heterogeneous nuclear rna


Summary: Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.

Top Publications

  1. Elferink C, Reiners J. Quantitative RT-PCR on CYP1A1 heterogeneous nuclear RNA: a surrogate for the in vitro transcription run-on assay. Biotechniques. 1996;20:470-7 pubmed
    ..transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to amplify a region of the CYP1A1 heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) transcript encompassing the first intron-exon boundary...
  2. Sugimoto K, Mori K, Uchida K, Kobayashi D, Itoi K. Quantitative analysis of thyroid-stimulating hormone messenger RNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA in hypothyroid rats. Brain Res Bull. 2007;74:142-6 pubmed
    ..Our method provides a rapid and accurate measure of gene transcription. In the present report, we described a technique for accurate measurement of TSHbeta hnRNA level. ..
  3. Yoshida T, Kokura K, Makino Y, Ossipow V, Tamura T. Heterogeneous nuclear RNA-ribonucleoprotein F binds to DNA via an oligo(dG)-motif and is associated with RNA polymerase II. Genes Cells. 1999;4:707-19 pubmed
    ..The DNA-binding ability of hnRNP-F might facilitate the entry of pre-mRNA modification/splicing factors at a promoter. ..
  4. Busslinger M, Moschonas N, Flavell R. Beta + thalassemia: aberrant splicing results from a single point mutation in an intron. Cell. 1981;27:289-98 pubmed
    ..This suggests that removal of the first intron might facilitate splicing of the second intron. ..
  5. Skelton K, Gutman D, Thrivikraman K, Nemeroff C, Owens M. The CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 attenuates the neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of precipitated lorazepam withdrawal. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;192:385-96 pubmed
    ..Therefore, CRF(1) receptor antagonists may be of therapeutic utility in the treatment of drug withdrawal syndromes. ..
  6. Datar K, Dreyfuss G, Swanson M. The human hnRNP M proteins: identification of a methionine/arginine-rich repeat motif in ribonucleoproteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:439-46 pubmed
    ..Proteins immunologically related to M exist in divergent eukaryotes ranging from human to yeast. ..
  7. Reim I, Mattow J, Saumweber H. The RRM protein NonA from Drosophila forms a complex with the RRM proteins Hrb87F and S5 and the Zn finger protein PEP on hnRNA. Exp Cell Res. 1999;253:573-86 pubmed
    ..Like NonA, X4/PEP, S5, and P11/Hrb87F are present on active sites on polytene chromosomes. The precipitated NonA complex is enriched for certain protein encoding RNAs, notably, histone H3 and H4 RNA. ..
  8. Pace T, Gaylord R, Jarvis E, Girotti M, Spencer R. Differential glucocorticoid effects on stress-induced gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and ACTH secretion in the rat. Stress. 2009;12:400-11 pubmed publisher
  9. Kurose T, Ueta Y, Nomura M, Yamaguchi K, Nagata S. Nociceptive stimulation increases NO synthase mRNA and vasopressin heteronuclearRNA in the rat paraventricular nucleus. Auton Neurosci. 2001;88:52-60 pubmed
    ..Plasma concentration of AVP was significantly increased 15 min after s.c. injection of formalin. These results suggest that NO in the PVN may be involved in nociceptive stimulation-induced neuroendocrine responses. ..

More Information


  1. Ginsberg A, Campeau S, Day H, Spencer R. Acute glucocorticoid pretreatment suppresses stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormone secretion and expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone hnRNA but does not affect c-fos mRNA or fos protein expression in the paraventricular . J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:1075-83 pubmed
  2. Barthelery M, Salli U, Vrana K. Nuclear proteomics and directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2007;16:905-19 pubmed
  3. Zemo D, McCabe J. Transcriptional responses of the rat vasopressin gene to acute and repeated acute osmotic stress. Neurosci Res. 2002;44:45-50 pubmed
    ..Since a second hyperosmotic stimulus is known to increase neuronal firing rate and activity, our results suggest that a correlation exists with intracellular mechanisms regulating vasopressin gene transcription. ..
