chemokine ccl4


Summary: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.

Top Publications

  1. Wagner L, Yang O, Garcia Zepeda E, Ge Y, Kalams S, Walker B, et al. Beta-chemokines are released from HIV-1-specific cytolytic T-cell granules complexed to proteoglycans. Nature. 1998;391:908-11 pubmed
    ..This association appears to have a functional significance, because heparan sulphate facilitates RANTES inhibition of HIV-1 infection of monocytes. ..
  2. Nicholas J, Ruvolo V, Zong J, Ciufo D, Guo H, Reitz M, et al. A single 13-kilobase divergent locus in the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) genome contains nine open reading frames that are homologous to or related to cellular proteins. J Virol. 1997;71:1963-74 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the DL-B locus of gammaherpesviruses displays considerably more variability that previously appreciated and that expression of many of these genes is likely to have important implications for HHV-8 biology and therapy. ..
  3. Kologlu T, Ucar S, Levent E, Akcay Y, Coker M, Sozmen E. Chitotriosidase as a possible marker of clinically evidenced atherosclerosis in dyslipidemic children. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2014;27:701-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ChT and YKL-40 seem to be the more predictable markers of atherosclerosis even in early ages (<6 years old) than other classical inflammation markers such as hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-?. ..
  4. Fernández Paredes L, Casrouge A, Decalf J, de Andrés C, Villar L, Pérez de Diego R, et al. Multimarker risk stratification approach at multiple sclerosis onset. Clin Immunol. 2017;181:43-50 pubmed publisher
  5. Benkirane M, Jin D, Chun R, Koup R, Jeang K. Mechanism of transdominant inhibition of CCR5-mediated HIV-1 infection by ccr5delta32. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:30603-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest CCR5/ccr5Delta32 heterodimerization as a molecular explanation for the delayed onset of AIDS in CCR5/ccr5Delta32 individuals. ..
  6. Oka T, Sugaya M, Takahashi N, Takahashi T, Shibata S, Miyagaki T, et al. CXCL17 Attenuates Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-like Skin Inflammation by Recruiting Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Regulatory T Cells. J Immunol. 2017;198:3897-3908 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, CXCL17 attenuates IMQ-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation by recruiting MDSCs and Tregs, which may be important for regulating excessive inflammation in psoriasis skin. ..
  7. Patterson S, Pesenacker A, Wang A, Gillies J, Mojibian M, Morishita K, et al. T regulatory cell chemokine production mediates pathogenic T cell attraction and suppression. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:1039-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate a previously unappreciated facet of Treg function and suggest that chemokine secretion by Tregs is a fundamental aspect of their therapeutic effect in autoimmunity and transplantation. ..
  8. Cross A, Woodroofe M. Chemokines induce migration and changes in actin polymerization in adult rat brain microglia and a human fetal microglial cell line in vitro. J Neurosci Res. 1999;55:17-23 pubmed
    ..These chemokines also induced a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton of the cells. This study indicates that chemokines play an important role in the recruitment of microglia to areas of central nervous system inflammation. ..
  9. Tremblay L, Valenza F, Ribeiro S, Li J, Slutsky A. Injurious ventilatory strategies increase cytokines and c-fos m-RNA expression in an isolated rat lung model. J Clin Invest. 1997;99:944-52 pubmed

