beta thromboglobulin


Summary: A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.

Top Publications

  1. Kowal Bielecka O, Kowal K, Lewszuk A, Bodzenta Lukaszyk A, Walecki J, Sierakowski S. Beta thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with systemic sclerosis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:484-6 pubmed
    To evaluate concentrations of the platelet activation markers beta thromboglobulin (BTG) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with systemic sclerosis with and without scleroderma interstitial ..
  2. Han Z, Bellucci S, Tenza D, Caen J. Negative regulation of human megakaryocytopoiesis by human platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin: comparative analysis in bone marrow cultures from normal individuals and patients with essential thrombocythaemia and immune thrombocytopenic purpu. Br J Haematol. 1990;74:395-401 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PF4 and BTG are involved in negative regulation of normal and pathologic megakaryocytopoiesis and that their inhibition acts predominantly on the megakaryocytic lineage. ..
  3. Yoshimura T, Matsui K, Ito M, Yunohara T, Kawasaki N, Nakamura T, et al. Effects of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid on plasma beta thromboglobulin level and vascular reactivity to angiotensin II. Artery. 1987;14:295-303 pubmed
    ..After the administration of 900 mg/day of EPA-E for two weeks or longer, a significant reduction in plasma beta thromboglobulin level was observed, and after 4 weeks' administration, significantly blunted pressor responsiveness to ..
  4. Hjemdahl P, Perneby C, Theodorsson E, Egberg N, Larsson P. A new assay for beta-thromboglobulin in urine. Thromb Res. 1991;64:33-43 pubmed
    ..The present more selective assay for HMW immunoreactivity increases the possibility of detecting physiological changes in beta TG release in vivo by urinary measurements. ..
  5. Cash J. Platelet chemokines. Transfus Med. 2002;12:222; author reply 222 pubmed
  6. Feniger Barish R, Belkin D, Zaslaver A, Gal S, Dori M, Ran M, et al. GCP-2-induced internalization of IL-8 receptors: hierarchical relationships between GCP-2 and other ELR(+)-CXC chemokines and mechanisms regulating CXCR2 internalization and recycling. Blood. 2000;95:1551-9 pubmed
    ..Blood. 2000;95:1551-1559) ..
  7. Rubens F, Labow R, Lavallée G, Watson M, Robblee J, Voorhees M, et al. Hematologic evaluation of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits prepared with a novel block copolymer. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;67:689-96; discussion 696-8 pubmed
    ..A larger trial would be necessary to establish the clinical relevance of these differences. ..
  8. Yeaman M, Bayer A, Koo S, Foss W, Sullam P. Platelet microbicidal proteins and neutrophil defensin disrupt the Staphylococcus aureus cytoplasmic membrane by distinct mechanisms of action. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:178-87 pubmed
    ..These findings may also reveal new insights into the microbicidal activities versus mammalian cell toxicities of antimicrobial peptides. ..
  9. Bjessmo S, Ivert T, Egberg N. Coagulation system activity before coronary artery bypass surgery for unstable angina. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2001;35:280-4 pubmed
    ..A hypercoagulable state may be present in unstable as well as in stable angina pectoris patients accepted for coronary artery bypass surgery. ..

More Information


  1. Schwartzkopff F, Brandt E, Petersen F, Flad H, Bock L, Ludwig A. The CXC chemokine NAP-2 mediates differential heterologous desensitization of neutrophil effector functions elicited by platelet-activating factor. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2002;22:257-67 pubmed
    ..Thus, a role for NAP-2 may be to limit PAF-dependent vascular tissue damage by preventing degranulation of neutrophils without affecting their migration into the inflamed tissue. ..
  2. Nguyen B, Azimzadeh A, Zhang T, Wu G, Schuurman H, Shuurman H, et al. Life-supporting function of genetically modified swine lungs in baboons. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;133:1354-63 pubmed
    ..As during ex vivo perfusion, dysregulated coagulation-thrombin elaboration, platelet activation, and intravascular thrombosis-mediates galactosyl transferase knockout lung xenograft injury. ..
  3. Powell J, Mousa S. Neutrophil-activating protein-2- and interleukin-8-mediated angiogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 2007;102:412-20 pubmed
    ..These approaches may be a useful tool for the inhibition of angiogenesis associated with human tumor growth or with neovascular, ocular, and inflammatory diseases where chemokines and cytokines are involved. ..
  4. Zimmermann R, Loew D, Weisbach V, Strasser E, Ringwald J, Zingsem J, et al. Plateletpheresis does not cause long-standing platelet-derived growth factor release into the donor blood. Transfusion. 2005;45:414-9 pubmed
    ..Only a slight and rapidly reversible increase in soluble PDGF-AB was found during plateletpheresis and no increase in soluble TGF-beta1 and beta-TG was found. This change should not be harmful to the donor. ..