  4. Xia S, Yang J, Su Y, Qian J, Ma E, Haddad G. Identification of new targets of Drosophila pre-mRNA adenosine deaminase. Physiol Genomics. 2005;20:195-202 pubmed
  5. Wiedmeyer C, Solter P, Hoffmann W. Alkaline phosphatase expression in tissues from glucocorticoid-treated dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2002;63:1083-8 pubmed
    ..chain reaction assay was designed to measure liver ALP (LALP) and intestinal ALP (IALP) mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) expression in tissues from the liver and kidneys and intestinal mucosa of glucocorticoid-treated ..
  6. Ustyugova S, Lebedev Y, Sverdlov E. Long L1 insertions in human gene introns specifically reduce the content of corresponding primary transcripts. Genetica. 2006;128:261-72 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that some Ta-L1 insertions correlated with decreased content of the corresponding hnRNAs. This effect was characteristic of only nearly full-sized L1s and seemed to be tissue specific. ..
  7. Griswold M, Kim J, Tribley W. Mechanisms involved in the homologous down-regulation of transcription of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene in Sertoli cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;173:95-107 pubmed
    ..This experiment coupled with other observations suggested that the down-regulation may be mediated by changes in chromatin structure. ..
  8. Ostrowski J, Kawata Y, Schullery D, Denisenko O, Higaki Y, Abrass C, et al. Insulin alters heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein binding to DNA and RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:9044-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a class of insulin pathways that signal nucleic acid-directed processes that involve K protein. ..
  9. Black A, Luo J, Chun S, Bakker A, Fraser J, Rosenblatt J. Specific binding of polypyrimidine tract binding protein and hnRNP A1 to HIV-1 CRS elements. Virus Genes. 1996;12:275-85 pubmed
    ..Binding by both hnRNP I and hnRNP A1 to HIV-1 and HTLV-II CRS RNAs suggests a role for these proteins in CRS function that may be influenced by the Rev and Rex proteins, respectively. ..
  10. Yue C, Mutsuga N, Sugimura Y, Verbalis J, Gainer H. Differential kinetics of oxytocin and vasopressin heteronuclear RNA expression in the rat supraoptic nucleus in response to chronic salt loading in vivo. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:227-32 pubmed
  11. Scordalakes E, Yue C, Gainer H. Experimental approaches for the study of oxytocin and vasopressin gene expression in the central nervous system. Prog Brain Res. 2008;170:43-51 pubmed publisher
  12. Le Coniat M, Soulard M, Della Valle V, Larsen C, Berger R. Localization of the human gene encoding heterogeneous nuclear RNA ribonucleoprotein G (hnRNP-G) to chromosome 6p12. Hum Genet. 1992;88:593-5 pubmed
  13. Baraboi E, Smith P, Ferguson A, Richard D. Lesions of area postrema and subfornical organ alter exendin-4-induced brain activation without preventing the hypophagic effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R1098-110 pubmed publisher
  14. Karanth S, Lall S, Denovan Wright E, Wright J. Differential transcriptional modulation of duplicated fatty acid-binding protein genes by dietary fatty acids in zebrafish (Danio rerio): evidence for subfunctionalization or neofunctionalization of duplicated genes. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:219 pubmed publisher
    ..FA profiles and the steady-state levels of fabp mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA in intestine, liver, muscle and brain of zebrafish were determined...
  15. Mayrand S, Dwen P, Pederson T. Serine/threonine phosphorylation regulates binding of C hnRNP proteins to pre-mRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:7764-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the participation of C hnRNP proteins in pre-spliceosome assembly is coupled to a dynamic cycle of their phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. ..
  16. Olins A, Olins D, Olman V, Levy H, Bazett Jones D. Modeling the 3-D RNA distribution in the Balbiani ring granule. Chromosoma. 1994;103:302-10 pubmed
    ..by electron microscope tomography to examine the three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of BR heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). The BR2 granules contain ca. 37 kb of mRNA...
  17. Honore B, Rasmussen H, Vorum H, Dejgaard K, Liu X, Gromov P, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H, H', and F are members of a ubiquitously expressed subfamily of related but distinct proteins encoded by genes mapping to different chromosomes. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:28780-9 pubmed
    ..The genes coding for hnRNPs H, H', and F were chromosome-mapped to 5q35.3 (HNRPH1), 6q25.3-q26, and/or Xq22 (HNRPH2) and 10q11.21-q11.22 (HNRPF), respectively. ..
