monocyte chemoattractant proteins


Summary: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.

Top Publications

  1. Kulmburg P, Huber N, Scheer B, Wrann M, Baumruker T. Immunoglobulin E plus antigen challenge induces a novel intercrine/chemokine in mouse mast cells. J Exp Med. 1992;176:1773-8 pubmed
  2. McQuibban G, Gong J, Wong J, Wallace J, Clark Lewis I, Overall C. Matrix metalloproteinase processing of monocyte chemoattractant proteins generates CC chemokine receptor antagonists with anti-inflammatory properties in vivo. Blood. 2002;100:1160-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that MMPs have an important role in modulating inflammatory and immune responses by processing chemokines in wound healing and in disease. ..
  3. Reid C, Rushe M, Jarpe M, Van Vlijmen H, Dolinski B, Qian F, et al. Structure activity relationships of monocyte chemoattractant proteins in complex with a blocking antibody. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2006;19:317-24 pubmed
    b>Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) are cytokines that direct immune cells bearing appropriate receptors to sites of inflammation or injury and are therefore attractive therapeutic targets for inhibitory molecules...
  4. McManus C, Berman J, Brett F, Staunton H, Farrell M, Brosnan C. MCP-1, MCP-2 and MCP-3 expression in multiple sclerosis lesions: an immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study. J Neuroimmunol. 1998;86:20-9 pubmed
    ..These results support the conclusion that members of the MCP family of chemokines are involved in the development of MS lesions in the central nervous system. ..
  5. Rulli N, Guglielmotti A, Mangano G, Rolph M, Apicella C, Zaid A, et al. Amelioration of alphavirus-induced arthritis and myositis in a mouse model by treatment with bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte chemotactic proteins. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:2513-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present investigations was to determine whether bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) synthesis, could ameliorate alphavirus-induced rheumatic disease in mice...
  6. Blanpain C, Migeotte I, Lee B, Vakili J, Doranz B, Govaerts C, et al. CCR5 binds multiple CC-chemokines: MCP-3 acts as a natural antagonist. Blood. 1999;94:1899-905 pubmed
    ..MCP-3 could compete efficiently for gp120 binding but was, however, found to be a weak inhibitor of HIV infection, probably as a consequence of its inability to downregulate the receptor. ..
  7. Scott H, Flynn J. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in chemokine receptor 2-deficient mice: influence of dose on disease progression. Infect Immun. 2002;70:5946-54 pubmed
    ..Functional assays may be necessary to reveal roles for components of the multifactorial immune system. ..
  8. Proost P, Struyf S, Couvreur M, Lenaerts J, Conings R, Menten P, et al. Posttranslational modifications affect the activity of the human monocyte chemotactic proteins MCP-1 and MCP-2: identification of MCP-2(6-76) as a natural chemokine inhibitor. J Immunol. 1998;160:4034-41 pubmed
  9. Garcia Zepeda E, Combadiere C, Rothenberg M, Sarafi M, Lavigne F, Hamid Q, et al. Human monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4 is a novel CC chemokine with activities on monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils induced in allergic and nonallergic inflammation that signals through the CC chemokine receptors (CCR)-2 and -3. J Immunol. 1996;157:5613-26 pubmed
    ..These properties of MCP-4 offer a molecular explanation for the observed accumulation of monocytes, eosinophils and basophils in both Th1- and Th2-type immune responses. ..

More Information


  1. Ialenti A, Grassia G, Gordon P, Maddaluno M, Di Lauro M, Baker A, et al. Inhibition of in-stent stenosis by oral administration of bindarit in porcine coronary arteries. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:2448-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show the efficacy of bindarit in the prevention of porcine in-stent stenosis and support further investigation for clinical application of this compound. ..
  2. Combadiere C, Ahuja S, Van Damme J, Tiffany H, Gao J, Murphy P. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 is a functional ligand for CC chemokine receptors 1 and 2B. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:29671-5 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that monocyte responses to MCP-3 could be mediated by both CC CKR2B and CC CKR1, whereas eosinophil responses to MCP-3 could be mediated by CC CKR1. ..
