military science


Summary: Study of the causes as well as tactical and strategic principles of WARFARE.

Top Publications

  1. Foster J, Ayers P, Lombardi Przybylowicz A, Simmons K. Initial effects of light armored vehicle use on grassland vegetation at Fort Lewis, Washington. J Environ Manage. 2006;81:315-22 pubmed
    ..Pre- and post-tracking cover of annual species, bunchgrasses, and shrubs was < or =3%. The most severe vegetation damage caused by operation of wheeled LAVs on grasslands is associated with sharp, high-velocity turns. ..
  2. Sikder A, Sikder N. A review of advanced high performance, insensitive and thermally stable energetic materials emerging for military and space applications. J Hazard Mater. 2004;112:1-15 pubmed
    ..This review concentrates on recent advances in syntheses, potential formulations and space applications of potential compounds with respect to safety, performance and stability. ..
  3. Jepson P, Arbelo M, Deaville R, Patterson I, Castro P, Baker J, et al. Gas-bubble lesions in stranded cetaceans. Nature. 2003;425:575-6 pubmed
  4. Wang K, Yang C, Chu N, Wu D. Predictors of cigarette smoking behavior among military university students in Taiwan. J Nurs Res. 2009;17:161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Tobacco control and prevention strategies proved to be of vital importance, as peer influence and self-efficacy represented major predictors of smoking behaviors. ..
  5. Irvine J. Targeting breast cancer detection with military technology. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2002;21:36-40 pubmed
  6. Marusich L, Bakdash J, Onal E, YU M, Schaffer J, O Donovan J, et al. Effects of Information Availability on Command-and-Control Decision Making: Performance, Trust, and Situation Awareness. Hum Factors. 2016;58:301-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To avoid decrements to SA, interpersonal trust, and decision-making performance, information presentation within C2 systems must reflect human cognitive processing limits and capabilities. ..
  7. Stang C, Sheremeta L. Nanotechnology--a lot of hype over almost nothing?. Health Law Rev. 2006;15:53-5 pubmed
  8. Reswick J. How and when did the rehabilitation engineering center program come into being?. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2002;39:11-6 pubmed
  9. Eisenkraft A, Markel G, Simovich S, Layish I, Hoffman A, Finkelstein A, et al. Mobile chemical detector (AP2C+SP4E) as an aid for medical decision making in the battlefield. Mil Med. 2007;172:997-1001 pubmed
    ..Finally, we have designed an algorithm that uses the entire apparatus of AP2C and SP4E as a reliable validation tool for medical triage in the setting of exposure to nerve agents in the battlefield. ..

