Summary: Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.

Top Publications

  1. Caron J, Julien M, Huang J. Changes in suicide methods in Quebec between 1987 and 2000: the possible impact of bill C-17 requiring safe storage of firearms. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2008;38:195-208 pubmed publisher
    ..suicide rates for Québec (Canada) before and after Bill C-17, which was implemented to secure safe storage of firearms. It covers 20,009 suicide cases reported to the coroner's office...
  2. Langmann C. Canadian firearms legislation and effects on homicide 1974 to 2008. J Interpers Violence. 2012;27:2303-21 pubmed publisher
    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control...
  3. Kastanaki A, Kranioti E, Papavdi A, Theodorakis P, Michalodimitrakis M. Suicide by firearms on the island of Crete: a 9-year record. Crisis. 2010;31:43-52 pubmed publisher
    ..As an important first step toward implementing preventive initiatives the authors stress the need for a thorough look at the sociocultural factors associated with firearms in the region.
  4. Rodríguez Andrés A, Hempstead K. Gun control and suicide: the impact of state firearm regulations in the United States, 1995-2004. Health Policy. 2011;101:95-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Our empirical analysis suggest that firearms regulations which function to reduce overall gun availability have a significant deterrent effect on male suicide,..
  5. Knott J, Gilbert J, Hoccom D, Green R. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK. Sci Total Environ. 2010;409:95-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them. ..
  6. Bridge J, Greenhouse J, Sheftall A, Fabio A, Campo J, Kelleher K. Changes in suicide rates by hanging and/or suffocation and firearms among young persons aged 10-24 years in the United States: 1992-2006. J Adolesc Health. 2010;46:503-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall suicide rate and the rate by firearms, poisoning, and other methods declined markedly, whereas the hanging/suffocation rate increased significantly ..
  7. Wright M, Wintemute G, Webster D. Factors affecting a recently purchased handgun's risk for use in crime under circumstances that suggest gun trafficking. J Urban Health. 2010;87:352-64 pubmed publisher
    ..recovery by a police agency, followed by a gun ownership trace, conducted by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, that determined (a) that the recovery had occurred within 3 years of the handgun's most recent ..
  8. Sarma K, Kola S. Firearms, hanging, and drowning suicides in the Republic of ireland. Crisis. 2010;31:69-75 pubmed publisher
    The firearms climate in Ireland is rapidly changing, and there is currently no research on the risk profiles of those dying through firearms suicides.
  9. Pain D, Cromie R, Newth J, Brown M, Crutcher E, Hardman P, et al. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10315 pubmed publisher
    ..Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health...

More Information


  1. Gagné M, Robitaille Y, Hamel D, St Laurent D. Firearms regulation and declining rates of male suicide in Quebec. Inj Prev. 2010;16:247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..significant changes in method-specific male suicide rates occurred in the province of Quebec after stronger firearms regulations were introduced in Canada in 1991; to ascertain whether more stringent firearms regulations influence ..
  2. Ajdacic Gross V, Killias M, Hepp U, Haymoz S, Bopp M, Gutzwiller F, et al. Firearm suicides and availability of firearms: the Swiss experience. Eur Psychiatry. 2010;25:432-4 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to examine the association between the availability of firearms at home, and the proportion of firearm suicides in Switzerland in an ecological analysis...
  3. Lubin G, Werbeloff N, Halperin D, Shmushkevitch M, Weiser M, Knobler H. Decrease in suicide rates after a change of policy reducing access to firearms in adolescents: a naturalistic epidemiological study. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2010;40:421-4 pubmed publisher
    The use of firearms is a common means of suicide. We examined the effect of a policy change in the Israeli Defense Forces reducing adolescents' access to firearms on rates of suicide...
  4. Johnson R, Barber C, Azrael D, Clark D, Hemenway D. Who are the owners of firearms used in adolescent suicides?. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2010;40:609-11 pubmed publisher
    In this brief report, the source of firearms used in adolescent suicides was examined using data from the National Violent Injury Statistics System, the pilot to the CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System, a uniform reporting ..
