chemokine ccl2

Summary

Summary: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.

Top Publications

  1. Si Y, Bao H, Han L, Shi H, Zhang Y, Xu L, et al. Dexmedetomidine protects against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury by inhibiting the JAK/STAT signaling activation. J Transl Med. 2013;11:141 pubmed publisher
    ..If our data can be extrapolated to clinical setting, then dexmedetomidine may therefore serve as a clinical strategy to treat/prevent perioperative renal I/R injury. ..
  2. Fabian C, Naaldijk Y, Leovsky C, Johnson A, Rudolph L, Jaeger C, et al. Distribution pattern following systemic mesenchymal stem cell injection depends on the age of the recipient and neuronal health. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;8:85 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinically, our data would suggest that aged MSCs should not be used for transplantation and that transplantation of MSCs into aged patients will be less efficacious. ..
  3. Turner L, Scotton C, Negus R, Balkwill F. Hypoxia inhibits macrophage migration. Eur J Immunol. 1999;29:2280-7 pubmed
    ..Transient hypoxia may regulate the distribution of macrophages in tumors and other inflammatory conditions. ..
  4. Cambier C, O Leary S, O Sullivan M, Keane J, Ramakrishnan L. Phenolic Glycolipid Facilitates Mycobacterial Escape from Microbicidal Tissue-Resident Macrophages. Immunity. 2017;47:552-565.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..PGL activated the STING cytosolic sensing pathway in resident macrophages, inducing the production of the chemokine CCL2, which in turn recruited circulating CCR2+ monocytes toward infection...
  5. Wang H, Qu Y, Dai B, Zhu Y, Shi G, Zhu Y, et al. PBRM1 regulates proliferation and the cell cycle in renal cell carcinoma through a chemokine/chemokine receptor interaction pathway. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180862 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that PBRM1 alters cell cycle progression and inhibits proliferation and migration of ACHN cells through the chemokine/chemokine receptor pathway. ..
  6. Liu H, Davis J, Wu Z, Faez Abdelgawad A. Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide Induced MCP-1 Expression in Primary Astrocyte. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:6352159 pubmed publisher
  7. Wang L, Chen Q, Ke D, Li G. Ghrelin inhibits atherosclerotic plaque angiogenesis and promotes plaque stability in a rabbit atherosclerotic model. Peptides. 2017;90:17-26 pubmed publisher
  8. Favretto G, Souza L, Gregório P, Cunha R, Maciel R, Sassaki G, et al. Role of Organic Anion Transporters in the Uptake of Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins by Human Endothelial Cells and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Expression. J Vasc Res. 2017;54:170-179 pubmed publisher
    ..MCP-1 expression increased after toxins treatment but decreased after Pb treatment. PCS and IS uptake were mediated by OATs, and OAT blockage could serve as a therapeutic strategy to inhibit MCP-1 expression. ..
  9. Ansalone C, Utriainen L, Milling S, Goodyear C. Role of Gut Inflammation in Altering the Monocyte Compartment and Its Osteoclastogenic Potential in HLA-B27-Transgenic Rats. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69:1807-1815 pubmed publisher
    ..Microbiota-dependent intestinal inflammation in B27-Tg rats directly drives the systemic inflammatory and bone-erosive potential of the monocyte compartment. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. He Y, Xu X, Zhu T, Tang M, Mei J, Si Y. Resident Arterial Cells and Circulating Bone Marrow-Derived Cells both Contribute to Intimal Hyperplasia in a Rat Allograft Carotid Transplantation Model. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:1303-1312 pubmed publisher
  2. Van Lenten B, Hama S, de Beer F, Stafforini D, McIntyre T, Prescott S, et al. Anti-inflammatory HDL becomes pro-inflammatory during the acute phase response. Loss of protective effect of HDL against LDL oxidation in aortic wall cell cocultures. J Clin Invest. 1995;96:2758-67 pubmed
    ..We conclude that under basal conditions HDL serves an anti-inflammatory role but during APR displacement and/or exchange of proteins associated with HDL results in a pro-inflammatory molecule. ..
  3. Nakao T, Horie T, Baba O, Nishiga M, Nishino T, Izuhara M, et al. Genetic Ablation of MicroRNA-33 Attenuates Inflammation and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation via Several Anti-Inflammatory Pathways. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:2161-2170 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-33 deficiency in recipient mice was also shown to contribute the inhibition of AAA formation. These data strongly suggest that inhibition of miR-33 will be effective as a novel strategy for treating AAA. ..