  5. Jilma B. Surrogate markers to monitor efficacy of anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs in atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2002;23:1736-7 pubmed
  6. Kasperska Zajac A, Rogala B. Platelet activity measured by plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 in seasonal allergic rhinitis during natural pollen exposure. Inflamm Res. 2003;52:477-9 pubmed
    ..It seems that increased in vivo platelet activity, assessed by measuring plasma beta-TG and PF4, may not occur during allergic inflammation that is associated with SAR. ..
  7. Bloomstone J, Chow C, Isselbacher E, VanCott E, Isaacson K. A pilot study examining the frequency and quantity of gas embolization during operative hysteroscopy using a monopolar resectoscope. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 2002;9:9-14 pubmed
    ..Gas bubbles can been detected by echocardiography in most patients undergoing resectoscopic surgery in the uterus. Clinical significance may relate to anatomic variations as well as to gas bubble content and volume. ..
  8. Sirolli V, Ballone E, Garofalo D, Merciaro G, Settefrati N, Di Mascio R, et al. Platelet activation markers in patients with nephrotic syndrome. A comparative study of different platelet function tests. Nephron. 2002;91:424-30 pubmed
    ..Whole blood flow cytometry assay of platelet activation and plasma P-selectin assay may represent useful tests to assess the hypercoagulable state in nephrotic patients. ..
  9. Szegedi N, May Z, Ovary C, Skopal J, Nagy Z. [Molecular markers of endothelial dysfunction in acute ischemic stroke]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2002;55:102-8 pubmed
  10. Hayashi M, Inoue T, Hoshimoto K, Negishi H, Ohkura T, Inaba N. Characterization of five marker levels of the hemostatic system and endothelial status in normotensive pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Eur J Haematol. 2002;69:297-302 pubmed
    ..Platelet-release of beta-TG may be enhanced in groups 2, 3, and 4. Endothelial damage and platelet-releasing reaction (detected by PF-4 and beta-TG) may be significantly more enhanced in group 4 than in group 3. ..
  11. Matowicka Karna J, Kemona H. [Evaluation of functional state of blood platelets in patients infected with Echinococcus granulosus]. Wiad Parazytol. 2001;47:651-4 pubmed
    ..The level of platelet factor 4 (before and after the antiparasitic treatment) indicates platelet activation by parasite. ..
  12. Stepien E, Plicner D, Branicka A, Stankiewicz E, Pazdan A, Sniezek Maciejewska M, et al. [Factors influencing thrombin generation measured as thrombin-antithrombin complexes levels and using calibrated automated thrombogram in patients with advanced coronary artery disease]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2007;117:297-305 pubmed
    ..Plasma levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes do not correlate with the parameters obtained using the calibrated automated thrombogram method (C(max), ETP). ..
  13. Weber N, Caliebe J, Ziemer G, Wendel H. Material-dependent levels of heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70) in human plasma following contact of blood with artificial surfaces. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2003;14:747-60 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the levels of hsp70 in human plasma may represent a new prognostic factor or a diagnostic biomarker in hemostasis research. ..
  14. Nadar S, Blann A, Kamath S, Beevers D, Lip G. Platelet indexes in relation to target organ damage in high-risk hypertensive patients: a substudy of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44:415-22 pubmed
    ..These changes may have implications for the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in hypertension. ..
  15. Catani L, Gugliotta L, Cascione M, Mattioli Belmonte M, Vianelli N, Belardinelli A, et al. Platelet function and interferon alpha-2a treatment in essential thrombocythaemia. Eur J Haematol. 1991;46:158-62 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that, despite significantly reducing the platelet count, IFN alpha-2a treatment only partially corrects the qualitative platelet abnormalities in ET. ..
  16. Zatta A, Prosdocimi M, Bertele V, Bazzoni G, Del Maschio A. Inhibition of platelet function by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Lab Clin Med. 1990;116:651-60 pubmed
  17. Dimitrow P, Hlawaty M, Undas A, Sniezek Maciejewska M, Sobień B, Stepien E, et al. Effect of aortic valve stenosis on haemostasis is independent from vascular atherosclerotic burden. Atherosclerosis. 2009;204:e103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..AS predisposes to prothrombotic state. Maximal gradient as an index of turbulent flow associated with activation of coagulation and platelets. In contrast, the small aortic valve area was not closely related to these parameters. ..