  5. Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional firearm deaths, suicide, and homicide among 5-14 year olds. J Trauma. 2002;52:267-74; discussion 274-5 pubmed
    In the United States, only motor vehicle crashes and cancer claim more lives among children than do firearms. This national study attempts to determine whether firearm prevalence is related to rates of unintentional firearm deaths, ..
  6. Ozanne Smith J, Ashby K, Newstead S, Stathakis V, Clapperton A. Firearm related deaths: the impact of regulatory reform. Inj Prev. 2004;10:280-6 pubmed
    ..In Victoria, two periods of legislative reform related to firearms followed mass shooting events in 1988 and 1996. A national firearm amnesty and buyback scheme followed the latter...
  7. Shenassa E, Rogers M, Spalding K, Roberts M. Safer storage of firearms at home and risk of suicide: a study of protective factors in a nationally representative sample. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004;58:841-8 pubmed
    To estimate the protective effect of storing firearms locked or unloaded, or both, on the risk of suicide by firearms among people with relatively low intention to die. Cross sectional survey...
  8. Ajdacic Gross V, Killias M, Hepp U, Gadola E, Bopp M, Lauber C, et al. Changing times: a longitudinal analysis of international firearm suicide data. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:1752-5 pubmed
    ..countries since the 1980s and the relation of these changes to the change in the proportion of households owning firearms. Several countries had an obvious decline in firearm suicides: Norway, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New ..
  9. Chapman S, Alpers P, Agho K, Jones M. Australia's 1996 gun law reforms: faster falls in firearm deaths, firearm suicides, and a decade without mass shootings. Inj Prev. 2006;12:365-72 pubmed
    ..Total homicide rates followed the same pattern. Removing large numbers of rapid-firing firearms from civilians may be an effective way of reducing mass shootings, firearm homicides and firearm suicides.
  10. Leenaars A, Moksony F, Lester D, Wenckstern S. The impact of gun control (Bill C-51) on suicide in Canada. Death Stud. 2003;27:103-24 pubmed
    ..It appears that Bill C-51 may have had an impact on suicide rates, even after controls for social variables. ..
  11. Miller M, Barber C, Azrael D, Hemenway D, Molnar B. Recent psychopathology, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in households with and without firearms: findings from the National Comorbidity Study Replication. Inj Prev. 2009;15:183-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between living in a home with firearms and 12-month occurrence of major Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM)-IV disorders and ..
  12. Grassel K, Wintemute G, Wright M, Romero M. Association between handgun purchase and mortality from firearm injury. Inj Prev. 2003;9:48-52 pubmed
    ..To determine the association between mortality from violent or firearm related injury and previous handgun purchase...
  13. Hougen H, Rogde S, Poulsen K. Homicide by firearms in two Scandinavian capitals. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2000;21:281-6 pubmed
    In the Oslo and Copenhagen areas, 83 homicides by firearms were registered in the 10-year period 1985 to 1994, accounting for 19.3% of all homicides in that period...
  14. Vos J. On the annoyance caused by impulse sounds produced by small, medium-large, and large firearms. J Acoust Soc Am. 2001;109:244-53 pubmed
    ..was designed in which the annoyance was investigated for 14 different impulse sound types produced by various firearms ranging in caliber from 7.62 to 155 mm...
  15. De Leo D, Evans R, Neulinger K. Hanging, firearm, and non-domestic gas suicides among males: a comparative study. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2002;36:183-9 pubmed
    ..characteristics that could distinguish males who completed suicide by hanging from males who completed suicide by firearms and non-domestic gas, and to suggest suicide prevention strategies targeted at hanging...
  16. Hunt W, Watson R, Oaks J, Parish C, Burnham K, Tucker R, et al. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5330 pubmed publisher
    ..At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low-income beneficiaries of venison donations...
  17. Swahn M, Bossarte R. Assessing and quantifying high risk: comparing risky behaviors by youth in an urban, disadvantaged community with nationally representative youth. Public Health Rep. 2009;124:224-33 pubmed
    ..S. youth. These findings highlight that some caution is justified when defining what might constitute high risk and that demographic and other characteristics need to be carefully considered when targeting certain high-risk behaviors. ..