  4. Eitas T, Stepp W, Sjeklocha L, Long C, Riley C, Callahan J, et al. Differential regulation of innate immune cytokine production through pharmacological activation of Nuclear Factor-Erythroid-2-Related Factor 2 (NRF2) in burn patient immune cells and monocytes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184164 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work also demonstrates that the NRF2 pathway is retained and can be modulated to regulate important immunomodulatory functions in burn patient immune cells...
  5. Grzegorzewska A, Pajzderski D, Sowińska A, Jagodziński P. Polymporphism of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1 -2518 A/G) and responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccination in hemodialysis patients. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2014;124:10-8 pubmed
    ..MCP10-2518 A/G polymorphism is not associated with responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccination in patients on HD, independently of whether they have diabetes or not. ..
  6. Megra B, Eugenin E, Berman J. The Role of Shed PrPc in the Neuropathogenesis of HIV Infection. J Immunol. 2017;199:224-232 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that shedding of PrPc could be a potential target for therapeutics to limit the cognitive impairment characteristic of neuroAIDS. ..
  7. Ma K, Liu J, Gao M, Wang C, Ni J, Zhang Y, et al. Activation of mTOR contributes to foam cell formation in the radial arteries of patients with end-stage renal disease. Clin Nephrol. 2014;81:396-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Inflammation contributed to foam cell formation in the radial arteries of ESRD patients via the dysregulation of the LDLr pathway, which could be modulated by the activation of the mTOR pathway. ..
  8. Iida Y, Harashima N, Motoshima T, Komohara Y, Eto M, Harada M. Contrasting effects of cyclophosphamide on anti-CTL-associated protein 4 blockade therapy in two mouse tumor models. Cancer Sci. 2017;108:1974-1984 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, CP-induced MDSCs can be increased by anti-CTLA-4 therapy only in RENCA-bearing hosts with an elevated level of interleukin-6...
  9. Kuwahara G, Hashimoto T, Tsuneki M, Yamamoto K, Assi R, Foster T, et al. CD44 Promotes Inflammation and Extracellular Matrix Production During Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1147-1156 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show the association of M2 macrophages with wall thickening during AVF maturation and suggest that enhancing CD44 activity may be a strategy to increase AVF maturation. ..
  10. Affò S, Sancho Bru P. CCL2: a link between hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and angiogenesis?. Gut. 2014;63:1834-5 pubmed publisher
  11. Biagioli M, Carino A, Cipriani S, Francisci D, Marchianò S, Scarpelli P, et al. The Bile Acid Receptor GPBAR1 Regulates the M1/M2 Phenotype of Intestinal Macrophages and Activation of GPBAR1 Rescues Mice from Murine Colitis. J Immunol. 2017;199:718-733 pubmed publisher
    ..The targeting of GPBAR1 may offer therapeutic options in inflammatory bowel diseases. ..
  12. Abu El Asrar A, Struyf S, Mohammad G, Gouwy M, Rytinx P, Siddiquei M, et al. Osteoprotegerin Is a New Regulator of Inflammation and Angiogenesis in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3189-3201 pubmed publisher
    ..Osteoprotegerin potentiated the angiogenic effect of VEGF in the in vivo protein gelatin plug assay. These results suggest that OPG is involved in PDR angiogenesis. ..
  13. Berry M, Mathews R, Ferdinand J, Jing C, Loudon K, Wlodek E, et al. Renal Sodium Gradient Orchestrates a Dynamic Antibacterial Defense Zone. Cell. 2017;170:860-874.e19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work reveals a critical accessory role for the homeostatic function of a vital organ in optimizing tissue defense. ..
  14. Wung B, Cheng J, Chao Y, Lin J, Shyy Y, Wang D. Cyclical strain increases monocyte chemotactic protein-1 secretion in human endothelial cells. Am J Physiol. 1996;270:H1462-8 pubmed
    ..Such strain-induced MCP-1 secretion might contribute to the trapping of monocytes in the subendothelial space to initiate atherogenesis. ..