  18. Stefoni S, Cianciolo G, Donati G, Colì L, La Manna G, Raimondi C, et al. Standard heparin versus low-molecular-weight heparin. A medium-term comparison in hemodialysis. Nephron. 2002;92:589-600 pubmed
    ..Routine use of LMWH during hemodialysis affords a safe and effective alternative to SH, and causes reduced platelet activation. ..
  19. Panasiuk A, Prokopowicz D, Zak J, Matowicka Karna J, Osada J, Wysocka J. Activation of blood platelets in chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis P-selectin expression on blood platelets and secretory activity of beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor-4. Hepatogastroenterology. 2001;48:818-22 pubmed
    ..Thrombocytes in chronic liver diseases and liver cirrhosis are more activated. Platelet sensitivity to stimuli in these ailments is higher (liver cirrhosis) than in the healthy controls. ..
  20. De Somer F, Francois K, van Oeveren W, Poelaert J, De Wolf D, Ebels T, et al. Phosphorylcholine coating of extracorporeal circuits provides natural protection against blood activation by the material surface. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2000;18:602-6 pubmed
    ..Clinically, this effect may contribute to reduced blood loss and less thromboembolic complications. Complement activation is lower in the coated group. ..
  21. Van Damme J, Van Beeumen J, Conings R, Decock B, Billiau A. Purification of granulocyte chemotactic peptide/interleukin-8 reveals N-terminal sequence heterogeneity similar to that of beta-thromboglobulin. Eur J Biochem. 1989;181:337-44 pubmed
    ..GCP/IL-8 was found to be chemotactic for granulocytes with a specific activity of 10(5) units/mg, whereas none of the beta-thromboglobulin species possessed detectable chemotactic activity. ..
  22. Abdelmalik N, Ruhé H, Barwari K, van den Dool E, Meijers J, Middeldorp S, et al. Effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine on platelet function is modified by a SLC6A4 serotonin transporter polymorphism. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:2168-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These paroxetine effects appear to be mediated by 5-HTTLPR, with most pronounced effects in patients without L(A)-alleles. ..
  23. Kuijpers P, Hamulyak K, Strik J, Wellens H, Honig A. Beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 levels in post-myocardial infarction patients with major depression. Psychiatry Res. 2002;109:207-10 pubmed
    ..PF4 was significantly higher in the depressed group than in the non-depressed group. beta-TG was increased in the depressed subgroup, but the difference was not statistically significant. ..
  24. Hoffman M, Monroe D, Roubey R. Links between the immune and coagulation systems: how do "antiphospholipid antibodies" cause thrombosis?. Immunol Res. 2000;22:191-7 pubmed
    ..quot;Antiphospholipid" antibodies against the phospholipid-binding protein beta-2-glycoprotein-1 enhance thrombin generation in this model system, primarily by enhancing procoagulant reactions on tissue factor-bearing cells. ..
  25. Ahuja S, Murphy P. The CXC chemokines growth-regulated oncogene (GRO) alpha, GRObeta, GROgamma, neutrophil-activating peptide-2, and epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide-78 are potent agonists for the type B, but not the type A, human interleukin-8 rec. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:20545-50 pubmed
    ..These findings have important implications for developing novel neutrophil-specific anti-inflammatory drugs directed against the CXC chemokine signaling system. ..
  26. Senior R, Griffin G, Huang J, Walz D, Deuel T. Chemotactic activity of platelet alpha granule proteins for fibroblasts. J Cell Biol. 1983;96:382-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that in vivo several alpha granule proteins released from platelets may affect wound healing by causing directed fibroblast migration. ..
  27. Coupes B, Williams S, Roberts I, Short C, Brenchley P. Plasma transforming growth factor beta(1) and platelet activation: implications for studies in transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001;16:361-7 pubmed
    ..Plasma TGF beta(1) and beta thromboglobulin were measured by ELISA...
  28. Weltermann A, Fritsch P, Kyrle P, Schoenauer V, Heinze G, Wojta J, et al. Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel on platelet and coagulation activation in patients undergoing elective coronary stenting. Thromb Res. 2003;112:19-24 pubmed
    ..Pretreatment with clopidogrel did not result in a pronounced inhibition of the platelet and coagulation system activation in patients on aspirin undergoing elective coronary stent implantation. ..
  29. Whyte E, Pollock B, Wagner W, Mulsant B, Ferrell R, Mazumdar S, et al. Influence of serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region polymorphism on platelet activation in geriatric depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:2074-6 pubmed
    ..This finding suggests how genetic differences may influence cardiovascular mortality in depressed patients with ischemic heart disease. ..
