integrons

Summary

Summary: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.

Top Publications

  1. Cambray G, Guerout A, Mazel D. Integrons. Annu Rev Genet. 2010;44:141-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Integrons are genetic elements able to acquire and rearrange open reading frames (ORFs) embedded in gene cassette units and convert them to functional genes by ensuring their correct expression...
  2. Baharoglu Z, Bikard D, Mazel D. Conjugative DNA transfer induces the bacterial SOS response and promotes antibiotic resistance development through integron activation. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001165 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the importance of environments concentrating disparate bacterial communities as reactors for extensive genetic adaptation of bacteria. ..
  3. Ramirez M, Piñeiro S, Centron D. Novel insights about class 2 integrons from experimental and genomic epidemiology. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:699-706 pubmed publisher
    In order to contribute to the knowledge of the architecture and epidemiology of class 2 integrons, we performed a class 2 integron molecular survey in which we analyzed 726 isolates in two bacterial populations from environmental and ..
  4. Brolund A, Sundqvist M, Kahlmeter G, Grape M. Molecular characterisation of trimethoprim resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae during a two year intervention on trimethoprim use. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9233 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the distribution of dihydrofolate reductase (dfr)-genes and integrons in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the effect of the intervention on this distribution...
  5. Ma L, Zhang X, Cheng S, Zhang Z, Shi P, Liu B, et al. Occurrence, abundance and elimination of class 1 integrons in one municipal sewage treatment plant. Ecotoxicology. 2011;20:968-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Integrons are elements that encode a site-specific recombination system that recognizes and captures mobile gene cassettes and are closely related to multiple resistances of environmental microorganisms...
  6. Tada T, Miyoshi Akiyama T, Shimada K, Shimojima M, Kirikae T. novel 6'-n-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Iaj from a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa NCGM1588, including arbekacin. ..
  7. Cain A, Liu X, Djordjevic S, Hall R. Transposons related to Tn1696 in IncHI2 plasmids in multiply antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from Australian animals. Microb Drug Resist. 2010;16:197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..These integrons were located in the same position as In4 in Tn1696...
  8. Ma Y, Wilson C, Novak J, Riffat R, Aynur S, Murthy S, et al. Effect of various sludge digestion conditions on sulfonamide, macrolide, and tetracycline resistance genes and class I integrons. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:7855-61 pubmed publisher
  9. Zong Z, Partridge S, Iredell J. ISEcp1-mediated transposition and homologous recombination can explain the context of bla(CTX-M-62) linked to qnrB2. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:3039-42 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications62

  1. Gestal A, Liew E, Coleman N. Natural transformation with synthetic gene cassettes: new tools for integron research and biotechnology. Microbiology. 2011;157:3349-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Integrons are genetic elements that can capture and express genes packaged as gene cassettes. Here we report new methods that allow integrons to be studied and manipulated in their native bacterial hosts...
  2. Moura A, Jové T, Ploy M, Henriques I, Correia A. Diversity of gene cassette promoters in class 1 integrons from wastewater environments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:5413-6 pubmed publisher
    The diversity of gene cassette promoters in class 1 integrons was investigated in 47 strains isolated from wastewaters...
  3. Kitaoka M, Miyata S, Unterweger D, Pukatzki S. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Vibrio cholerae. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:397-407 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanisms, including efflux pumps, spontaneous chromosomal mutation, conjugative plasmids, SXT elements and integrons, are also discussed. Numerous multidrug-resistant strains of V...
  4. Lin M, Chang K, Yang C, Yang C, Xiao C, Kuo H, et al. Role of integrons in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2010;63:440-3 pubmed
    The relationship between the presence and types of integrons and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii was investigated. A total of 134 non-duplicated A. baumannii isolates, 54...
  5. Jouini A, Ben Slama K, Vinué L, Ruiz E, Saenz Y, Somalo S, et al. Detection of unrelated Escherichia coli strains harboring genes of CTX-M-15, OXA-1, and AAC(6')-Ib-cr enzymes in a Tunisian hospital and characterization of their integrons and virulence factors. J Chemother. 2010;22:318-23 pubmed
    ..coli strains in the studied hospital, that is frequently found together with aac(6')- Ib-cr, and aac(3)-II genes. The detection of the clone O25b-St131 in a bla(CTX-M-)?? strain corroborates its worldwide dissemination. ..