  15. Dessein P, Woodiwiss A, Norton G, Tsang L, Solomon A. Independent associations of total and high molecular weight adiponectin with cardiometabolic risk and surrogate markers of enhanced early atherogenesis in black and white patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R128 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential mechanism(s) underlying these paradoxical relationships between adiponectin concentrations and cardiovascular risk in RA merit further investigation. ..
  16. Dessein P, Norton G, Woodiwiss A, Solomon A. Independent relationship between circulating resistin concentrations and endothelial activation in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72:1586-8 pubmed publisher
  17. Zou K, Wang Y, Hu Y, Zheng L, Xu W, Li G. Specific tumor-derived CCL2 mediated by pyruvate kinase M2 in colorectal cancer cells contributes to macrophage recruitment in tumor microenvironment. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317695962 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we revealed a novel mechanism of pyruvate kinase M2 in promoting colorectal cancer progression by recruitment of macrophages through p65 nuclear factor-?B-mediated expression of CCL2. ..
  18. Li Y, Yang P, Chang Q, Wang J, Liu J, Lv Y, et al. Inhibitory Effect of Piceatannol on TNF-?-Mediated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65:4634-4641 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested the potential of piceatannol in improving chronic inflammatory condition and insulin sensitivity in obese adipose tissues. ..
  19. Park C, Shin M, An B, Joh H, Lee J, Roh S, et al. Heat-Processed Scutellariae Radix Protects Hepatic Inflammation through the Amelioration of Oxidative Stress in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mice. Am J Chin Med. 2017;45:1233-1252 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that heat-processed Scutellariae Radix acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver of mice with LPS-induced liver injury. ..
  20. Jang Y, Park B, Lee H, Park H, Koo H, Kim B, et al. Sinigrin attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice fed a high-cholesterol diet potentially by inhibiting VCAM-1 expression. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;272:28-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, sinigrin has the potential to be used in reducing the risks of atherosclerosis. ..
  21. Nasibullin T, Belonogova V, Tuktarova I, Nikolaeva I, Karamova I, Mustafina O. [Association of polymorphic markers of CCL2 gene with essential hypertension]. Genetika. 2011;47:1262-6 pubmed
    b>Chemokine CCL2, or monocytic chemoatractant protein 1 (CCL2/MCP-1) plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases...
  22. François A, Chatelus E, Wachsmann D, Sibilia J, Bahram S, Alsaleh G, et al. B lymphocytes and B-cell activating factor promote collagen and profibrotic markers expression by dermal fibroblasts in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R168 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these results demonstrate a new pathogenic role of B cells and BAFF in fibrosis and systemic sclerosis. ..
  23. Güneş H, Mete R, Aydin M, Topçu B, Oran M, Doğan M, et al. Relationship among MIF, MCP-1, viral loads, and HBs Ag levels in chronic hepatitis B patients. Turk J Med Sci. 2015;45:634-7 pubmed
    ..More studies with a greater number of subjects are needed to evaluate the potential role of MIF and MCP in CAHB. ..
  24. Zoja C, Corna D, Locatelli M, Rottoli D, Pezzotta A, Morigi M, et al. Effects of MCP-1 inhibition by bindarit therapy in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease. Nephron. 2015;129:52-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, bindarit could be considered a therapeutic intervention complementary to therapies specifically acting to block renal cyst growth. ..
  25. Walley K. Aging and the intramyocardial inflammatory response. Crit Care. 2014;18:638 pubmed publisher
  26. Chaemsaithong P, Madan I, Romero R, Than N, Tarca A, Draghici S, et al. Characterization of the myometrial transcriptome in women with an arrest of dilatation during labor. J Perinat Med. 2013;41:665-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This disorder has been associated with a pattern of gene expression involved in muscle contraction, an inflammatory response, and hypoxia. This is the first comprehensive and unbiased examination of the molecular basis of an AODIL. ..
  27. Nistala K, Varsani H, Wittkowski H, Vogl T, Krol P, Shah V, et al. Myeloid related protein induces muscle derived inflammatory mediators in juvenile dermatomyositis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R131 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that tissue infiltrating macrophages secreting MRP8/14 may contribute to myositis, by driving the local production of cytokines directly from muscle. ..
  28. Belgiovine C, Bello E, Liguori M, Craparotta I, Mannarino L, Paracchini L, et al. Lurbinectedin reduces tumour-associated macrophages and the inflammatory tumour microenvironment in preclinical models. Br J Cancer. 2017;117:628-638 pubmed publisher
    ..These peculiar effects, combined with its intrinsic activity against cancer cells, make lurbinectedin a compound of particular interest in oncology. ..
