Summary: The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.

Top Publications

  1. Vendeix F, Dziergowska A, Gustilo E, Graham W, Sproat B, Malkiewicz A, et al. Anticodon domain modifications contribute order to tRNA for ribosome-mediated codon binding. Biochemistry. 2008;47:6117-29 pubmed publisher
    ..tRNA decodes genomic information into proteins require posttranscriptional modifications in or adjacent to the anticodon. The modification uridine-5-oxyacetic acid (cmo (5)U 34) is found at wobble position 34 in a single isoaccepting ..
  2. Lee J, Hendrickson T. Divergent anticodon recognition in contrasting glutamyl-tRNA synthetases. J Mol Biol. 2004;344:1167-74 pubmed
    ..One key feature that distinguishes tRNA(Glu) from tRNA(Gln) is the third position in the anticodon of each tRNA (C36 versus G36, respectively)...
  3. Olejniczak M, Dale T, Fahlman R, Uhlenbeck O. Idiosyncratic tuning of tRNAs to achieve uniform ribosome binding. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:788-93 pubmed
    ..We propose that this negative binding determinant is used to offset the very tight codon-anticodon interaction of tRNA(2)(Ala)...
  4. Sørensen M, Elf J, Bouakaz E, Tenson T, Sanyal S, Bjork G, et al. Over expression of a tRNA(Leu) isoacceptor changes charging pattern of leucine tRNAs and reveals new codon reading. J Mol Biol. 2005;354:16-24 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, we demonstrated that the tRNA(GAG)(Leu) codon CUU is, in fact, read also by tRNA(UAG)(Leu), due to a uridine-5-oxyacetic acid modification. ..
  5. Perry J, Dai X, Zhao Y. A mutation in the anticodon of a single tRNAala is sufficient to confer auxin resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:1284-90 pubmed
    ..were not caused by a mutation in an AUX/IAA gene, but rather a mutation in a tRNA(ala) gene in which the anticodon was found changed from CGC to CAC...
  6. Lee S, Collins K. Starvation-induced cleavage of the tRNA anticodon loop in Tetrahymena thermophila. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42744-9 pubmed
    ..previously unidentified response to amino acid deprivation in which mature transfer RNA (tRNA) is cleaved in the anticodon loop. We observed that anticodon loop cleavage affects a small fraction of most or all tRNA sequences...
  7. Jackman J, Phizicky E. tRNAHis guanylyltransferase adds G-1 to the 5' end of tRNAHis by recognition of the anticodon, one of several features unexpectedly shared with tRNA synthetases. RNA. 2006;12:1007-14 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that the GUG anticodon of tRNA(His) is a crucial Thg1 identity element, since alteration of this anticodon in tRNA(His) completely ..
  8. Olejniczak M, Uhlenbeck O. tRNA residues that have coevolved with their anticodon to ensure uniform and accurate codon recognition. Biochimie. 2006;88:943-50 pubmed
    The structure, phylogeny and in vivo function of the base pair formed between nucleotides 32 and 38 of the tRNA anticodon loop are reviewed...
  9. James P, Cader M, Muntoni F, Childs A, Crow Y, Talbot K. Severe childhood SMA and axonal CMT due to anticodon binding domain mutations in the GARS gene. Neurology. 2006;67:1710-2 pubmed
    ..One mutation was in the anticodon binding domain and associated with onset in early childhood and predominant involvement of the lower limbs, thus ..

More Information


  1. Mucha P, Szyk A, Rekowski P, Weiss P, Agris P. Anticodon domain methylated nucleosides of yeast tRNA(Phe) are significant recognition determinants in the binding of a phage display selected peptide. Biochemistry. 2001;40:14191-9 pubmed
    ..from a random phage display library using the criterion of binding to a modified, rather than unmodified, anticodon domain of yeast tRNA(Phe) (ASL(Phe))...