  6. Caleja C, de Toro M, Gonçalves A, Themudo P, Vieira Pinto M, Monteiro D, et al. Antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons in Salmonella enterica isolates from wild boars and Bísaro pigs. Int Microbiol. 2011;14:19-24 pubmed
    ..The intI1 gene was identified in 72.5% of S. enterica isolates in which the conserved region 3' of class 1 integrons (qacE?1+sul1) was also amplified, whereas none had the intI2 gene...
  7. Soufi L, Sáenz Y, Vinué L, Abbassi M, Ruiz E, Zarazaga M, et al. Escherichia coli of poultry food origin as reservoir of sulphonamide resistance genes and integrons. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011;144:497-502 pubmed publisher
    ..The antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype, the flanking regions of sulphonamide resistance genes and the integrons were analyzed in 166 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from poultry meat in Tunisia...
  8. Douard G, Praud K, Cloeckaert A, Doublet B. The Salmonella genomic island 1 is specifically mobilized in trans by the IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid family. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15302 pubmed publisher
    ..Salmonella enterica-derived integrative mobilizable element (IME) containing various complex multiple resistance integrons identified in several S. enterica serovars and in Proteus mirabilis...
  9. Hussein A, Ahmed A, Sato M, Shimamoto T. Characterization of integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes in clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria from Palestinian hospitals. Microbiol Immunol. 2009;53:595-602 pubmed publisher
    ..3%) isolates showed multidrug resistance phenotypes. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to characterize integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes. PCR screening showed that 19 (31.7%) and five (8...
  10. Wannaprasat W, Padungtod P, Chuanchuen R. Class 1 integrons and virulence genes in Salmonella enterica isolates from pork and humans. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011;37:457-61 pubmed publisher
    In this study, 183 Salmonella enterica isolates were characterised for integrons and virulence genes. Among the isolates, 46% were positive for intI1, but no isolates carried intI2 or intI3...
  11. Mokracka J, Koczura R, Pawlowski K, Kaznowski A. Resistance patterns and integron cassette arrays of Enterobacter cloacae complex strains of human origin. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:737-43 pubmed publisher
    ..was to analyse the resistance patterns and characterize the distribution and genetic content of resistance integrons within Enterobacter cloacae complex strains originating from hospitalized patients...
  12. Meng H, Zhang Z, Chen M, Su Y, Li L, Miyoshi S, et al. Characterization and horizontal transfer of class 1 integrons in Salmonella strains isolated from food products of animal origin. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011;149:274-7 pubmed publisher
    ..meats and seafood in Hebei province, China, were assayed for the presence of and horizontal transfer of class 1 integrons. By the PCR screening for the integrons, class 1 integron was detected from strains in serotypes of Derby, ..
  13. Zhao W, Hu Z. IMP-type metallo-?-lactamases in Gram-negative bacilli: distribution, phylogeny, and association with integrons. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2011;37:214-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of bla(IMP) genes are harbored by class 1 integrons that are usually embedded in transposons and/or plasmids, footnoting their horizontal transfer and worldwide ..
  14. Betteridge T, Partridge S, Iredell J, Stokes H. Genetic context and structural diversity of class 1 integrons from human commensal bacteria in a hospital intensive care unit. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:3939-43 pubmed publisher
    Most surveys for class 1 integrons are at least partly predicated on PCR screening that targets integron conserved regions...
  15. Sung J, Kwon K, Cho H, Koo S. Antimicrobial resistance determinants in imipenem-nonsusceptible Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex isolated in Daejeon, Korea. Korean J Lab Med. 2011;31:265-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the integrons and various genes involved in resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones in 56 imipenem-..
  16. Shen Y, Qian H, Gong J, Deng F, Dong C, Zhou L, et al. High prevalence of antibiotic resistance and molecular characterization of integrons among Shigella isolates in Eastern China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:1549-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Susceptibilities to antimicrobials and integrons were tested. A total of 78.3% of S. flexneri isolates and a total of 74.3% S...
  17. Xia R, Ren Y, Guo X, Xu H. Molecular diversity of class 2 integrons in antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria found in wastewater environments in China. Ecotoxicology. 2013;22:402-14 pubmed publisher
    The molecular architecture of class 2 integrons among gram-negative bacteria from wastewater environments was investigated in Jinan, China...