  3. Heinrich J, Ryseck R, Macdonald Bravo H, Bravo R. The product of a novel growth factor-activated gene, fic, is a biologically active "C-C"-type cytokine. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:2020-30 pubmed
    ..FIC, muMCP-1, and huMCP-1 competed to the same extent for the binding of [125I]FIC to human monocytes, contrary to huMCP-2, which competed very ineffectively, if at all. ..
  4. Inouye K, Shi H, Howard J, Daly C, Lord G, Rollins B, et al. Absence of CC chemokine ligand 2 does not limit obesity-associated infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Diabetes. 2007;56:2242-50 pubmed
    ..Importantly, we conclude that CCL2 is not critical for adipose tissue macrophage recruitment. The dominant factor for recruiting macrophages in adipose tissue during obesity therefore remains to be identified. ..
  5. Dean R, Cox J, Bellac C, Doucet A, Starr A, Overall C. Macrophage-specific metalloelastase (MMP-12) truncates and inactivates ELR+ CXC chemokines and generates CCL2, -7, -8, and -13 antagonists: potential role of the macrophage in terminating polymorphonuclear leukocyte influx. Blood. 2008;112:3455-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the macrophage, specifically through MMP-12, assists in orchestrating the regulation of acute inflammatory responses by precise proteolysis of ELR(+)CXC and CC chemokines. ..
  6. Hellier S, Frodsham A, Hennig B, Klenerman P, Knapp S, Ramaley P, et al. Association of genetic variants of the chemokine receptor CCR5 and its ligands, RANTES and MCP-2, with outcome of HCV infection. Hepatology. 2003;38:1468-76 pubmed
    ..018, OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.14-4.58). In conclusion, our study suggests a possible role of the polymorphisms CCR5-delta32, RANTES -403, and MCP-2 Q46K in the outcome of HCV infection. ..
  7. Uguccioni M, Loetscher P, Forssmann U, Dewald B, Li H, Lima S, et al. Monocyte chemotactic protein 4 (MCP-4), a novel structural and functional analogue of MCP-3 and eotaxin. J Exp Med. 1996;183:2379-84 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the 75-residue form with the characteristic NH2 terminus of an MCP is the biologically relevant species. ..
  8. Gong J, Uguccioni M, Dewald B, Baggiolini M, Clark Lewis I. RANTES and MCP-3 antagonists bind multiple chemokine receptors. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:10521-7 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest the feasibility of design of high affinity multi-specific CC chemokine antagonists. ..
  9. Chen Y, Huang K, Kuo W, Lo Y, Lee Y, Wang A. Inhibition of glutaminyl cyclase attenuates cell migration modulated by monocyte chemoattractant proteins. Biochem J. 2012;442:403-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study examines the role of QC-mediated pGlu formation on MCPs (monocyte chemoattractant proteins) in inflammation. We demonstrated in vitro the pGlu formation on MCPs by QC using MS...
  10. Vecchi A, Massimiliano L, Ramponi S, Luini W, Bernasconi S, Bonecchi R, et al. Differential responsiveness to constitutive vs. inducible chemokines of immature and mature mouse dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol. 1999;66:489-94 pubmed
    ..This study shows that selective responsiveness of mature and immature DC to inducible vs. constitutively produced chemokines can contribute to the regulated trafficking of DC. ..
  11. Wain J, Kirby J, Ali S. Leucocyte chemotaxis: Examination of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation by Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins-1, -2, -3 and -4. Clin Exp Immunol. 2002;127:436-44 pubmed
    b>Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins (MCPs) form a distinct, structurally-related subclass of CC chemokines. They are major chemoattractants for monocytes and T lymphocytes...