  18. Amara S, Jonas V, Rosenfeld M, Ong E, Evans R. Alternative RNA processing in calcitonin gene expression generates mRNAs encoding different polypeptide products. Nature. 1982;298:240-4 pubmed
    ..These observations lead us to propose a model in which developmental regulation of RNA processing is used to increase the diversity of neuroendocrine gene expression. ..
  19. Lone Y, Simon M, Kahn A, Marie J. Sequences complementary to the brain-specific "identifier" sequences exist in L-type pyruvate kinase mRNA (a liver-specific messenger) and in transcripts especially abundant in muscle. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:1499-502 pubmed
    ..J., Bloom, F. E., Lai, C., Lerner, R. A., and Sutcliffe, J. G. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 81, 713-717; Sutcliffe, J. G., Milner, R. J., Gottesfeld, J. M., and Reynolds, W. (1984) Science 225, 1308-1314). ..
  20. Wu H, Zhang X, Ling G, D Agostino J, Ding X. Mechanisms of differential expression of the CYP2A13 7520C and 7520G alleles in human lung: allelic expression analysis for CYP2A13 heterogeneous nuclear RNA, and evidence for the involvement of multiple cis-regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009;19:852-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The 7520C/G alleles were compared for mRNA stability in cells and relative heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) levels in human lungs...
  21. Arima H, House S, Gainer H, Aguilera G. Neuronal activity is required for the circadian rhythm of vasopressin gene transcription in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in vitro. Endocrinology. 2002;143:4165-71 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the MAPK pathway inhibitor, PD98059, profoundly decreased AVP transcription and abolished its daily rhythm. Hence, a functional MAPK signaling pathway appears to be critical for AVP gene expression in the SCN. ..
  22. Duan D, Yue Y, Yan Z, Engelhardt J. Trans-splicing vectors expand the packaging limits of adeno-associated virus for gene therapy applications. Methods Mol Med. 2003;76:287-307 pubmed
  23. Vallès A, Martí O, Armario A. Long-term effects of a single exposure to immobilization stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: transcriptional evidence for a progressive desensitization process. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:1353-61 pubmed
    ..Although the various components of the HPA axis were modified in the same direction, a clear temporal dissociation was found among them, revealing the fine tuning of stress-induced activation of the HPA axis. ..
  24. Ginsberg A, Frank M, Francis A, Rubin B, O Connor K, Spencer R. Specific and time-dependent effects of glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU28362 on stress-induced pro-opiomelanocortin hnRNA, c-fos mRNA and zif268 mRNA in the pituitary. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006;18:129-38 pubmed
    ..The delayed glucocorticoid effects evident 180 min after RU28362 treatment may include glucocorticoid actions in the brain and additional actions within the pituitary. ..
  25. Ananthakrishnan L, Szaro B. Transcriptional and translational dynamics of light neurofilament subunit RNAs during Xenopus laevis optic nerve regeneration. Brain Res. 2009;1250:27-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These increases are subsequently modulated post-transcriptionally to accommodate shifting demands at each phase of regeneration for NF heteropolymers of differing composition in regrowing axons. ..
  26. Freemantle S, Vaseva A, Ewings K, Bee T, Krizan K, Kelley M, et al. Repression of cyclin D1 as a target for germ cell tumors. Int J Oncol. 2007;30:333-40 pubmed
    ..This inhibited proliferation in RA and cisplatin sensitive and resistant EC cells. Taken together, these findings implicate cyclin D1 targeting agents for the treatment of GCTs. ..
  27. Tay N, Chan S, Ren E. Identification and cloning of a novel heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C-like protein that functions as a transcriptional activator of the hepatitis B virus enhancer II. J Virol. 1992;66:6841-8 pubmed
    ..Cloned E2BP expressed in human fibroblasts by transient transfection displayed EII binding and activating characteristics similar to those of native E2BP in hepatocytes. ..
  28. Corcos L, Marc N, Wein S, Fautrel A, Guillouzo A, Pineau T. Phenobarbital induces cytochrome P4501A2 hnRNA, mRNA and protein in the liver of C57BL/6J wild type and aryl hydrocarbon receptor knock-out mice. FEBS Lett. 1998;425:293-7 pubmed
    ..Using the DNA binding site for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a probe, gel retardation analyses showed that phenobarbital treatment induced protein binding, regardless of the presence of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. ..