  18. Vo A, van Duijkeren E, Gaastra W, Fluit A. Antimicrobial resistance, class 1 integrons, and genomic island 1 in Salmonella isolates from Vietnam. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9440 pubmed publisher
    ..The isolates were screened for the presence of class 1 integrons and Salmonella genomic island 1 by PCR...
  19. Holzel C, Harms K, Bauer J, Bauer Unkauf I, Hörmansdorfer S, Kämpf P, et al. Diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes and class-1-integrons in phylogenetically related porcine and human Escherichia coli. Vet Microbiol. 2012;160:403-12 pubmed publisher
    ..gene profiles (tetA/tetB/tetC/tetD/tetM/sulI/sulII/sulIII/strA-strB/addA) and the prevalence of class-1-integrons in isolates of identical and different phylogroups by endpoint-PCR...
  20. Shaheen B, Oyarzabal O, Boothe D. The role of class 1 and 2 integrons in mediating antimicrobial resistance among canine and feline clinical E. coli isolates from the US. Vet Microbiol. 2010;144:363-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Integrons are mobile genetic elements that incorporate an open reading frame or gene cassettes. They have an important role in the acquisition and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes...
  21. Sandalli C, Buruk C, Sancaktar M, Ozgumus O. Prevalence of integrons and a new dfrA17 variant in Gram-negative bacilli which cause community-acquired infections. Microbiol Immunol. 2010;54:164-9 pubmed publisher
    ..infections were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, screened for class 1 and 2 integrons, and statistically evaluated for the association between antibiotic profile and the presence of integrons...
  22. Labbate M, Boucher Y, Chowdhury P, Stokes H. Integration of a laterally acquired gene into a cell network important for growth in a strain of Vibrio rotiferianus. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:253 pubmed publisher
    ..One system that contributes to this latter step by site-specific recombination is the integron. Integrons are found in many diverse bacterial Genera and is a genetic system ubiquitous in vibrios that captures mobile ..
  23. Kim S, Kim S, Kim J, Shin J, Lee B, Park M. Occurrence and distribution of various genetic structures of class 1 and class 2 integrons in Salmonella enterica isolates from foodborne disease patients in Korea for 16 years. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011;8:319-24 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated the distribution of integrons among 752 multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates from human febrile and/or diarrheal patients during 1992-2007 and analyzed their genetic characteristics...
  24. Wu K, Wang F, Sun J, Wang Q, Chen Q, Yu S, et al. Class 1 integron gene cassettes in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in southern China. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2012;40:264-7 pubmed publisher
    ..bacteria (n=1447) isolated from January 2008 to December 2009 were investigated for the presence of integrons as well as characterisation of gene cassettes...
  25. Baharoglu Z, Krin E, Mazel D. Connecting environment and genome plasticity in the characterization of transformation-induced SOS regulation and carbon catabolite control of the Vibrio cholerae integron integrase. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:1659-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data suggest an interplay between different stress responses and regulatory pathways for the modulation of the recombinase expression, thus showing how the SI remodeling mechanism is merged into bacterial physiology...
  26. Guerin E, Jové T, Tabesse A, Mazel D, Ploy M. High-level gene cassette transcription prevents integrase expression in class 1 integrons. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:5675-82 pubmed publisher
    Class 1 integrons are widespread genetic elements responsible for dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria...
  27. Moura A, Pereira C, Henriques I, Correia A. Novel gene cassettes and integrons in antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from urban wastewaters. Res Microbiol. 2012;163:92-100 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the occurrence and diversity of integrons were evaluated in 697 isolates belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp. isolated from urban wastewaters...
  28. Firoozeh F, Zahraei Salehi T, Shahcheraghi F, Karimi V, Aslani M. Characterization of class I integrons among Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from humans and poultry. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;64:237-43 pubmed publisher
    ..42 of human and 42 of poultry origin, were characterized for antimicrobial resistance patterns and class I integrons. Among them, 58 (69%) S...
  29. Goncalves A, Igrejas G, Radhouani H, Estepa V, Alcaide E, Zorrilla I, et al. Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates in faecal samples of Iberian lynx. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2012;54:73-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of other associated resistance genes and the analysis of clonal relationship were also focused in this study...