  29. Kunstfeld R, Lechleitner S, Wolff K, Petzelbauer P. MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha are most efficient in recruiting T cells into the skin in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;111:1040-4 pubmed
    ..At this site all tested chemokines attracted human T cells to an equal extent. In summary, our experiments point towards an important role for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha as T cell chemoattractants for skin inflammatory conditions. ..
  30. Stakhova T, Shcherbak A, Kozlovskaia L, Taranova M, Balkarov I. [Clinical value of the determination of markers for endothelial dysfunction (endothelin-1, microalbuminuria) and tubulointerstitial tissue lesion (?2-microglobulin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1) in hypertensive patients with uric acid metabolic dis. Ter Arkh. 2014;86:45-51 pubmed
  31. Papachristou G. Prediction of severe acute pancreatitis: current knowledge and novel insights. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:6273-5 pubmed
    ..Large, prospective studies are still needed to address these questions by identifying AP risk factors and serum biomarkers of severe disease. ..
  32. Shiao Y, Chung H, Chen C, Chiang K, Chang Y, Lee D, et al. MCP-1 as an effector of IL-31 signaling in familial primary cutaneous amyloidosis. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:1375-8 pubmed publisher
  33. Benson V, McMahon A, Khachigian L, Lowe H. Acute local elevation in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), distal to the culprit lesion in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168:1679-80 pubmed publisher
  34. Bodo M, Jimenez E, CONN C, Dye A, Pomo P, Kolkmeyer D, et al. Association between circulating CCL2 levels and modifiable behaviors in overweight and obese adolescents: a cross-sectional pilot study. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016;29:441-9 pubmed publisher
    ..42, p=0.06) and omega-3 fatty acids (r=-0.41, p=0.07). CCL2 was positively associated with pro-inflammatory biomarkers and negatively associated with some anti-inflammatory dietary factors. ..
  35. Mantovani A, Bottazzi B, Colotta F, Sozzani S, Ruco L. The origin and function of tumor-associated macrophages. Immunol Today. 1992;13:265-70 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, TAM can be activated to inhibit tumor growth and destroy neoplastic cells. Here, Alberto Mantovani and colleagues describe this delicate balance and the prospects for its therapeutic manipulation. ..
  36. Woo J, Ahn J, Jang D, Lee K, Choi J. Effect of Kumatakenin Isolated From Cloves on the Apoptosis of Cancer Cells and the Alternative Activation of Tumor-Associated Macrophages. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65:7893-7899 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these results suggest that kumatakenin shows anticancer activities by inducing apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and inhibiting the alternative activation of TAM. ..
  37. Mohamed A, Sayed O, Ali O, Sayed G, Moustfa Z, Elagawy W. MONOCYTE CHEMOTACTIC PROTEIN AND RESPONSE TO PEGYLATED INTERFERON-ALPHA-2A TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C (CHC) GENOTYPE 4. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2016;46:117-24 pubmed
  38. Campbell R, Vieira de Abreu A, Rowley J, Franks Z, Manne B, Rondina M, et al. Clots Are Potent Triggers of Inflammatory Cell Gene Expression: Indications for Timely Fibrinolysis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1819-1827 pubmed publisher
    ..Dampening of inflammatory gene expression by timely clot lysis may contribute to the clinically proven efficacy of fibrinolytic drug treatment within hours of stroke onset. ..
  39. Thompson D, Morrice N, Grant L, Le Sommer S, Lees E, Mody N, et al. Pharmacological inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B protects against atherosclerotic plaque formation in the LDLR-/- mouse model of atherosclerosis. Clin Sci (Lond). 2017;131:2489-2501 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are the first to demonstrate that PTP1B inhibitors could be used in prevention and reversal of atherosclerosis development and reduction in CVD risk. ..
  40. Schloss M, Hilby M, Nitz K, Guillamat Prats R, Ferraro B, Leoni G, et al. Ly6Chigh Monocytes Oscillate in the Heart During Homeostasis and After Myocardial Infarction-Brief Report. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1640-1645 pubmed publisher
    ..CCR2 surface expression on Ly6Chigh monocytes changes in a time-of-day-dependent manner, which crucially affects cardiac monocyte recruitment after an acute ischemic event. ..