  29. Leder A, Miller H, Hamer D, Seidman J, Norman B, Sullivan M, et al. Comparison of cloned mouse alpha- and beta-globin genes: conservation of intervening sequence locations and extragenic homology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978;75:6187-91 pubmed
    ..These homologous sequences are located on the 3'-flanking segments of both genes, about 1.5 kilobases from each. ..
  30. Wilk H, Schaefer K, Agris P, Boak A, Kovacs S. U1 SnRNP association with HnRNP involves an initial non-specific splice-site independent interaction of U1 SnRNP protein with HnRNA. Mol Cell Biochem. 1991;106:55-66 pubmed
    ..This complex may then be further stabilized by intron-specific interactions and hnRNP proteins, as well as by other snRNPs. ..
  31. Marker A, Colosia A, Tauler A, Solomon D, Cayre Y, Lange A, et al. Glucocorticoid regulation of hepatic 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:7000-4 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that glucocorticoids regulate the expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, at least in part, by modulating the transcription rate of the gene. ..
  32. Hamilton B, Nagy E, Malter J, Arrick B, Rigby W. Association of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 and C proteins with reiterated AUUUA sequences. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:8881-7 pubmed
    ..As such, they may play a role as trans-acting factors in the modulation of cytoplasmic mRNA turnover and translation, in addition to their previously characterized roles as pre-mRNA binding proteins involved in nuclear mRNA processing. ..
  33. Richard D, Rivest R, Naïmi N, Timofeeva E, Rivest S. Expression of corticotropin-releasing factor and its receptors in the brain of lean and obese Zucker rats. Endocrinology. 1996;137:4786-95 pubmed
  34. Abramovich C, Yakobson B, Chebath J, Revel M. A protein-arginine methyltransferase binds to the intracytoplasmic domain of the IFNAR1 chain in the type I interferon receptor. EMBO J. 1997;16:260-6 pubmed
    ..Among substrates methylated by PRMT1 are RNA-binding heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) which are involved in mRNA processing, splicing and transport into the cytoplasm. ..
  35. Wang J, Dong Z, Bell L. Sex-lethal interactions with protein and RNA. Roles of glycine-rich and RNA binding domains. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:22227-35 pubmed
    ..Finally, selection of the Sxl optimal binding site (SELEX) confirms the importance of U-runs in the Sxl binding site and suggests a second type of non-U-run target that may be associated with RNA secondary structure. ..
  36. Helmreich D, Itoi K, Lopez Figueroa M, Akil H, Watson S. Norepinephrine-induced CRH and AVP gene transcription within the hypothalamus: differential regulation by corticosterone. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2001;88:62-73 pubmed
  37. Chai N, Zhou H, Hernandez J, Najmabadi H, Bhasin S, Yen P. Structure and organization of the RBMY genes on the human Y chromosome: transposition and amplification of an ancestral autosomal hnRNPG gene. Genomics. 1998;49:283-9 pubmed
    ..We also found that most RBMY genes in interval 6 are arranged in tandem. The structure and organization of the Y-linked RBMY genes support the transposition-amplification hypothesis. ..
  38. Wang B, Williams H, Du J, Terrett J, Kenwrick S. Alternative splicing of human NrCAM in neural and nonneural tissues. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1998;10:287-95 pubmed
  39. Konstantinova I, Kulichkova V, Evteeva I, Mittenberg A, Volkova I, Ermolaeva J, et al. The specific endoribonuclease activity of small nuclear and cytoplasmic alpha-RNPs. FEBS Lett. 1999;462:407-10 pubmed
    ..Small alpha-RNP involvement in the coordinated control of stability of pre-messenger RNA and messenger RNA molecules is suggested. ..
  40. Slayton R, Deschenes S, Willing M. Nonsense mutations in the COL1A1 gene preferentially reduce nuclear levels of mRNA but not hnRNA in osteogenesis imperfecta type I cell strains. Matrix Biol. 2000;19:1-9 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that NMD targets mRNA rather than hnRNA for degradation, and that this occurs either during or after splicing but prior to cytoplasmic translation. ..
  41. Ostareck D, Ostareck Lederer A, Shatsky I, Hentze M. Lipoxygenase mRNA silencing in erythroid differentiation: The 3'UTR regulatory complex controls 60S ribosomal subunit joining. Cell. 2001;104:281-90 pubmed
    ..These findings identify the critical step at which LOX mRNA translation is controlled and reveal that 60S subunit joining can be specifically regulated. ..