More Information


  1. Weinberger S. Military research: the Pentagon's culture wars. Nature. 2008;455:583-5 pubmed publisher
  2. Renner R. Environmental health. Academy to mediate debate over rocket-fuel contaminants. Science. 2003;299:1829 pubmed
  3. Dressler D, Hozid J. The philanthropic string: medical aspects of military strategy. Mil Med. 2001;166:301-3 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is timely, and pragmatic, to include humanitarian medical care in strategic military planning. ..
  4. Marris E. Drones in science: Fly, and bring me data. Nature. 2013;498:156-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Quille G. The revolution in military affairs debate and non-lethal weapons. Med Confl Surviv. 2001;17:207-20 pubmed
    ..The danger of neglecting other important dimensions of politics and strategy vis-à-vis present conflict is noted. ..
  6. Efroymson R, Suter G, Rose W, Nemeth S. Ecological risk assessment framework for low-altitude aircraft overflights: I. Planning the analysis and estimating exposure. Risk Anal. 2001;21:251-62 pubmed
  7. Dearden P. New blast weapons. J R Army Med Corps. 2001;147:80-6 pubmed
    ..The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the reasons why enhanced blast technologies may be proliferating and how this could affect the Defence Medical Services. ..
  8. Cummings M. Integrating ethics in design through the value-sensitive design approach. Sci Eng Ethics. 2006;12:701-15 pubmed
    ..The three major components of Value-Sensitive Design, conceptual, technical, and empirical, exemplified through a case study which focuses on the development of a command and control supervisory interface for a military cruise missile. ..
  9. Schmitt P, Agarwal N, Prestigiacomo C. From planes to brains: parallels between military development of virtual reality environments and virtual neurological surgery. World Neurosurg. 2012;78:214-9 pubmed publisher
  10. Vogel H, Lotz P, Vogel B. Ionizing radiation in secret services' conspirative actions. Eur J Radiol. 2007;63:263-9 pubmed
    ..Only singular cases of the employment of radiating substances have become known. It is probable that the majority rests unknown. Government support seems necessary in secret services' conspirative actions with radiating substance. ..
  11. Dalton R. Court ruling sounds note of caution for sonar system. Nature. 2003;425:6 pubmed
  12. Veltman C. Genesis of a high-tech hub. Nature. 2003;426:700-4 pubmed
  13. Loftin R, Scerbo M, McKenzie F, Catanzaro J. Training in peacekeeping operations using virtual environments. IEEE Comput Graph Appl. 2004;24:18-21 pubmed
  14. Finnegan T. World at work: soldiering. Occup Environ Med. 2004;61:555-7 pubmed
  15. Constantini N, Finestone A, Hod N, Shub I, Heinemann S, Foldes A, et al. Equipment modification is associated with fewer stress fractures in female Israel border police recruits. Mil Med. 2010;175:799-804 pubmed
    ..The study was planned to assess whether combat equipment weight reduction would lead to a reduction in the incidence of stress fractures in female border police infantry recruits taking a 4-month course of basic combat training...
  16. Hambling D. Maximum pain is aim of Navy study. New Sci. 2005;185:8 pubmed
  17. Christen A, Christen J. Dr. Lytle Adams' incendiary "bat bomb" of World War II. J Hist Dent. 2004;52:109-15 pubmed
    ..This article documents the futile efforts of Dr. Adams, his team and the U.S. government to develop and employ an effective, incendiary bat bomb. The recently developed atom bomb, a far more deadly weapon was used in its place. ..
  18. Käss H. Against the militarisation of Europe. Med Confl Surviv. 2004;20:166-8 pubmed
  19. Efroymson R, Suter G. Ecological risk assessment framework for low-altitude aircraft overflights: II. Estimating effects on wildlife. Risk Anal. 2001;21:263-74 pubmed
    ..g., narrow sound spectra) may not be easily determined or added. The weight of evidence and uncertainty analyses of the risk characterization for overflights are also discussed in this article. ..
  20. Jussila J, Normia P. International law and law enforcement firearms. Med Confl Surviv. 2004;20:55-69 pubmed
    ..The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility. ..
  21. Lewer N. Non-lethal weapons: operational and policy developments. Lancet. 2003;362 Suppl:s20-1 pubmed
  22. Evans D, Johnson Winegar A. The Department of Defense chemical and biological defense program: where we are going. Mil Med. 2001;166:4-5 pubmed
    ..S. forces against the threat of chemical and biological warfare agents, and improvements made in defensive systems in the years since Operation Desert Storm...
  23. Whitby S, Millett P, Dando M. The potential for abuse of genetics in militarily significant biological weapons. Med Confl Surviv. 2002;18:138-56; discussion 157-60 pubmed
    ..Plant pathogens, particularly fungi, could be modified as biological warfare agents against crops. An effective verification protocol for the BTWC is an essential part of the web of deterrence against these developments. ..
  24. Lee K, Casali J. Effects of low speed wind on the recognition/identification and pass-through communication tasks of auditory situation awareness afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices and tactical communication and protective systems. Int J Audiol. 2016;55 Suppl 1:S21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the various devices performed differently as the test sound signal speaker location was varied and it appears that physical as well as electronic features may have contributed to this directional result. ..
  25. Dolman S, Weir C, Jasny M. Comparative review of marine mammal guidance implemented during naval exercises. Mar Pollut Bull. 2009;58:465-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Suggestions towards a minimum worldwide mitigation standard are made. ..
  26. Pees E. A relationship between the far field diffraction pattern and the axial pressure radiating from a two-dimensional aperture. J Acoust Soc Am. 2010;127:1381-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach is demonstrated for the cases of a flat circular piston and a flat rectangular piston undergoing harmonic motion in an infinite, rigid baffle. In the latter case, an analytical solution is also obtained. ..
  27. Singer P. Military robotics and ethics: a world of killer apps. Nature. 2011;477:399-401 pubmed publisher
  28. Apuzzo M, Chen J. Stereotaxy, navigation and the temporal concatenation. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 1999;72:82-8 pubmed
    ..These complex technical modalities required and developed in part from elements of maritime navigation that have been translated to cerebral navigation in a temporal concatenation. ..
  29. Jussila J. Future police operations and non-lethal weapons. Med Confl Surviv. 2001;17:248-59 pubmed