  2. Wills N, O Connor M, Nelson C, Rettberg C, Huang W, Gesteland R, et al. Translational bypassing without peptidyl-tRNA anticodon scanning of coding gap mRNA. EMBO J. 2008;27:2533-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The pairing of codon 46 with its cognate peptidyl-tRNA anticodon dissociates, and following mRNA slippage, peptidyl-tRNA re-pairs to mRNA at a matched triplet 5' adjacent to ..
  3. Atkins J, Bjork G. A gripping tale of ribosomal frameshifting: extragenic suppressors of frameshift mutations spotlight P-site realignment. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2009;73:178-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Though the first sequenced tRNA mutant which suppressed a +1 frameshift mutation had an extra base in its anticodon loop and led to a textbook "yardstick" model in which the number of anticodon bases determines codon ..
  4. Goto Ito S, Ito T, Kuratani M, Bessho Y, Yokoyama S. Tertiary structure checkpoint at anticodon loop modification in tRNA functional maturation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:1109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The N1-methylguanosine at position 37 (m1G37), 3' adjacent to the anticodon, is essential for translational fidelity and efficiency...
  5. Seligmann H. Mitochondrial tRNAs as light strand replication origins: similarity between anticodon loops and the loop of the light strand replication origin predicts initiation of DNA replication. Biosystems. 2010;99:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the polymerase site recognizing the OL loop could recognize tRNA anticodon loops and sequence similarity between anticodon and OL loops should predict initiation of DNA replication at ..
  6. Allnér O, Nilsson L. Nucleotide modifications and tRNA anticodon-mRNA codon interactions on the ribosome. RNA. 2011;17:2177-88 pubmed publisher
    We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of the tRNA anticodon and mRNA codon, inside the ribosome, to study the effect of the common tRNA modifications cmo(5)U34 and m(6)A37...
  7. Ling J, Peterson K, Simonovic I, Cho C, Soll D, Simonovic M. Yeast mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase recognizes tRNA isoacceptors by distinct mechanisms and promotes CUN codon reassignment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3281-6 pubmed publisher
    ..ensure faithful translation of mRNA into protein by coupling an amino acid to a set of tRNAs with conserved anticodon sequences...
  8. Guy M, Podyma B, Preston M, Shaheen H, Krivos K, Limbach P, et al. Yeast Trm7 interacts with distinct proteins for critical modifications of the tRNAPhe anticodon loop. RNA. 2012;18:1921-33 pubmed publisher
    Post-transcriptional modification of the tRNA anticodon loop is critical for translation...
  9. Suzuki T, Suzuki T, Wada T, Saigo K, Watanabe K. Taurine as a constituent of mitochondrial tRNAs: new insights into the functions of taurine and human mitochondrial diseases. EMBO J. 2002;21:6581-9 pubmed
  10. Marquez V, Wilson D, Tate W, Triana Alonso F, Nierhaus K. Maintaining the ribosomal reading frame: the influence of the E site during translational regulation of release factor 2. Cell. 2004;118:45-55 pubmed
    ..Consistently, in a minimal system, the presence of the E site tRNA prevents the +1 frameshift event, illustrating the importance of the E site for reading-frame maintenance. ..
  11. Ogle J, Murphy F, Tarry M, Ramakrishnan V. Selection of tRNA by the ribosome requires a transition from an open to a closed form. Cell. 2002;111:721-32 pubmed
    ..Here, we report crystal structures of the 30S ribosomal subunit with codon and near-cognate tRNA anticodon stem loops bound at the decoding center and compare affinities of equivalent complexes in solution...
  12. Sherrer R, Araiso Y, Aldag C, Ishitani R, Ho J, Soll D, et al. C-terminal domain of archaeal O-phosphoseryl-tRNA kinase displays large-scale motion to bind the 7-bp D-stem of archaeal tRNA(Sec). Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:1034-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents the crystal structure (at 2.4-Å resolution) of MjPSTK complexed with an anticodon-stem/loop truncated tRNA(Sec) (Mj*tRNA(Sec)), a good enzyme substrate...