  18. Mateo R, Rodríguez de la Cruz M, Vidal D, Reglero M, Camarero P. Transfer of lead from shot pellets to game meat during cooking. Sci Total Environ. 2007;372:480-5 pubmed
    ..The consumption of only half a pickled quail per week with embedded shot may cause the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of Pb by the Spanish consumer to be exceeded. ..
  19. Bahebeck J, Atangana R, Mboudou E, Nonga B, Sosso M, Malonga E. Incidence, case-fatality rate and clinical pattern of firearm injuries in two cities where arm owning is forbidden. Injury. 2005;36:714-7 pubmed
    ..Some efforts are however needed to reduce illegal access to weapons and to educate hunters on the safe handling of their gun. ..
  20. Vigdor E, Mercy J. Do laws restricting access to firearms by domestic violence offenders prevent intimate partner homicide?. Eval Rev. 2006;30:313-46 pubmed
    ..These laws restrict access to firearms by individuals who are subject to a restraining order or have been convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor ..
  21. Amir L, Aharonson Daniel L, Peleg K, Waisman Y. The severity of injury in children resulting from acts against civilian populations. Ann Surg. 2005;241:666-70 pubmed
    ..AACP cause significant morbidity and mortality in children, especially adolescents. Injury severity is significantly higher among children who are injured by explosions rather than by shootings. ..
  22. Hemenway D, Miller M. Association of rates of household handgun ownership, lifetime major depression, and serious suicidal thoughts with rates of suicide across US census regions. Inj Prev. 2002;8:313-6 pubmed
    ..This relationship cannot be explained by differences in the prevalence of two mental health indicators-lifetime rates of either major depression or suicidal thoughts. ..
  23. Kung H, Pearson J, Liu X. Risk factors for male and female suicide decedents ages 15-64 in the United States. Results from the 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2003;38:419-26 pubmed
    ..The interactions of mental health service use with demographic factors suggested possible gender differences in suicide risk associated with severity of mental disorders, as well as the likelihood of treatment seeking. ..
  24. Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths among women. J Urban Health. 2002;79:26-38 pubmed
    ..The elevated rates of violent death in states with more guns was not entirely explained by a state's poverty or urbanization and was driven primarily by lethal firearm violence, not by lethal nonfirearm violence. ..
  25. Booth N, Briscoe M, Powell R. Suicide in the farming community: methods used and contact with health services. Occup Environ Med. 2000;57:642-4 pubmed
    ..Farmers were significantly more likely to use firearms to kill themselves (42% of farmers v 11% controls)...
  26. Hahn R, Bilukha O, Crosby A, Fullilove M, Liberman A, Moscicki E, et al. Firearms laws and the reduction of violence: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28:40-71 pubmed
  27. Horsman Hall K, Orihuela Y, Karczynski S, Davis A, Ban J, Greenspoon S. Development of STR profiles from firearms and fired cartridge cases. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2009;3:242-50 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA was obtained from the chamber of the barrel and was amplifiable using the MiniFiler kit, although mixtures were obtained with extensive drop-in and drop-out making this analysis unlikely to aid an investigation. ..
  28. Ikeda R, Dahlberg L, Kresnow M, Sacks J, Mercy J. Studying "exposure" to firearms: household ownership v access. Inj Prev. 2003;9:53-7 pubmed
    ..More importantly, those who do not own a firearm, but report ready access to one, appear to be qualitatively different from those who report ownership. Caution should be exercised when using measures of ownership as a proxy for access. ..
  29. Tsuji L, Wainman B, Martin I, Sutherland C, Weber J, Dumas P, et al. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure. Sci Total Environ. 2008;405:180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions ..
  30. Sorenson S, Vittes K. Mental health and firearms in community-based surveys: implications for suicide prevention. Eval Rev. 2008;32:239-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings suggest that the high risk of suicide among those who own or live in a household with a gun is not related to poor mental health. Implications for prevention are discussed. ..
