Summary: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.

Top Publications

  1. Fleuchot B, Guillot A, Mézange C, Besset C, Chambellon E, Monnet V, et al. Rgg-associated SHP signaling peptides mediate cross-talk in Streptococci. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66042 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterized the mature form of each SHP pheromone by mass-spectrometry. We produced synthetic peptides corresponding to these mature forms, and used them to study functional complementation and cross-talk between ..
  2. Sobczak M, Dębek C, Oledzka E, Kozłowski R. Polymeric systems of antimicrobial peptides--strategies and potential applications. Molecules. 2013;18:14122-37 pubmed publisher
    The past decade has seen growing interest in the investigation of peptides with antimicrobial activity (AMPs). One approach utilized in infection control is incorporation of antimicrobial agents conjugated with the polymers...
  3. Wang N, De Bock M, Decrock E, Bol M, Gadicherla A, Bultynck G, et al. Connexin targeting peptides as inhibitors of voltage- and intracellular Ca2+-triggered Cx43 hemichannel opening. Neuropharmacology. 2013;75:506-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Over the past ten years, several peptides have been demonstrated to block hemichannels, including Gap26, Gap27, peptide5, L2 and Gap19; some of these ..
  4. Birnbaum M, Mendoza J, Sethi D, Dong S, Glanville J, Dobbins J, et al. Deconstructing the peptide-MHC specificity of T cell recognition. Cell. 2014;157:1073-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Although we identified hundreds of peptides reactive with each of five different mouse and human TCRs, the selected peptides possessed TCR recognition motifs ..
  5. Brugnano J, McMasters J, Panitch A. Characterization of endocytic uptake of MK2-inhibitor peptides. J Pept Sci. 2013;19:629-38 pubmed publisher
    Cell penetrating peptides (CPP) have been widely used to increase the cellular delivery of their associated cargo. Multiple modes of uptake have been identified; however, they cannot be predicted a priori...
  6. Albert M. Peptides as triggers of plant defence. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:5269-79 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on peptides that serve as triggers or amplifiers of plant defence and thus follow the definition of a MAMP or a DAMP.
  7. Cieslewicz M, Tang J, Yu J, Cao H, Zavaljevski M, Motoyama K, et al. Targeted delivery of proapoptotic peptides to tumor-associated macrophages improves survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15919-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, M2pep is a useful tool for murine M2 macrophage identification and for modulating M2 macrophages in other murine models of disease involving M2 cells. ..
  8. Gupta S, Kapoor P, Chaudhary K, Gautam A, Kumar R, Raghava G. In silico approach for predicting toxicity of peptides and proteins. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73957 pubmed publisher
    ..the several advantages over small molecules, including high specificity, high penetration, ease of manufacturing, peptides have emerged as promising therapeutic molecules against many diseases...
  9. Lv J, Nie Z, Zhang J, Liu F, Wang Z, Ma Z, et al. Corn peptides protect against thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. J Med Food. 2013;16:912-9 pubmed publisher
    Certain bioactive peptides are reported to be able to alleviate hepatic fibrosis...