  13. Takemoto C, Spremulli L, Benkowski L, Ueda T, Yokogawa T, Watanabe K. Unconventional decoding of the AUA codon as methionine by mitochondrial tRNAMet with the anticodon f5CAU as revealed with a mitochondrial in vitro translation system. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:1616-27 pubmed publisher tRNA(Met) has the unusual modified nucleotide 5-formylcytidine (f(5)C) in the first position of the anticodon. This tRNA must translate both AUG and AUA as methionine...
  14. Murphy F, Ramakrishnan V, Malkiewicz A, Agris P. The role of modifications in codon discrimination by tRNA(Lys)UUU. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:1186-91 pubmed
    ..requires the modification N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine at position 37 (t(6)A37), adjacent and 3' to the anticodon, to bind AAA in the A site of the ribosomal 30S subunit...
  15. Tsuchiya W, Hasegawa T. Molecular recognition of tryptophan tRNA by tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase from Aeropyrum pernix K1. J Biochem. 2009;145:635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Changing the G1-C72 base pair to other base pairs also decreased the aminoacylation activity. Substitutions of anticodon CCA revealed that the C34 and C35 mutants dramatically reduced aminoacylation with tryptophan, but the A36 ..
  16. Gustilo E, Dubois D, Lapointe J, Agris P. E. coli glutamyl-tRNA synthetase is inhibited by anticodon stem-loop domains and a minihelix. RNA Biol. 2007;4:85-92 pubmed
    ..ERS recognizes the 2-thionyl group of 2-thio-5-methylaminomethyluridine (mnm(5)s(2)U(34)) in the first or wobble anticodon position of E. coli tRNA(Glu)...
  17. Lecointe F, Namy O, Hatin I, Simos G, Rousset J, Grosjean H. Lack of pseudouridine 38/39 in the anticodon arm of yeast cytoplasmic tRNA decreases in vivo recoding efficiency. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:30445-53 pubmed
    Many different modified nucleotides are found in naturally occurring tRNA, especially in the anticodon region. Their importance for the efficiency of the translational process begins to be well documented...
  18. Rodin A, Rodin S, Carter C. On primordial sense-antisense coding. J Mol Evol. 2009;69:555-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Mol Biol Evol 26:445-450, 2009), this could indeed be a "Rosetta stone" gene (Carter and Duax, Mol Cell 10:705-708, 2002) (eroded somewhat, though) for the SAS origin of the two aaRS classes...
  19. Yamada Y, Matsugi J, Ishikura H. tRNA1Ser(G34) with the anticodon GGA can recognize not only UCC and UCU codons but also UCA and UCG codons. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1626:75-82 pubmed
    The tRNA1Ser (anticodon VGA, V=uridin-5-oxyacetic acid) is essential for translation of the UCA codon in Escherichia coli...
  20. Delage L, Duchene A, Zaepfel M, Maréchal Drouard L. The anticodon and the D-domain sequences are essential determinants for plant cytosolic tRNA(Val) import into mitochondria. Plant J. 2003;34:623-33 pubmed
    ..The nucleotide replacements introduced in this naturally imported tRNA correspond to the anticodon and/or D-domain of the non-imported cytosolic tRNA(Met-e)...
  21. Cabello Villegas J, Nikonowicz E. Solution structure of psi32-modified anticodon stem-loop of Escherichia coli tRNAPhe. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:6961-71 pubmed
    ..The unmodified anticodon stem-loop from Escherichia coli tRNA(Phe) forms a trinucleotide loop in solution, but Mg2+ and dimethylallyl ..