More Information


  1. Zhang H, Huang E, Kahwaji J, Nast C, Li P, Mirocha J, et al. Plasma Exosomes From HLA-Sensitized Kidney Transplant Recipients Contain mRNA Transcripts Which Predict Development of Antibody-Mediated Rejection. Transplantation. 2017;101:2419-2428 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA transcript profiles based on gp130, SH2D1B, TNFα, and CCL4 in plasma exosomes may be used to predict on-going and/or imminent AMR. ..
  2. Kunstfeld R, Lechleitner S, Wolff K, Petzelbauer P. MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha are most efficient in recruiting T cells into the skin in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;111:1040-4 pubmed
    ..At this site all tested chemokines attracted human T cells to an equal extent. In summary, our experiments point towards an important role for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha as T cell chemoattractants for skin inflammatory conditions. ..
  3. Andersen M, Boesen M, Ellegaard K, Christensen R, Soderstrom K, Søe N, et al. Synovial explant inflammatory mediator production corresponds to rheumatoid arthritis imaging hallmarks: a cross-sectional study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:R107 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of association of IL-8 with synovitis was likely underestimated because of a large proportion of samples above assay detection limits among the patients with the highest synovitis scores. ..
  4. Vicenzi E, Alfano M, Ghezzi S, Gatti A, Veglia F, Lazzarin A, et al. Divergent regulation of HIV-1 replication in PBMC of infected individuals by CC chemokines: suppression by RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MCP-3, and enhancement by MCP-1. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;68:405-12 pubmed
    ..Altogether these observations suggest that MCP-1 may represent an important factor enhancing HIV spreading, particularly in anatomical sites, such as the brain, where infection of macrophages and microglial cells plays a dominant role. ..
  5. Nenasheva T, Nikolaev A, Diykanov D, Sukhanova A, Tcyganov E, Panteleev A, et al. The introduction of mesenchymal stromal cells induces different immunological responses in the lungs of healthy and M. tuberculosis infected mice. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178983 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings emphasize the importance of the evaluation of MSC effects locally at the site of their predominant post-injection localization and question MSC usefulness as anti-TB treatment. ..
  6. Fan F, Xu Z, Zhou Q, Wang D. [Expression profiles and clinical implication of plasma chemokines in patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2017;45:318-322 pubmed publisher
    ..05)?IP?10(r(2)?0.00?P>0.05)?Flt?3??(r(2)?0.02?P>0.05)?????C???????????? ??? ??MIP?1??ENA?78?????IL?16???????Stanford A???????????????????C?????????????IP?10?Flt?3?????Stanford A???????????????. ..
  7. Appay V, Nixon D, Donahoe S, Gillespie G, Dong T, King A, et al. HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells produce antiviral cytokines but are impaired in cytolytic function. J Exp Med. 2000;192:63-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells are impaired in cytolytic activity. ..
  8. Parry C, Simas J, Smith V, Stewart C, Minson A, Efstathiou S, et al. A broad spectrum secreted chemokine binding protein encoded by a herpesvirus. J Exp Med. 2000;191:573-8 pubmed
    ..hvCKBP is the first soluble chemokine receptor identified in herpesviruses; it represents a novel protein structure with the ability to bind all subfamilies of chemokines in solution and has potential therapeutic applications...
  9. Balashov K, Rottman J, Weiner H, Hancock W. CCR5(+) and CXCR3(+) T cells are increased in multiple sclerosis and their ligands MIP-1alpha and IP-10 are expressed in demyelinating brain lesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6873-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these results provide a rationale for the use of agents that block CCR5 and/or CXCR3 as a therapeutic approach in the treatment of MS. ..
  10. Arnoldi J, Moll H. Langerhans cell migration in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis: regulation by tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha. Dev Immunol. 1998;6:3-11 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that TNF alpha and IL-1 beta are regulating the LC-mediated transport of Leishmania and also provide evidence for the involvement of macrophage attractant chemokines in this process. ..
  11. Dieu M, Vanbervliet B, Vicari A, Bridon J, Oldham E, Ait Yahia S, et al. Selective recruitment of immature and mature dendritic cells by distinct chemokines expressed in different anatomic sites. J Exp Med. 1998;188:373-86 pubmed
  12. Simpson J, Newcombe J, Cuzner M, Woodroofe M. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and other beta-chemokines by resident glia and inflammatory cells in multiple sclerosis lesions. J Neuroimmunol. 1998;84:238-49 pubmed
    ..Glial cells may be stimulated to produce chemokines and continue the local inflammatory response by forming chemotactic gradients to attract T cells and mononuclear phagocytes from the circulation and surrounding tissue. ..
  13. Aiuti A, Webb I, Bleul C, Springer T, Gutierrez Ramos J. The chemokine SDF-1 is a chemoattractant for human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and provides a new mechanism to explain the mobilization of CD34+ progenitors to peripheral blood. J Exp Med. 1997;185:111-20 pubmed
  14. Lin C, Sewell A, Gao G, Whelan K, Phillips R, Austyn J. Macrophage-tropic HIV induces and exploits dendritic cell chemotaxis. J Exp Med. 2000;192:587-94 pubmed
    ..Consequently, recruitment of DC by HIV-1 could combine with the ability of DC-SIGN to capture and transmit the virus to T cells, and so facilitate dissemination of virus within an infected individual. ..
  15. Casetti R, Pinnetti C, Sacchi A, De Simone G, Bordoni V, Cimini E, et al. HIV-Specific CD8 T Cells Producing CCL-4 Are Associated With Worse Immune Reconstitution During Chronic Infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;75:338-344 pubmed publisher
    ..These parameters may be used as tools for identifying patients at risk of immunological failure during cART and eventually represent the basis for innovative therapeutic strategies. ..
  16. Sprokholt J, Kaptein T, van Hamme J, Overmars R, Gringhuis S, Geijtenbeek T. RIG-I-like Receptor Triggering by Dengue Virus Drives Dendritic Cell Immune Activation and TH1 Differentiation. J Immunol. 2017;198:4764-4771 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we identified RIG-I and MDA5 as critical players in innate and adaptive immune responses against DENV, and targeting these receptors has the potential to decrease hemorrhagic fever in patients. ..
  17. Standiford T, Danforth J. Ethanol feeding inhibits proinflammatory cytokine expression from murine alveolar macrophages ex vivo. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21:1212-7 pubmed
  18. Fujishima S, Sasaki J, Shinozawa Y, Takuma K, Kimura H, Suzuki M, et al. Serum MIP-1 alpha and IL-8 in septic patients. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22:1169-75 pubmed
    ..05). The production of MIP-1 alpha and IL-8 was increased in sepsis. Furthermore, an initially detectable level of circulating IL-8, but not MIP-1 alpha, predicted a high mortality in sepsis diagnosed according to the ACCP/SCCM criteria. ..