    ..Thorough research and fair and credible controls on police weaponry are needed to avert the possibility of misuse and to maintain trust. ..
  30. Schrope M. Whale deaths caused by US Navy's sonar. Nature. 2002;415:106 pubmed
  31. Augustine N. Conversations with Norman Augustine. Interview by Linda Voss. Aerosp Am. 2003;41:14-7 pubmed
    ..Topics discussed in the interview include trends and economic issues in the aerospace industry, the role of the aerospace industry in national security, and mergers and new ventures in the aerospace industry. ..
  32. Alpert M. My virtual war. Sci Am. 2006;294:94-5 pubmed
  33. Malakoff D. Environmental protection. Pentagon wants out from 'green' rules. Science. 2003;299:1643-5 pubmed
  34. Fuller M, Schaefer C, Steffan R. Evaluation of a peat moss plus soybean oil (PMSO) technology for reducing explosive residue transport to groundwater at military training ranges under field conditions. Chemosphere. 2009;77:1076-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the inexpensive and environmentally benign PMSO technology for reducing the subsurface loading of explosives at training ranges and other military facilities. ..
  35. Lane D. Hospital ship doctrine in the United States Navy: the Halsey effect on scoop- and-sail tactics. Mil Med. 1997;162:388-95 pubmed
    ..The tactical doctrine for hospital ships suggested by Halsey has since been employed in every major amphibious operation, including Okinawa and Inchon, and has also been used in modern-era contingency and humanitarian missions. ..
  36. Combes R. A critical review of anaesthetised animal models and alternatives for military research, testing and training, with a focus on blast damage, haemorrhage and resuscitation. Altern Lab Anim. 2013;41:385-415 pubmed
  37. Roy M, Brietzke S, Hemmer P, Pangaro L, Goldstein R. Teaching military medicine: enhancing military relevance within the fabric of current medical training. Mil Med. 2002;167:277-80 pubmed
    ..This approach complements the formal, didactic syllabus, avoiding potential conflict engendered by eliminating curricular elements to accommodate military-unique subjects. ..
  38. Kastelein R, Steen N, de Jong C, Wensveen P, Verboom W. Effect of broadband-noise masking on the behavioral response of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to 1-s duration 6-7 kHz sonar up-sweeps. J Acoust Soc Am. 2011;129:2307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the effects of naval sonar systems on harbor porpoises are determined not only by the received level of the signals and the hearing sensitivity of the animals but also by the background noise. ..
  39. Murnyak G, Spencer C, Chaney A, Roberts W. The evolution of a health hazard assessment database management system for military weapons, equipment, and materiel. Mil Med. 2002;167:331-42 pubmed
    ..The current database tracks the results of HHAs and provides reporting designed to assist the HHA Program manager in daily activities. ..
  40. Saulters O, Erickson L, Leven B, Pickrel J, Green R, Jamka L, et al. Enhancing technology development through integrated environmental analysis: toward sustainable nonlethal military systems. Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2010;6:281-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper highlights the Urban Operations Laboratory process utilized for inclusive and transformative environmental analysis, which can translate into advantages and progress toward sustainable systems. ..
  41. Martel R, Mailloux M, Gabriel U, Lefebvre R, Thiboutot S, Ampleman G. Behavior of energetic materials in ground water at an anti-tank range. J Environ Qual. 2009;38:75-92 pubmed publisher
    ..TNT is biotransformed, weakly sorbed, and not mineralized. In two wells, perchlorate associated with the propellant was found at concentrations above the Health Canada preliminary guideline of 6 microg L(-1) near the firing position...
  42. Parsons E, Dolman S, Wright A, Rose N, Burns W. Navy sonar and cetaceans: just how much does the gun need to smoke before we act?. Mar Pollut Bull. 2008;56:1248-57 pubmed publisher
    ..A growing number of international bodies recognize this issue and have urged increasing scrutiny of sound-producing activities, but many national jurisdictions have resisted calls for increased protection. ..
  43. Andersen M, Thompson B, Boykin K. Spatial risk assessment across large landscapes with varied land use: lessons from a conservation assessment of military lands. Risk Anal. 2004;24:1231-42 pubmed
    ..We illustrate the procedure with examples. We demonstrate that our risk-based approach to conservation planning can provide resource managers with a useful tool for spatial assessment of threats to species of concern. ..
  44. Kurvinen K, Smolander P, Pöllänen R, Kuukankorpi S, Kettunen M, Lyytinen J. Design of a radiation surveillance unit for an unmanned aerial vehicle. J Environ Radioact. 2005;81:1-10 pubmed
    ..The radiation surveillance unit is an independent module and as such can be used in, for example, airplanes, helicopters and cars. ..
  45. Dorr R. Caution, contention, and consolidation. Aerosp Am. 2005;43:10-2 pubmed
    ..S. airline companies. ..
  46. Dolezalova V. [Ocular disease in the Austrian Field Marshall of the Czech Radecky family born 2 November 1766, died 5 January 1858]. Cesk Slov Oftalmol. 2005;61:291-3 pubmed
  47. Rau E. Combat science: the emergence of Operational Research in World War II. Endeavour. 2005;29:156-61 pubmed
    ..Indeed, several recommendations that came out of OR sparked disputes over the allocation of resources and strategic priorities. ..
  48. Service R. Technology. Electronic textiles charge ahead. Science. 2003;301:909-11 pubmed
  49. Cloonan C. Good Lord deliver us--revisited. Mil Med. 2002;167:iii-iv pubmed
  50. Bostron J, Brungart T, Barnard A, McDevitt T. Atmospheric effects on voice command intelligibility from acoustic hail and warning devices. J Acoust Soc Am. 2011;129:2237-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Reliably predicting the intelligibility of a voice command in a moderate SNR environment can be challenging due to the inherent variability imposed by sound propagation through the atmosphere. ..
  51. Finkbeiner A. Advising government. DARPA and Jason divorce in spat over membership. Science. 2002;295:2340 pubmed
  52. Rottger S, Vetter S, Kowalski J. Ship management attitudes and their relation to behavior and performance. Hum Factors. 2013;55:659-71 pubmed
    ..Ship management attitudes can be used to assess training needs for nautical teams. ..
  53. Lynch T. A historically significant shield for in vivo measurements. Health Phys. 2007;93:S119-23 pubmed
    ..This is the story of the unique steel that began as the hull of the U.S.S. Indiana and now forms a shielded room at the In Vivo Radiobioassay and Research Facility in Richland, Washington. ..