  30. Pérez Valdespino A, Fernández Rendón E, Curiel Quesada E. Detection and characterization of class 1 integrons in Aeromonas spp. isolated from human diarrheic stool in Mexico. J Basic Microbiol. 2009;49:572-8 pubmed publisher
    We determined the presence of class 1 integrons related to the acquisition of resistance to antimicrobials in Aeromonas spp. isolated from individuals with diarrhea. Species were identified as A. caviae, A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A...
  31. Beutlich J, Rodicio M, Mendoza M, Garcia P, Kirchner M, Luzzi I, et al. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium virulence-resistance plasmids derived from the pSLT carrying nonconventional class 1 integrons with dfrA12 gene in their variable region and sul3 in the 3' conserved segment. Microb Drug Resist. 2013;19:437-45 pubmed publisher
    ..of VR plasmids was accomplished by PCR detection of bla genes (encoding ampicillin resistance), class 1 integrons and the pSLT virulence gene spvC...
  32. Jové T, Da Re S, Denis F, Mazel D, Ploy M. Inverse correlation between promoter strength and excision activity in class 1 integrons. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000793 pubmed publisher
    Class 1 integrons are widespread genetic elements that allow bacteria to capture and express gene cassettes that are usually promoterless...
  33. Nawaz M, Khan S, Khan A, Sung K, Tran Q, Kerdahi K, et al. Detection and characterization of virulence genes and integrons in Aeromonas veronii isolated from catfish. Food Microbiol. 2010;27:327-31 pubmed publisher
    The presence of virulence genes and integrons was determined in 81 strains of Aeromonas veronii isolated from farm-raised catfish...
  34. Kumar A, Mukherjee S, Chakraborty R. Characterization of a novel trimethoprim resistance gene, dfrA28, in class 1 integron of an oligotrophic Acinetobacter johnsonii strain, MB52, isolated from River Mahananda, India. Microb Drug Resist. 2010;16:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..4% amino acid identity with DfrA1. A gene for streptomycin resistance, aminoglycoside adenyl transferase aadA1, was located downstream of dfrA28. Phylogenetic analysis of MB52 identified it as a strain of Acinetobacter johnsonii. ..
  35. Loot C, Bikard D, Rachlin A, Mazel D. Cellular pathways controlling integron cassette site folding. EMBO J. 2010;29:2623-34 pubmed publisher
    By mobilizing small DNA units, integrons have a major function in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among bacteria...
  36. Vinué L, Sáenz Y, Rojo Bezares B, Olarte I, Undabeitia E, Somalo S, et al. Genetic environment of sul genes and characterisation of integrons in Escherichia coli isolates of blood origin in a Spanish hospital. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;35:492-6 pubmed publisher
    The prevalence and characterisation of integrons and the genetic environment of sulphonamide resistance genes were studied in 135 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from blood cultures in a Spanish hospital during 2007...
  37. El Najjar N, Farah M, Hashwa F, Tokajian S. Antibiotic resistance patterns and sequencing of class I integron from uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Lebanon. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2010;51:456-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrated that Class I integrons are widely disseminated in Lebanon and showed their importance for the occurrence and transmission of multidrug ..
  38. Chah K, Agbo I, Eze D, Somalo S, Estepa V, Torres C. Antimicrobial resistance, integrons and plasmid replicon typing in multiresistant clinical Escherichia coli strains from Enugu State, Nigeria. J Basic Microbiol. 2010;50 Suppl 1:S18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..coli strains of animal and human origin were assayed for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes, integrons and associated gene cassettes, as well as plasmid content...
  39. Cergole Novella M, Pignatari A, Castanheira M, Guth B. Molecular typing of antimicrobial-resistant Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains (STEC) in Brazil. Res Microbiol. 2011;162:117-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of a class 1 integron and bla(TEM-1) genes is described for the first time among STEC isolates in Brazil and clearly represents a public health concern. ..
  40. Elsaied H, Stokes H, Kitamura K, Kurusu Y, Kamagata Y, Maruyama A. Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays. ISME J. 2011;5:1162-77 pubmed publisher
    In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays...
