Kabashima K, Kobayashi M, Mori T, Tokura Y. Induction of eosinophil- and Th2-attracting epidermal chemokines and cutaneous late-phase reaction in tape-stripped skin. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18:1036-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that acute barrier removal induces the expression of Th2 and eosinophil chemokines by epidermal cells and easily evokes the late phase reaction upon challenge with antigen. ..
  43. Bosire R, Guthrie B, Lohman Payne B, Mabuka J, Majiwa M, Wariua G, et al. Longitudinal comparison of chemokines in breastmilk early postpartum among HIV-1-infected and uninfected Kenyan women. Breastfeed Med. 2007;2:129-38 pubmed
    ..To characterize CC and CXC chemokines in breastmilk postpartum, we collected breastmilk specimens at regular intervals for 6 months after delivery ..
  44. Sawa Y, Tsuruga E. The expression of E-selectin and chemokines in the cultured human lymphatic endothelium with lipopolysaccharides. J Anat. 2008;212:654-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the cultured human lymphatic endothelial cells express E-selectin and phagocyte-attractive chemokine genes...
  45. Cheeseman J, Levy N, Kaiser P, Lillehoj H, Lamont S. Salmonella Enteritidis-induced alteration of inflammatory CXCL chemokine messenger-RNA expression and histologic changes in the ceca of infected chicks. Avian Dis. 2008;52:229-34 pubmed
    ..Thus, these SE-induced changes reflect the host immune response to SE in young chickens. ..
  46. Asaduzzaman M, Rahman M, Jeppsson B, Thorlacius H. P-selectin glycoprotein-ligand-1 regulates pulmonary recruitment of neutrophils in a platelet-independent manner in abdominal sepsis. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;156:307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Bronchoalveolar infiltration of neutrophils, levels of myeloperoxidase, oedema formation and CXC chemokines were determined 24 h after caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice...
  47. Martin S, Mohanty B, Cash P, Houlihan D, Secombes C. Proteome analysis of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cell line SHK-1 following recombinant IFN-gamma stimulation. Proteomics. 2007;7:2275-86 pubmed
    ..We assessed the correlation between gene expression and change in abundance of proteins for these genes. ..
  48. Zimmerman J. Understanding another acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:974-5 pubmed
  49. Li Y, Yu X, Lin S, Li X, Zhang S, Song Y. Insulin-like growth factor 1 enhances the migratory capacity of mesenchymal stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;356:780-4 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a new paradigm for biological effects of IGF-1 on MSC and have implications for the development of novel stem cell therapeutic strategies. ..
  50. Vanpouille C, Biancotto A, Lisco A, Brichacek B. Interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and vaccinia virus in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo. J Virol. 2007;81:12458-64 pubmed
    ..Human lymphoid tissue infected ex vivo by VACV can be used to investigate interactions of VACV with other viruses, in particular HIV-1, and to evaluate various VACV vectors for the purpose of recombinant vaccine development. ..
  51. Santen S, Wang Y, Menger M, Jeppsson B, Thorlacius H. Mast-cell-dependent secretion of CXC chemokines regulates ischemia-reperfusion-induced leukocyte recruitment in the colon. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008;23:527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Balb/c- and mast-cell-deficient mice were challenged with the CXC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC) for 3 h...
  52. Elmadbouh I, Haider H, Jiang S, Idris N, Lu G, Ashraf M. Ex vivo delivered stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha promotes stem cell homing and induces angiomyogenesis in the infarcted myocardium. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007;42:792-803 pubmed
    ..05) as compared with groups-1 and -2. We conclude that ex vivo SDF-1alpha transgene delivery promotes stem and progenitor cell migration to the heart, activates cell survival signaling and enhances angiomyogenesis in the infarcted heart. ..