  12. Huang D, Wang J, Kivisakk P, Rollins B, Ransohoff R. Absence of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in mice leads to decreased local macrophage recruitment and antigen-specific T helper cell type 1 immune response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Exp Med. 2001;193:713-26 pubmed
  13. Stathopoulos G, Zhu Z, Everhart M, Kalomenidis I, Lawson W, Bilaceroglu S, et al. Nuclear factor-kappaB affects tumor progression in a mouse model of malignant pleural effusion. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006;34:142-50 pubmed
    ..This reproducible model of MPE can be used to further study the influence of specific host and tumor factors on the pathogenesis of MPE and evaluate new therapeutic strategies. ..
  14. Mirolo M, Fabbri M, Sironi M, Vecchi A, Guglielmotti A, Mangano G, et al. Impact of the anti-inflammatory agent bindarit on the chemokinome: selective inhibition of the monocyte chemotactic proteins. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2008;19:119-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report on the use of inhibition of synthesis as a potentially viable and selective approach to modify the chemokine system. ..
  15. Plager D, Leontovich A, Henke S, Davis M, McEvoy M, Sciallis G, et al. Early cutaneous gene transcription changes in adult atopic dermatitis and potential clinical implications. Exp Dermatol. 2007;16:28-36 pubmed
    ..Identification of these genes and pathways will direct future research towards controlling AD. ..
  16. Lin J, Zhu X, Chade A, Jordan K, Lavi R, Daghini E, et al. Monocyte chemoattractant proteins mediate myocardial microvascular dysfunction in swine renovascular hypertension. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1810-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) play an important role in mediating inflammatory processes...
  17. Blaszczyk J, Coillie E, Proost P, Damme J, Opdenakker G, Bujacz G, et al. Complete crystal structure of monocyte chemotactic protein-2, a CC chemokine that interacts with multiple receptors. Biochemistry. 2000;39:14075-81 pubmed
    ..We have also observed not previously reported extended helical nature of the C terminal region, which covers residues 58-74. ..
  18. Fridlender Z, Buchlis G, Kapoor V, Cheng G, Sun J, Singhal S, et al. CCL2 blockade augments cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Res. 2010;70:109-18 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (such as CCL2) are produced by many tumors and have both direct and indirect immunoinhibitory ..
  19. Zhang S, Wang X, Zhang L, Yang X, Pan J, Ren G. Characterization of monocyte chemoattractant proteins and CC chemokine receptor 2 expression during atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2011;18:846-56 pubmed
    We aimed to investigate the expression of monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) and their cognate receptor CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) in aortas of apolipoprotein E-null (apoE(-/-)) mice during atherogenesis as well as the possible ..
  20. Gong X, Gong W, Kuhns D, Ben Baruch A, Howard O, Wang J. Monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2) uses CCR1 and CCR2B as its functional receptors. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:11682-5 pubmed
    ..These results clearly demonstrate that MCP-2, unlike MCP-1, uses both CCR1 as well as CCR2B as its functional receptors, and this accounts for the unique activities of MCP-2. ..
  21. Proost P, Wuyts A, Van Damme J. Human monocyte chemotactic proteins-2 and -3: structural and functional comparison with MCP-1. J Leukoc Biol. 1996;59:67-74 pubmed
    ..Receptor binding leads to enhanced [Ca2+]i for all chemokines except for MCP-2. ..
  22. Van Coillie E, Proost P, Van Aelst I, Struyf S, Polfliet M, De Meester I, et al. Functional comparison of two human monocyte chemotactic protein-2 isoforms, role of the amino-terminal pyroglutamic acid and processing by CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV. Biochemistry. 1998;37:12672-80 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that the NH2-terminal pGlu in MCP-2 is necessary for chemotactic activity but also that it protects the protein against degradation by CD26/DPP IV. ..
  23. Sarafi M, Garcia Zepeda E, MacLean J, Charo I, Luster A. Murine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-5: a novel CC chemokine that is a structural and functional homologue of human MCP-1. J Exp Med. 1997;185:99-109 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that MCP-5 is a novel and potent monocyte active chemokine that is involved in allergic inflammation and the host response to pathogens. ..