More Information


  1. Apcher S, Millot G, Daskalogianni C, Scherl A, Manoury B, Fahraeus R. Translation of pre-spliced RNAs in the nuclear compartment generates peptides for the MHC class I pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:17951-6 pubmed publisher
    ..When ribosomes first engage with the newly synthesized mRNA, and if peptides are produced, is unclear, however...
  2. Bao W, Holt L, Prince R, Jones G, Aravindhan K, Szapacs M, et al. Novel fusion of GLP-1 with a domain antibody to serum albumin prolongs protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:148 pubmed publisher
    ..serum albumin (AlbudAbs) have been developed to extend the serum half-life of short lived therapeutic proteins, peptides and small molecules...
  3. Chou S, HOM K, Zhang D, Leng Q, Tricoli L, Hustedt J, et al. Enhanced silencing and stabilization of siRNA polyplexes by histidine-mediated hydrogen bonds. Biomaterials. 2014;35:846-55 pubmed publisher
    Branched peptides containing histidines and lysines (HK) have been shown to be effective carriers for DNA and siRNA...
  4. Papolu P, Gantasala N, Kamaraju D, Banakar P, Sreevathsa R, Rao U. Utility of host delivered RNAi of two FMRF amide like peptides, flp-14 and flp-18, for the management of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80603 pubmed publisher
    ..incognita. This is the first ever report that has revealed the utility of host delivered RNAi of flps to control M. incognita. The strategy can also be extended to other crops and nematodes. ..
  5. Dey M, Patra S, Su L, Segall A. Tumor cell death mediated by peptides that recognize branched intermediates of DNA replication and repair. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78751 pubmed publisher
    ..damage, collapsed replication forks and HJ intermediates will accumulate and serve as targets for the HJ-binding peptides. Inhibiting junction resolution will lead to further accumulation of DNA breaks, eventually resulting in ..
  6. Lee M, Ha J, Yoon H, Lee C, Chi S. Structural basis for the conserved binding mechanism of MDM2-inhibiting peptides and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;445:120-5 pubmed publisher into a hydrophobic cleft of Bcl-XL in a manner similar to that of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) peptides. Our results shed light on the mechanism underlying dual-targeting of the FxxxWxxL-based ?-helical motif to MDM2 ..
  7. Andrews S, Rothnagel J. Emerging evidence for functional peptides encoded by short open reading frames. Nat Rev Genet. 2014;15:193-204 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review examines this hitherto overlooked component of the proteome and considers potential roles for sORF-encoded peptides.
  8. Domingues R, Domingues P, Melo T, Perez Sala D, Reis A, Spickett C. Lipoxidation adducts with peptides and proteins: deleterious modifications or signaling mechanisms?. J Proteomics. 2013;92:110-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Posttranslational Protein modifications in biology and Medicine. ..
  9. Jakubczyk A, Karaś M, Baraniak B, Pietrzak M. The impact of fermentation and in vitro digestion on formation angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from pea proteins. Food Chem. 2013;141:3774-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In all samples after fermentation no ACE inhibitory activity was noted. Potentially antihypertensive peptides were released during in vitro digestion. The highest DH (68...
  10. Chatterji B, Pich A. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry and analysis of endogenous peptides. Expert Rev Proteomics. 2013;10:381-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about imaging of endogenous peptides, for example, in the rat brain, and this will therefore be highlighted in this review...
  11. Terzaki K, Kalloudi E, Mossou E, Mitchell E, Forsyth V, Rosseeva E, et al. Mineralized self-assembled peptides on 3D laser-made scaffolds: a new route toward 'scaffold on scaffold' hard tissue engineering. Biofabrication. 2013;5:045002 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, we report the rational design of aspartate-containing self-assembling peptides targeted for calcium binding...
  12. Jia X, Wang Y, Peng F, Huo C, Yu L, Liu J, et al. Catalytic sp3 C-H oxidation of peptides and their analogues by radical cation salts: from glycine amides to quinolines. J Org Chem. 2013;78:9450-6 pubmed publisher
    A catalytic ?-sp(3) C-H oxidation of peptides and glycine amides was achieved under radical cation salt catalysis in the presence of O2, producing a series of substituted quinolines...
  13. Hamilton P, Jansen M, Ganesan S, Benson R, Hyde Deruyscher R, Beyer W, et al. Improved bone morphogenetic protein-2 retention in an injectable collagen matrix using bifunctional peptides. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70715 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a generalized approach to create target-specific modular peptides that bind growth factors to implantable biomaterials...
  14. Chang K, Yang J. Analysis and prediction of highly effective antiviral peptides based on random forests. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70166 pubmed publisher
    The goal of this study was to examine and predict antiviral peptides. Although antiviral peptides hold great potential in antiviral drug discovery, little is done in antiviral peptide prediction...
  15. Leikoski N, Liu L, Jokela J, Wahlsten M, Gugger M, Calteau A, et al. Genome mining expands the chemical diversity of the cyanobactin family to include highly modified linear peptides. Chem Biol. 2013;20:1033-43 pubmed publisher
    Ribosomal peptides are produced through the posttranslational modification of short precursor peptides. Cyanobactins are a growing family of cyclic ribosomal peptides produced by cyanobacteria...
  16. Gross S, Wilms D, Krause J, Brezesinski G, Andrä J. Design of NK-2-derived peptides with improved activity against equine sarcoid cells. J Pept Sci. 2013;19:619-28 pubmed publisher
    Equine sarcoid is a topically accessible model for the evaluation of anticancer peptides acting by physical membrane disruption avoiding the complexity of a systemic application...
  17. Egecioglu E, ENGEL J, Jerlhag E. The glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, exendin-4, attenuates the rewarding properties of psychostimulant drugs in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69010 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that GLP-1 analogues, such as exenatide and liraglutide, are clinically available for treatment of type II diabetes, we propose that these should be elucidated as treatments of drug dependence. ..
  18. Arribat Y, Bonneaud N, Talmat Amar Y, Layalle S, Parmentier M, Maschat F. A huntingtin peptide inhibits polyQ-huntingtin associated defects. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68775 pubmed publisher
    ..Although this mutation behaves dominantly, huntingtin loss of function also contributes to HD pathogenesis. Indeed, wild-type Huntingtin plays a protective role with respect to polyQ-hHtt induced defects...
  19. Trinh T, Xiao Q, Pei D. Profiling the substrate specificity of protein kinases by on-bead screening of peptide libraries. Biochemistry. 2013;52:5645-55 pubmed publisher
  20. Scognamiglio V, Stano P, Polticelli F, Antonacci A, Lambreva M, Pochetti G, et al. Design and biophysical characterization of atrazine-sensing peptides mimicking the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastoquinone binding niche. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013;15:13108-15 pubmed publisher, the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii D1 primary structure was used as a template to computationally design novel peptides enabling the binding of the herbicide atrazine...
  21. Singh S, Papareddy P, Kalle M, Schmidtchen A, Malmsten M. Importance of lipopolysaccharide aggregate disruption for the anti-endotoxic effects of heparin cofactor II peptides. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1828:2709-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipid membrane and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) interactions were investigated for a series of amphiphilic and cationic peptides derived from human heparin cofactor II (HCII), using dual polarization interferometry, ellipsometry, circular ..
  22. Harper M, Londoño J, Quick K, Londoño J, Flockerzi V, Philipp S, et al. Transient receptor potential channels function as a coincidence signal detector mediating phosphatidylserine exposure. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra50 pubmed publisher
  23. Lapsongphon N, Yongsawatdigul J. Production and purification of antioxidant peptides from a mungbean meal hydrolysate by Virgibacillus sp. SK37 proteinase. Food Chem. 2013;141:992-9 pubmed publisher
    Antioxidant peptides of mungbean meal hydrolysed by Virgibacillus sp. SK37 proteinases (VH), Alcalase (AH) and Neutrase (NH) were investigated...