  22. Fahlman R, Olejniczak M, Uhlenbeck O. Quantitative analysis of deoxynucleotide substitutions in the codon-anticodon helix. J Mol Biol. 2006;355:887-92 pubmed
    The role of 2' hydroxyl groups in the codon-anticodon helix was evaluated by introducing single deoxynucleotides into each of the six positions in the helix and measuring the affinity of tRNA to either the A site or the P site of ..
  23. McGarry K, Walker S, Wang H, Fredrick K. Destabilization of the P site codon-anticodon helix results from movement of tRNA into the P/E hybrid state within the ribosome. Mol Cell. 2005;20:613-22 pubmed
    ..The effects of G2252U are suppressed by C2394A, further implicating the P/E state in mRNA destabilization. This work uncovers a functional attribute of the P/E state crucial for understanding translation. ..
  24. Dupuy L, Kelly N, Elgavish T, Harvey S, Morrow C. Probing the importance of tRNA anticodon: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA genome complementarity with an HIV-1 that selects tRNA(Glu) for replication. J Virol. 2003;77:8756-64 pubmed
    ..New HIV-1 mutants with nucleotides in U5 complementary to the anticodon of tRNA(Glu) remained stable when grown in SupT1 cells or PBMCs, although the mutants grew more slowly than the ..
  25. Chang A, Nikonowicz E. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of the anticodon arms of proteinogenic and nonproteinogenic tRNA(Gly). Biochemistry. 2012;51:3662-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In bacteria, glycyl-tRNA molecules with anticodon sequences GCC and UCC exhibit multiple extratranslational functions, including transcriptional regulation and ..
  26. Qian J, Song J, Gao H, Zhu Y, Xu J, Pang X, et al. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57607 pubmed publisher
    ..The complete cp genome sequence of Salvia miltiorrhiza reported in this paper will facilitate population, phylogenetic and cp genetic engineering studies of this medicinal plant...
  27. Zinshteyn B, Gilbert W. Loss of a conserved tRNA anticodon modification perturbs cellular signaling. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003675 pubmed publisher
    ..The anticodon modification mcm(5)s(2)U(34) is required for normal growth and stress resistance in yeast; mutants lacking this ..
  28. Carullo M, Xia X. An extensive study of mutation and selection on the wobble nucleotide in tRNA anticodons in fungal mitochondrial genomes. J Mol Evol. 2008;66:484-93 pubmed publisher
    Two alternative hypotheses aim to predict the wobble nucleotide of tRNA anticodons in mitochondrion. The codon-anticodon adaptation hypothesis predicts that the wobble nucleotide of tRNA anticodon should evolve toward maximizing the ..
  29. Kapoor S, Das G, Varshney U. Crucial contribution of the multiple copies of the initiator tRNA genes in the fidelity of tRNA(fMet) selection on the ribosomal P-site in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:202-12 pubmed publisher
    ..A highly conserved occurrence of three consecutive G-C base pairs in the anticodon stem of tRNA(fMet) contributes to its preferential selection in the P-site...
  30. Phelps S, Jerinic O, Joseph S. Universally conserved interactions between the ribosome and the anticodon stem-loop of A site tRNA important for translocation. Mol Cell. 2002;10:799-807 pubmed
    ..We used synthetic anticodon stem-loop analogs (ASL) of tRNA(Phe) to systematically identify ribose 2'-hydroxyl groups that are essential for ..
  31. Lamichhane T, Blewett N, Maraia R. Plasticity and diversity of tRNA anticodon determinants of substrate recognition by eukaryotic A37 isopentenyltransferases. RNA. 2011;17:1846-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This study illustrates previously unappreciated molecular plasticity and biological diversity of the tRNA-isopentenyltransferase system of eukaryotes...
  32. Chimnaronk S, Forouhar F, Sakai J, Yao M, Tron C, Atta M, et al. Snapshots of dynamics in synthesizing N(6)-isopentenyladenosine at the tRNA anticodon. Biochemistry. 2009;48:5057-65 pubmed publisher
    ..with uridine have a hydrophobically hypermodified adenosine at position 37 (A(37)) adjacent to the 3'-end of the anticodon, which is essential for efficient and highly accurate protein translation by the ribosome...