  24. Tsui P, Das A, Whitaker B, Tornetta M, Stowell N, Kesavan P, et al. Generation, characterization and biological activity of CCL2 (MCP-1/JE) and CCL12 (MCP-5) specific antibodies. Hum Antibodies. 2007;16:117-25 pubmed
    ..When tested in nude mice bearing human PANC-1 pancreatic tumor cells in Matrigel plugs, CCL2 and CCL12 antibodies potently inhibited tumor angiogenesis, indicating that both CCL2 and CCL12 may contribute to tumor angiogenesis. ..
  25. Chakravorty S, Howie A, Girdlestone J, Gentle D, Savage C. Potential role for monocyte chemotactic protein-4 (MCP-4) in monocyte/macrophage recruitment in acute renal inflammation. J Pathol. 2001;194:239-46 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest an important role for MCP-4 in the recruitment and retention of monocytes/macrophages in renal inflammation. ..
  26. Nakashima H, Fujimoto M, Asashima N, Watanabe R, Kuwano Y, Yazawa N, et al. Serum chemokine profile in patients with bullous pemphigoid. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156:454-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that an elaborately orchestrated network of chemokines, especially MCP-1 and IP-10, contributes to the pathomechanism of BP. ..
  27. Murray L, Argentieri R, Farrell F, Bracht M, Sheng H, Whitaker B, et al. Hyper-responsiveness of IPF/UIP fibroblasts: interplay between TGFbeta1, IL-13 and CCL2. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:2174-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall this study demonstrates an interplay between TGFbeta1, IL-13 and CCL2 in IPF/UIP, where these three mediators feedback on each other, promoting the fibrotic response. ..
  28. Modi W, Goedert J, Strathdee S, Buchbinder S, Detels R, Donfield S, et al. MCP-1-MCP-3-Eotaxin gene cluster influences HIV-1 transmission. AIDS. 2003;17:2357-65 pubmed
    ..Since these chemokines do not bind the primary HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 or CXCR4, the observed influence on transmission may result from activation of the immune system in response to infection rather than receptor blockage. ..
  29. Meyer Hoffert U, Lezcano Meza D, Bartels J, Montes Vizuet A, Schröder J, Teran L. Th2- and to a lesser extent Th1-type cytokines upregulate the production of both CXC (IL-8 and gro-alpha) and CC (RANTES, eotaxin, eotaxin-2, MCP-3 and MCP-4) chemokines in human airway epithelial cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2003;131:264-71 pubmed
  30. Yanaba K, Yoshizaki A, Muroi E, Hara T, Ogawa F, Shimizu K, et al. CCL13 is a promising diagnostic marker for systemic sclerosis. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:332-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum CCL13 was specifically increased in patients with SSc, but not in patients with SLE, DM or AD or in healthy controls. CCL13 could be a promising serological marker for SSc. ..
  31. Iwamoto T, Okamoto H, Kobayashi S, Ikari K, Toyama Y, Tomatsu T, et al. A role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-4 (MCP-4)/CCL13 from chondrocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. FEBS J. 2007;274:4904-12 pubmed
  32. Henningsen J, Pedersen B, Kratchmarova I. Quantitative analysis of the secretion of the MCP family of chemokines by muscle cells. Mol Biosyst. 2011;7:311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the expression of the MCPs in skeletal muscle is also regulated by pro-inflammatory stimuli, indicating a much broader cross talk and interaction between inflammatory-dependent systems than previously anticipated. ..
  33. Minty A, Chalon P, Guillemot J, Kaghad M, Liauzun P, Magazin M, et al. Molecular cloning of the MCP-3 chemokine gene and regulation of its expression. Eur Cytokine Netw. 1993;4:99-110 pubmed
    ..MCP-1 and MCP-3 mRNAs are thus co-ordinately regulated in monocytes in response to a number of inducing or inhibitory agents, in a manner differing in several respects from that of other monokines such as IL-6. ..