  42. Kamma H, Satoh H, Matusi M, Wu W, Fujiwara M, Horiguchi H. Characterization of hnRNP A2 and B1 using monoclonal antibodies: intracellular distribution and metabolism through cell cycle. Immunol Lett. 2001;76:49-54 pubmed
    ..They are valuable reagents to clarify the clinical significance of A2/B1 in autoimmune diseases and cancers. ..
  43. Karssen A, Meijer O, Berry A, Sanjuan Piñol R, de Kloet E. Low doses of dexamethasone can produce a hypocorticosteroid state in the brain. Endocrinology. 2005;146:5587-95 pubmed
    ..The results support the concept that low doses of dex can create a hypocorticoid state in the brain. ..
  44. Eggert M, Michel J, Schneider S, Bornfleth H, Baniahmad A, Fackelmayer F, et al. The glucocorticoid receptor is associated with the RNA-binding nuclear matrix protein hnRNP U. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:28471-8 pubmed
    ..A possible functional role for this GR binding-protein in addition to its binding to the nuclear matrix, to RNA, and to scaffold attachment regions is discussed. ..
  45. Johnson R, Mitchell C, Giles W, Walters W, Zakar T. The control of prostaglandin endoperoxide H-Synthase-2 expression in the human chorion laeve at term. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2003;10:222-30 pubmed
    ..Endogenous factors drive PGHS-2 gene transcription in the chorion, and the stable PGHS-2 mRNA accumulates in the tissue at term. This accumulation has little or no impact on the timing of labor. ..
  46. Kovacs K, Foldes A, Sawchenko P. Glucocorticoid negative feedback selectively targets vasopressin transcription in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. J Neurosci. 2000;20:3843-52 pubmed
  47. Pettigrew C, Brown M. Pre-mRNA splicing aberrations and cancer. Front Biosci. 2008;13:1090-105 pubmed
    ..This review looks at some of the mechanisms that regulate splicing and how disruption of such mechanisms can contribute to cancer susceptibility and progression. ..
  48. Prasanth K, Rajendra T, Lal A, Lakhotia S. Omega speckles - a novel class of nuclear speckles containing hnRNPs associated with noncoding hsr-omega RNA in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 Pt 19:3485-97 pubmed
  49. Michelotti E, Michelotti G, Aronsohn A, Levens D. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K is a transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2350-60 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that hnRNP K binds to a specific cis element, interacts with the RNA polymerase II transcription machinery, and stimulates transcription and thus has all of the properties of a transcription factor. ..
  50. VanHoy R, Wise J. Molecular analysis of a novel schizosaccharomyces pombe gene containing two RNP consensus-sequence RNA-binding domains. Curr Genet. 1996;29:307-15 pubmed
    ..The lack of an observable phenotype in S. pombe cells lacking Rnp24p is consistent with this classification, since hnRNP proteins in higher cells include several distinct subfamilies with similar sequences and RNA-binding specificities. ..
  51. Li Y, Pak B, Higgins R, Lu S, Ben David Y. Contiguous arrangement of p45 NFE2, HnRNP A1, and HP1 alpha on mouse chromosome 15 and human chromosome 12: evidence for suppression of these genes due to retroviral integration within the Fli-2 locus. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2001;30:91-5 pubmed
    ..Contiguous arrangement of these three genes was also detected in man; this consequently localizes HP1alpha to human chromosome band 12q13. ..
  52. Patton J, Mayer S, Tempst P, Nadal Ginard B. Characterization and molecular cloning of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein: a component of a complex necessary for pre-mRNA splicing. Genes Dev. 1991;5:1237-51 pubmed
    ..Using a biochemical complementation assay, we have found that this protein, along with a 100-kD protein, exists as part of a large complex that is required to rescue splicing from depleted nuclear extracts. ..
  53. Kresse A, Million M, Saperas E, Tache Y. Colitis induces CRF expression in hypothalamic magnocellular neurons and blunts CRF gene response to stress in rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;281:G1203-13 pubmed
    ..These data show that colitis upregulates CRF gene synthesis in magnocellular hypothalamic neurons but dampens CRF gene transcription in the pPVN and plasma corticosterone responses to environmental acute stressors. ..