  33. Schäfer M, Tastan A, Patzke S, Blaha G, Spahn C, Wilson D, et al. Codon-anticodon interaction at the P site is a prerequisite for tRNA interaction with the small ribosomal subunit. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19095-105 pubmed
    ..70 S ribosomes contacts predominantly the 50 S, as opposed to the 30 S subunit, indicating that codon-anticodon interaction at the P site is a prerequisite for 30 S binding...
  34. Hohsaka T, Ashizuka Y, Taira H, Murakami H, Sisido M. Incorporation of nonnatural amino acids into proteins by using various four-base codons in an Escherichia coli in vitro translation system. Biochemistry. 2001;40:11060-4 pubmed
    ..This work shows that the four-base codon strategy is more advantageous than the amber suppression strategy in efficiency and versatility. ..
  35. Lehmann J, Libchaber A. Degeneracy of the genetic code and stability of the base pair at the second position of the anticodon. RNA. 2008;14:1264-9 pubmed publisher
    With an analysis of the structural constraints of the anticodon-codon interaction within the decoding center of the ribosome, we show that the extent of degeneracy at the third position of the anticodon is determined by the level of ..
  36. Watts J, Gabruzsk J, Holmes W. Ligand-mediated anticodon conformational changes occur during tRNA methylation by a TrmD methyltransferase. Biochemistry. 2005;44:6629-39 pubmed
    ..Cleavage patterns clearly show that portions of the anticodon loop phosphodiester backbone are protected from cleavage only in the presence of sinefungin, a potent AdoMet ..
  37. Costantino D, Pfingsten J, Rambo R, Kieft J. tRNA-mRNA mimicry drives translation initiation from a viral IRES. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:57-64 pubmed
    ..We find that this RNA domain precisely mimics the transfer RNA anticodon-messenger RNA codon interaction, and its modeled orientation on the ribosome helps explain translocation without ..
  38. Blaise M, Becker H, Lapointe J, Cambillau C, Giege R, Kern D. Glu-Q-tRNA(Asp) synthetase coded by the yadB gene, a new paralog of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that glutamylates tRNA(Asp) anticodon. Biochimie. 2005;87:847-61 pubmed
    ..important similarities with the catalytic domain of glutamyl-tRNA synthetases but deprived of the C-terminal anticodon-binding domain...
  39. Bilokapic S, Korencic D, S ll D, Weygand Durasevic I. The unusual methanogenic seryl-tRNA synthetase recognizes tRNASer species from all three kingdoms of life. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:694-702 pubmed
    ..Dimerization is facilitated by increased tRNA concentration and can be diminished by fast renaturation in the presence of 5 mm magnesium chloride...
  40. Selmer M, Dunham C, Murphy F, Weixlbaumer A, Petry S, Kelley A, et al. Structure of the 70S ribosome complexed with mRNA and tRNA. Science. 2006;313:1935-42 pubmed
    ..The interactions of E-site tRNA with the 50S subunit have both similarities and differences compared to those in the archaeal ribosome. The structure also rationalizes much biochemical and genetic data on translation. ..
  41. Bucklin D, Wills N, Gesteland R, Atkins J. P-site pairing subtleties revealed by the effects of different tRNAs on programmed translational bypassing where anticodon re-pairing to mRNA is separated from dissociation. J Mol Biol. 2005;345:39-49 pubmed
    ..The wild-type, GGA, matched codons are the most efficient in their gene 60 context in contrast to the relatively low value in the non-programmed bypassing study. ..