  34. Corbin M, Pourciau S, Morgan T, Boudreaux M, Peterson K. Ligand up-regulation does not correlate with a role for CCR1 in pathogenesis in a mouse model of non-lymphocyte-mediated neurological disease. J Neurovirol. 2006;12:241-50 pubmed
    ..This suggests that in the absence of inflammation, CCR1 may have a very limited role in neuropathogenesis. ..
  35. Myers D, Henke P, Bedard P, Wrobleski S, Kaila N, Shaw G, et al. Treatment with an oral small molecule inhibitor of P selectin (PSI-697) decreases vein wall injury in a rat stenosis model of venous thrombosis. J Vasc Surg. 2006;44:625-32 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that both LMWH and PSI-697 inhibit vein wall injury independently of thrombus mass. P-selectin inhibition seemed superior to LMWH in measured parameters of injury and mediator inhibition. ..
  36. Shaked Y, Cervi D, Neuman M, Chen L, Klement G, Michaud C, et al. The splenic microenvironment is a source of proangiogenesis/inflammatory mediators accelerating the expansion of murine erythroleukemic cells. Blood. 2005;105:4500-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that VEGF-A and MCP-5 are potentially pivotal paracrine mediators occurring within the diseased splenic microenvironment capable of promoting disease acceleration and expansion of erythroleukemic blasts. ..
  37. Ponath P, Qin S, Ringler D, Clark Lewis I, Wang J, Kassam N, et al. Cloning of the human eosinophil chemoattractant, eotaxin. Expression, receptor binding, and functional properties suggest a mechanism for the selective recruitment of eosinophils. J Clin Invest. 1996;97:604-12 pubmed
    ..Thus eotaxin in humans is a potent and selective eosinophil chemoattractant that is expressed by a variety cell types in certain inflammatory conditions. ..
  38. Woodworth B, Joseph K, Kaplan A, Schlosser R. Alterations in eotaxin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-4, interleukin-5, and interleukin-13 after systemic steroid treatment for nasal polyps. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;131:585-9 pubmed
    ..Novel approaches to block inflammatory mediators, particularly Th2 chemokines, may lead to better control of nasal polyposis in the future. ..
  39. Berkhout T, Sarau H, Moores K, White J, Elshourbagy N, Appelbaum E, et al. Cloning, in vitro expression, and functional characterization of a novel human CC chemokine of the monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) family (MCP-4) that binds and signals through the CC chemokine receptor 2B. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:16404-13 pubmed
    ..However, expression of MCP-4 protein was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in human atherosclerotic lesion and found to be associated with endothelial cells and macrophages. ..
  40. Castle P, Phillips T, Hildesheim A, Herrero R, Bratti M, Rodriguez A, et al. Immune profiling of plasma and cervical secretions using recycling immunoaffinity chromatography. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12:1449-56 pubmed
  41. Lambeir A, Proost P, Durinx C, Bal G, Senten K, Augustyns K, et al. Kinetic investigation of chemokine truncation by CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV reveals a striking selectivity within the chemokine family. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:29839-45 pubmed
    ..The data not only provide insight into the selectivity of the enzyme for specific chemokines, but they also contribute to the general understanding of CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV secondary substrate specificity. ..
  42. Deruaz M, Bonvin P, Severin I, Johnson Z, Krohn S, Power C, et al. Evasin-4, a tick-derived chemokine-binding protein with broad selectivity can be modified for use in preclinical disease models. FEBS J. 2013;280:4876-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the N- and C-terminal fusions were shown to retain binding activity, with the C-terminal fusion showing a modest reduction in potency. ..
  43. Ponath P, Qin S, Post T, Wang J, Wu L, Gerard N, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a human eotaxin receptor expressed selectively on eosinophils. J Exp Med. 1996;183:2437-48 pubmed
    ..The restricted expression of CKR-3 on eosinophils and the fidelity of eotaxin binding to CKR-3, provides a potential mechanism for the selective recruitment and migration of eosinophils within tissues. ..