  30. Cerretti D, Kozlosky C, Vanden Bos T, Nelson N, Gearing D, Beckmann M. Molecular characterization of receptors for human interleukin-8, GRO/melanoma growth-stimulatory activity and neutrophil activating peptide-2. Mol Immunol. 1993;30:359-67 pubmed
    ..These receptors also show significant homology with receptors for other chemotactic agents and with potential coding regions from the human cytomegalovirus genome. ..
  31. Kasperska Zajac A, Brzoza Z, Rogala B. Effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy on platelet secretory activity in patients with grass-pollen allergy. Vaccine. 2006;24:6990-3 pubmed
    ..In particular, it seems that both early (after 30 min) and late (after 24 h) changes in plasma level of this marker do not occur following the maximum dose administration of the allergen vaccine during the early SIT phase. ..
  32. Kasuda S, Sakurai Y, Shima M, Morimura Y, Kudo R, Takeda T, et al. Inhibition of PAR4 signaling mediates ethanol-induced attenuation of platelet function in vitro. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30:1608-14 pubmed
    ..This phenomenon may contribute to the reduction in coronary heart disease morbidity in response to consumption of alcoholic beverages. ..
  33. Richmond A, Balentien E, Thomas H, Flaggs G, Barton D, Spiess J, et al. Molecular characterization and chromosomal mapping of melanoma growth stimulatory activity, a growth factor structurally related to beta-thromboglobulin. EMBO J. 1988;7:2025-33 pubmed
    ..This same region also contains genes for two of the structurally related factors, for c-kit, a receptor for an as yet unidentified ligand, and for 'piebald trait', an inherited skin pigmentation disorder. ..
  34. Xiong Y, Yeaman M, Bayer A. In vitro antibacterial activities of platelet microbicidal protein and neutrophil defensin against Staphylococcus aureus are influenced by antibiotics differing in mechanism of action. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43:1111-7 pubmed
    ..25 microgram/ml and for an HNP-1 concentration range of 6.25 to 50 microgram/ml). These findings suggest that tPMP-1 and HNP-1 exert anti-S. aureus activities through mechanisms involving both the cell membrane and intracellular targets. ..
  35. Fowler V, McIntyre L, Yeaman M, Peterson G, Barth Reller L, Corey G, et al. In vitro resistance to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein in isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from endocarditis patients correlates with an intravascular device source. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:1251-4 pubmed
    ..aureus strains and the severity of human IE. This work supports the concept that in vitro PMP resistance in clinical S. aureus strains is associated with important clinical characteristics of S. aureus endovascular infections in vivo. ..
  36. Matowicka Karna J, Kemona H. [Beta-thromboglobulin concentration in chosen parasitic diseases]. Przegl Lek. 2002;59:136-8 pubmed
    ..Although platelets do not get into a direct contact with the parasite, an increase in the concentration of b-thromboglobulin is observed, and it may indicate the involvement of platelets in the parasitic disease. ..
  37. Nister M, Enblad P, Backstrom G, Söderman T, Persson L, Heldin C, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in neoplastic and non-neoplastic cystic lesions of the central nervous system and in the cerebrospinal fluid. Br J Cancer. 1994;69:952-6 pubmed
    ..Comparison of PDGF and beta-thromboglobulin concentrations in the same fluids strongly indicates that the PDGF protein is locally produced rather than a result of platelet activation and derangement of the blood-brain barrier. ..
  38. Takayama H, Soltow L, Aldea G. Differential expression in markers for thrombin, platelet activation, and inflammation in cell saver versus systemic blood in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2007;21:519-23 pubmed
    ..Further evaluation and improvement in cell-salvaging technology and processing techniques are warranted. ..
  39. Butkiewicz A, Kemona Chetnik I, Dymicka Piekarska V, Matowicka Karna J, Kemona H, Radziwon P. Does smoking affect thrombocytopoiesis and platelet activation in women and men?. Adv Med Sci. 2006;51:123-6 pubmed
    ..The results allow the hypothesis that women are more sensitive to smoking than men. Platelets in male smokers are less sensitive to smoking--the study showed no significant changes in the parameters. ..
  40. Bayer A, Prasad R, Chandra J, Koul A, Smriti M, Varma A, et al. In vitro resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein is associated with alterations in cytoplasmic membrane fluidity. Infect Immun. 2000;68:3548-53 pubmed
    ..These data provide further support for the concept that specific alterations in the cytoplasmic membrane of S. aureus strains are associated with tPMP-1 resistance in vitro. ..
  41. Kasperska Zajac A, Nowakowski M, Rogala B. Enhanced platelet activation in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. Inflammation. 2004;28:299-302 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that some patients with AEDS may have enhanced blood platelet activity as expressed by beta-TG and PF4 level. ..