  42. Blaise M, Olieric V, Sauter C, Lorber B, Roy B, Karmakar S, et al. Crystal structure of glutamyl-queuosine tRNAAsp synthetase complexed with L-glutamate: structural elements mediating tRNA-independent activation of glutamate and glutamylation of tRNAAsp anticodon. J Mol Biol. 2008;381:1224-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Glu to the 3' accepting end of the cognate tRNA(Glu), Glu-Q-RS transfers the activated Glu to Q34 located in the anticodon loop of the noncognate tRNA(Asp)...
  43. Lu J, Huang B, Esberg A, Johansson M, Byström A. The Kluyveromyces lactis gamma-toxin targets tRNA anticodons. RNA. 2005;11:1648-54 pubmed
    ..The K. lactis gamma-toxin is the first eukaryotic toxin shown to target tRNA. ..
  44. Larkin D, Williams A, Martinis S, Fox G. Identification of essential domains for Escherichia coli tRNA(leu) aminoacylation and amino acid editing using minimalist RNA molecules. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:2103-13 pubmed
    ..Each has a distinct anticodon and varied nucleotides in other regions of the tRNA...
  45. Takai K, Yokoyama S. Roles of 5-substituents of tRNA wobble uridines in the recognition of purine-ending codons. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6383-91 pubmed
    ..The hypothesis also addresses differences between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic decoding systems. ..
  46. Lescrinier E, Nauwelaerts K, Zanier K, Poesen K, Sattler M, Herdewijn P. The naturally occurring N6-threonyl adenine in anticodon loop of Schizosaccharomyces pombe tRNAi causes formation of a unique U-turn motif. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:2878-86 pubmed
    ..We have determined the solution structure of the anticodon stem-loop (ASL) of initiator tRNA of Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
  47. Numata T, Ikeuchi Y, Fukai S, Suzuki T, Nureki O. Snapshots of tRNA sulphuration via an adenylated intermediate. Nature. 2006;442:419-24 pubmed
    Uridine at the first anticodon position (U34) of glutamate, lysine and glutamine transfer RNAs is universally modified by thiouridylase into 2-thiouridine (s2U34), which is crucial for precise translation by restricting codon-anticodon ..
  48. Ran W, Higgs P. The influence of anticodon-codon interactions and modified bases on codon usage bias in bacteria. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:2129-40 pubmed publisher
    ..of synonymous codons are dependent on the concentrations of the tRNAs and on the rates of pairing of each anticodon-codon combination...
  49. Yarus M, Widmann J, Knight R. RNA-amino acid binding: a stereochemical era for the genetic code. J Mol Evol. 2009;69:406-29 pubmed publisher
    ..A Direct RNA Template scheme embodying a credible early history for coded peptide synthesis is readily constructed based on these observations. ..
  50. Sanbonmatsu K, Joseph S. Understanding discrimination by the ribosome: stability testing and groove measurement of codon-anticodon pairs. J Mol Biol. 2003;328:33-47 pubmed
    ..the kink in mRNA between A and P sites amplify differences in stability between cognate and near-cognate codon-anticodon pairs...
  51. Sanders C, Curran J. Genetic analysis of the E site during RF2 programmed frameshifting. RNA. 2007;13:1483-91 pubmed
    ..hypothesized that if the E-site codon must dissociate from its tRNA to allow for frameshifting, then weak codon:anticodon duplexes should allow for greater frameshifting than stronger duplexes...
  52. Bajji A, Sundaram M, Myszka D, Davis D. An RNA complex of the HIV-1 A-loop and tRNA(Lys,3) is stabilized by nucleoside modifications. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:14302-3 pubmed
    The HIV transcription initiation complex involves a putative interaction between the primer tRNA anticodon and a conserved A-rich loop in the HIV genome...
  53. Yao P, Zhu B, Jaeger S, Eriani G, Wang E. Recognition of tRNALeu by Aquifex aeolicus leucyl-tRNA synthetase during the aminoacylation and editing steps. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:2728-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Although dispensable for aminoacylation, the anticodon arm carries discrete editing determinants that are required for stabilizing the conformation of the post-..