  41. Petrova M, Gorlenko Z, Mindlin S. Tn5045, a novel integron-containing antibiotic and chromate resistance transposon isolated from a permafrost bacterium. Res Microbiol. 2011;162:337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..data demonstrate that antibiotic and chromate resistance genes were distributed in environmental bacteria independently of human activities and provide important insights into the origin and evolution of antibiotic resistance integrons.
  42. Pellegrini C, Celenza G, Segatore B, Bellio P, Setacci D, Amicosante G, et al. Occurrence of class 1 and 2 integrons in resistant Enterobacteriaceae collected from a urban wastewater treatment plant: first report from central Italy. Microb Drug Resist. 2011;17:229-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence and distribution of class 1 and 2 integrons was investigated by colony blot hybridization using specific probes labelled with dUTP-fluoresceine kit...
  43. Xu H, Broersma K, Miao V, Davies J. Class 1 and class 2 integrons in multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria isolated from the Salmon River, British Columbia. Can J Microbiol. 2011;57:460-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the 16 strains, 13 carried class 1 integrons and three carried class 2 integrons...
  44. Roy Chowdhury P, Ingold A, Vanegas N, Mart nez E, Merlino J, Merkier A, et al. Dissemination of multiple drug resistance genes by class 1 integrons in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from four countries: a comparative study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:3140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The study focuses on the genetic contexts of class 1 integrons, mobilizable genetic elements best known for their role in the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance among ..
  45. Sun J, Zhou M, Wu Q, Ni Y. Characterization of two novel gene cassettes, dfrA27 and aadA16, in a non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolate from China. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:1125-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cloning of the cassette region and expression analysis demonstrated that the aadA16 gene can be expressed from its own promoter sequence, which is present upstream of the aadA16 cassette. ..
  46. Starikova I, Harms K, Haugen P, Lunde T, Primicerio R, Samuelsen Ø, et al. A trade-off between the fitness cost of functional integrases and long-term stability of integrons. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1003043 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that newly acquired class-1 integrons from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Acinetobacter baumannii, free of associated transposable ..
  47. Hall R. Integrons and gene cassettes: hotspots of diversity in bacterial genomes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1267:71-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Integrons are genetic units found in many bacterial species that are defined by their ability to capture small mobile elements called gene cassettes...
  48. Xia R, Guo X, Zhang Y, Xu H. qnrVC-like gene located in a novel complex class 1 integron harboring the ISCR1 element in an Aeromonas punctata strain from an aquatic environment in Shandong Province, China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:3471-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A Ser-83 to Ile amino acid substitution in gyrase A may be mainly responsible for ciprofloxacin resistance in this strain...
  49. Ponce Rivas E, Muñoz Márquez M, Khan A. Identification and molecular characterization of class 1 integrons in multiresistant Escherichia coli isolates from poultry litter. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:5444-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibiotic resistance, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and plasmid data suggest a genetically diverse origin of poultry E. coli isolates. ..
  50. Benacer D, Thong K, Watanabe H, Puthucheary S. Characterization of drug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium by antibiograms, plasmids, integrons, resistance genes and PFGE. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;20:1042-52 pubmed
    ..Presence of relevant resistance genes and class 1 integrons were investigated by using PCR...
  51. Bado I, Cordeiro N, Robino L, García Fulgueiras V, Seija V, Bazet C, et al. Detection of class 1 and 2 integrons, extended-spectrum ?-lactamases and qnr alleles in enterobacterial isolates from the digestive tract of Intensive Care Unit inpatients. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;36:453-8 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we searched for extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs), class 1 and 2 integrons, and qnrA, qnrB and qnrS genes in 56 oxyimino-cephalosporin and/or ciprofloxacin-resistant enterobacterial isolates obtained from the ..
  52. Koo S, Kwon K, Cho H, Sung J. Genetic basis of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates from three university hospitals in Chungcheong Province, Korea. Korean J Lab Med. 2010;30:498-506 pubmed publisher
    ..baumannii strains by estimating the prevalence of antibiotic resistance determinants, including integrons, ?-lactamases, str genes, and gyrA and parC mutations. Thirty-five MDR A...
  53. Khosravi Y, Tay S, Vadivelu J. Analysis of integrons and associated gene cassettes of metallo-?-lactamase-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Malaysia. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:988-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Class 1 integrons were detected in 54 IRPA clinical isolates, whilst three isolates contained class 2 integrons...