  42. Kamath S, Blann A, Chin B, Lanza F, Aleil B, Cazenave J, et al. A study of platelet activation in atrial fibrillation and the effects of antithrombotic therapy. Eur Heart J. 2002;23:1788-95 pubmed
    ..We suggest that platelet activation may not play an important role in the pathogenesis of thromboembolism in AF. ..
  43. Bunescu A, Hild M, Lundahl J, Egberg N. Platelet storage in PAS-2 or autologous plasma: impact on functional parameters. Transfus Med. 2001;11:105-10 pubmed
    ..However, it must be emphasized that platelets stored in autologous plasma exhibited less lesion, in terms of P-Selectin expression compared with platelets stored in PAS-2. ..
  44. Gouwy M, Struyf S, Mahieu F, Put W, Proost P, Van Damme J. The unique property of the CC chemokine regakine-1 to synergize with other plasma-derived inflammatory mediators in neutrophil chemotaxis does not reside in its NH2-terminal structure. Mol Pharmacol. 2002;62:173-80 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the constitutive plasma chemokine regakine-1 is a stable enhancer of the inflammatory response and that its blockade might be beneficial in acute and systemic inflammatory disorders. ..
  45. Schnitzel W, Monschein U, Besemer J. Monomer-dimer equilibria of interleukin-8 and neutrophil-activating peptide 2. Evidence for IL-8 binding as a dimer and oligomer to IL-8 receptor B. J Leukoc Biol. 1994;55:763-70 pubmed
    ..In addition, IL-8, but not NAP-2, could be cross-linked to dimers when bound to IL-8 receptor B. We suggest from these findings that IL-8, but not NAP-2, binds as a dimer and oligomer to IL-8 receptor. ..
  46. Setiabudy R, Wahidiyat P, Setiawan L. Platelet aggregation and activation in thalassemia major patients in Indonesia. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2008;14:346-51 pubmed
    ..The authors concluded that there was an increase in platelet activation in patients with beta-thalassemia major. Platelet activation was higher in splenectomized than in nonsplenectomized patients. ..
  47. Matowicka Karna J, Kemona H, Dymicka Piekarska V, Butkiewicz A. [The secretory activity of blood platelets--beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 in echinococcosis]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2005;19:172-4 pubmed
    ..09 +/- 2.68 IU/ml) and platelet factor 4 (8.47 +/- 3.32 IU/ml), which may indicate the involvement of platelets in the parasitic disease. ..
  48. Tombul T, Atbas C, Anlar O. Hemostatic markers and platelet aggregation factors as predictive markers for type of stroke and neurological disability following cerebral infarction. J Clin Neurosci. 2005;12:429-34 pubmed
    ..The platelet aggregation had an important role in pathophysiology of ischemic stroke and this condition is significant in NEI subgroup and subjects with large infarcts and high disability scores. ..
  49. Belperio J, Keane M, Burdick M, Gomperts B, Xue Y, Hong K, et al. Role of CXCR2/CXCR2 ligands in vascular remodeling during bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1150-62 pubmed
  50. Schmid J, Weissmann C. Induction of mRNA for a serine protease and a beta-thromboglobulin-like protein in mitogen-stimulated human leukocytes. J Immunol. 1987;139:250-6 pubmed
    ..The other cDNA, 3-10C, encodes a protein of 99 residues that resembles human beta-thromboglobulin (42% homology); the cognate mRNA was also found in SEA-stimulated U937 cells, a histiocytic lymphoma-derived cell line. ..
  51. Schmehl J, Harder C, Wendel H, Claussen C, Tepe G. Silicon carbide coating of nitinol stents to increase antithrombogenic properties and reduce nickel release. Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2008;9:255-62 pubmed publisher
    ..A reduction of thrombogenicity can be achieved by passive coating with silicon carbide, which induces less thrombus formation due to its semiconducting properties...
  52. Nakagawa K, Hirai T, Shinokawa N, Takashima S, Nozawa T, Asanoi H, et al. Aortic spontaneous echocardiographic contrast and hemostatic markers in patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. Chest. 2002;121:500-5 pubmed
    ..Patients with nonrheumatic AF who have AoSEC appear to have enhanced coagulation activity but not platelet activity. Intensive anticoagulation treatment might be required for these patients. ..
  53. Pitsilos S, Hunt J, Mohler E, Prabhakar A, Poncz M, Dawicki J, et al. Platelet factor 4 localization in carotid atherosclerotic plaques: correlation with clinical parameters. Thromb Haemost. 2003;90:1112-20 pubmed
    ..These studies support the rationale for the chronic use of anti-platelet therapy in patients at risk for developing symptomatic atherosclerosis. ..