  41. Wang A, Zhang F, Xu H, Xu M, Cao Y, Wang C, et al. TWEAK/Fn14 promotes pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in hepatic stellate cells via NF-?B/STAT3 pathways. Mol Immunol. 2017;87:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of NF-?B and STAT3 signalling-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine expression may be responsible for such a novel principle and new therapeutic targets in chronic liver disease. ..
  42. Epstein S, Kornowski R, Fuchs S, Dvorak H. Angiogenesis therapy: amidst the hype, the neglected potential for serious side effects. Circulation. 2001;104:115-9 pubmed
  43. Vicenzi E, Alfano M, Ghezzi S, Gatti A, Veglia F, Lazzarin A, et al. Divergent regulation of HIV-1 replication in PBMC of infected individuals by CC chemokines: suppression by RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MCP-3, and enhancement by MCP-1. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;68:405-12 pubmed
    ..Altogether these observations suggest that MCP-1 may represent an important factor enhancing HIV spreading, particularly in anatomical sites, such as the brain, where infection of macrophages and microglial cells plays a dominant role. ..
  44. Nakamura K, Williams I, Kupper T. Keratinocyte-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1): analysis in a transgenic model demonstrates MCP-1 can recruit dendritic and Langerhans cells to skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1995;105:635-43 pubmed
    ..The recruitment of dendritic and Langerhans cells in the absence of inflammation is a previously unknown consequence of cutaneous MCP-1 production in vivo. ..
  45. Espósito E, Aldrees S, Mastromonaco C, Zoroquiain P, Vila N, Logan P, et al. Evaluation of nicotinamide as an anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic agent in uveal melanoma cell lines. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2017;80:74-77 pubmed publisher
  46. David K, Oliveira E, Horta B, Valente A, De Paula V. Insights into CC Chemokine Ligand 2/Chemokine Receptor 2 Molecular Recognition: A Step Forward toward Antichemotactic Agents. Biochemistry. 2017;56:3197-3210 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide new insights into the structure-function relationship of the CCL2-CCR2 interaction and may be helpful for the design of novel antichemotactic agents...
  47. Wang Z, Wang J, Zhang J, Xue Z, Miao J, Li L, et al. Thrombolysis of deep vein thrombosis and inhibiting chemotaxis of macrophage by MCP-1 blockage. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21:1695-1701 pubmed
    ..MCP-1 up-regulation participates in macrophage chemotaxis and thrombolysis after DVT formation. The blockade of MCP-1 weakens its thrombolysis effects. ..
  48. Dominguez Gutierrez P, Ceribelli A, Satoh M, Sobel E, Reeves W, Chan E. Elevated signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 correlates with increased C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 levels in peripheral blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:R20 pubmed publisher
    ..Future study is needed to examine the exact role of STAT1 in the etiology of SLE. ..
  49. Muller W. New mechanisms and pathways for monocyte recruitment. J Exp Med. 2001;194:F47-51 pubmed
  50. Carr M, Roth S, Luther E, Rose S, Springer T. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 acts as a T-lymphocyte chemoattractant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:3652-6 pubmed
    ..This may help explain why monocytes and T lymphocytes of the memory subset are always found together at sites of antigen-induced inflammation. ..
  51. Lackermair K, Clauss S, Voigt T, Klier I, Summo C, Hildebrand B, et al. Alteration of Endothelin 1, MCP-1 and Chromogranin A in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing pulmonary vein isolation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184337 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new insights into the role of stress-related biomarkers in AF and AF treatment by ablation therapy. ..
  52. Weyrich A, McIntyre T, McEver R, Prescott S, Zimmerman G. Monocyte tethering by P-selectin regulates monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion. Signal integration and NF-kappa B translocation. J Clin Invest. 1995;95:2297-303 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that P-selectin, through its ligands on monocytes, may locally regulate cytokine secretion in inflamed tissues. ..
  53. Brembilla N, Montanari E, Truchetet M, Raschi E, Meroni P, Chizzolini C. Th17 cells favor inflammatory responses while inhibiting type I collagen deposition by dermal fibroblasts: differential effects in healthy and systemic sclerosis fibroblasts. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R151 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the increased Th17 cell number observed in SSc may impact on the inflammatory component of the disease simultaneously potentially providing a protective role against fibrosis. ..