  44. Wedemeyer J, Lorentz A, Göke M, Meier P, Flemming P, Dahinden C, et al. Enhanced production of monocyte chemotactic protein 3 in inflammatory bowel disease mucosa. Gut. 1999;44:629-35 pubmed
    ..Our data show that MCP-3 protein is present in normal and inflamed intestinal tissue. MCP-3 production is substantially enhanced in areas of active inflammation, suggesting an immunoregulatory role of MCP-3 in intestinal inflammation. ..
  45. Teran L. CCL chemokines and asthma. Immunol Today. 2000;21:235-42 pubmed
    ..The discovery of chemokines and the demonstration that some members of this cytokine superfamily are implicated in the recruitment of eosinophils offers an opportunity for a novel therapeutic approach in asthma. ..
  46. Choi E, Jakubzick C, Carpenter K, Kunkel S, Evanoff H, Martinez F, et al. Enhanced monocyte chemoattractant protein-3/CC chemokine ligand-7 in usual interstitial pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170:508-15 pubmed
  47. Kim A, Noh Y, Kim K, Jang Y, Choe Y, Lim J. Activated natural killer cell-mediated immunity is required for the inhibition of tumor metastasis by dendritic cell vaccination. Exp Mol Med. 2004;36:428-43 pubmed
    ..The findings of this study would provide important data for the effective design of DC vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. ..
  48. Ryan A, Spratt J, Britton W, Triccas J. Secretion of functional monocyte chemotactic protein 3 by recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG attenuates vaccine virulence and maintains protective efficacy against M. tuberculosis infection. Infect Immun. 2007;75:523-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, BCG(MCP-3) may be a safer alternative than conventional BCG for vaccination of immunocompromised individuals. ..
  49. Govaerts C, Blanpain C, Deupi X, Ballet S, Ballesteros J, Wodak S, et al. The TXP motif in the second transmembrane helix of CCR5. A structural determinant of chemokine-induced activation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:13217-25 pubmed
    ..The rank order of impairment of receptor activation is P84A > T82V > T82A > T82C > T82S. This ranking of impairment parallels the bending of the alpha-helix observed in the molecular simulation study. ..
  50. Hu J, Li G, Wang W, Zhu J, Li Y, Zhou G, et al. Transfection of colorectal cancer cells with chemokine MCP-3 (monocyte chemotactic protein-3) gene retards tumor growth and inhibits tumor metastasis. World J Gastroenterol. 2002;8:1067-72 pubmed
    ..The results suggested that the transfection of chemokine MCP-3 gene could promote the induction of anti-colorectal cancer immunity, but the tumor growth could not be inhibited completely by merely MCP-3 gene transfection. ..
  51. Gambichler T, Skrygan M, Labanski A, Kolios A, Altmeyer P, Kreuter A. Significantly increased CCL5/RANTES and CCR7 mRNA levels in localized scleroderma. Regul Pept. 2011;170:4-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we have shown for the first time a significant increase of mRNA levels of CCR7 and CCL5/RANTES in LS lesions indicating an important pathogenetic role of chemokines in LS. ..
  52. Jia G, Gonzalo J, Lloyd C, Kremer L, Lu L, Martinez A C, et al. Distinct expression and function of the novel mouse chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-5 in lung allergic inflammation. J Exp Med. 1996;184:1939-51 pubmed
    ..In contrast to Eotaxin, mRNA for mMCP-5 can be produced by mast cells. From these results, we postulate that mMCP-5 plays a pivotal role during the early stages of allergic lung inflammation. ..
  53. Secchiero P, Corallini F, di Iasio M, Gonelli A, Barbarotto E, Zauli G. TRAIL counteracts the proadhesive activity of inflammatory cytokines in endothelial cells by down-modulating CCL8 and CXCL10 chemokine expression and release. Blood. 2005;105:3413-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that TRAIL might play an important role in modulating leukocyte/endothelial cell adhesion by selectively down-regulating CCL8 and CXCL10 chemokines. ..