  31. Kapusta N, Etzersdorfer E, Krall C, Sonneck G. Firearm legislation reform in the European Union: impact on firearm availability, firearm suicide and homicide rates in Austria. Br J Psychiatry. 2007;191:253-7 pubmed
    The availability of firearms in homes and at aggregate levels is a risk factor for suicide and homicide. One method of reducing access to suicidal means is the restriction of firearm availability through more stringent legislation...
  32. Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. The epidemiology of case fatality rates for suicide in the northeast. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;43:723-30 pubmed
    ..Poisoning with drugs accounted for 74% of acts but only 14% of fatalities; firearms and hanging accounted for only 10% of acts but 67% of fatalities...
  33. Church M, Gwiazda R, Risebrough R, Sorenson K, Chamberlain C, Farry S, et al. Ammunition is the principal source of lead accumulated by California condors re-introduced to the wild. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:6143-50 pubmed
    ..Together, these data indicate that incidental ingestion of ammunition in carcasses of animals killed by hunters is the principal source of elevated lead exposure that threatens the recovery in the wild of this endangered species. ..
  34. Hackam D, Mazzioti M, Pearl R, Mazziotti G, Winthrop A, Langer J. Mechanisms of pediatric trauma deaths in Canada and the United States: the role of firearms. J Trauma. 2004;56:1286-90 pubmed
    This study aimed to determine whether firearms are a more prevalent cause of pediatric death in the United States than in Canada. All pediatric trauma deaths from 1991 to 1996 in Ontario and Missouri were reviewed...
  35. Webster D, Bulzacchelli M, Zeoli A, Vernick J. Effects of undercover police stings of gun dealers on the supply of new guns to criminals. Inj Prev. 2006;12:225-30 pubmed
    ..suspected of facilitating illegal gun sales in three US cities (Chicago, Detroit, Gary) on the flow of new firearms to criminals...
  36. Singh B. Firearms accidents in Northern India (1980-2000). Med Sci Law. 2006;46:69-75 pubmed
    This paper investigates firearms accidents from the last two decades (1980-2000), with information received from the three North Indian states, Chandigarh, Delhi and Himachal Pradesh and from the military and paramilitary organisations ..
  37. Guileyardo J, Carmody T, Lene W, Stone I. Racial and ethnic patterns in firearms deaths. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1994;15:328-30 pubmed
    In the United States, there is currently an epidemic of firearms violence. Among victims of this violence, there are striking racial and ethnic patterns in the manners and circumstances of death...
  38. Szibor R, Michael M, Plate I, Krause D. Efficiency of forensic mtDNA analysis. Case examples demonstrating the identification of traces. Forensic Sci Int. 2000;113:71-8 pubmed
    ..The mtDNA of the users could be even detected on cartridges after firing. In one case, evidence of a suicide could be provided by means of mtDNA sequencing of the wiping traces on a suicide note. ..
  39. Hemenway D, Azrael D, Miller M. Gun use in the United States: results from two national surveys. Inj Prev. 2000;6:263-7 pubmed
    ..Guns are used to threaten and intimidate far more often than they are used in self defense. Most self reported self defense gun uses may well be illegal and against the interests of society. ..
  40. Webster D, Vernick J, Hepburn L. Effects of Maryland's law banning "Saturday night special" handguns on homicides. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155:406-12 pubmed
    ..Excluding this outlier, the model estimated a 15% increase in firearm homicides associated with the Saturday night special ban. None of the models revealed significant law effects on nonfirearm homicides. ..
  41. Kilner T, Hall F. Triage decisions of United Kingdom police firearms officers using a multiple-casualty scenario paper exercise. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2005;20:40-6 pubmed
    British police officers authorized to carry firearms may need to make judgments about the severity of injury of individuals or the relative priority of clinical need of a group of injured patients in tactical and non-tactical situations...
  42. Verleisdonk E. [Gunshot wounds, firearms and wound ballistics]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2002;146:1271-5 pubmed
    ..With these sorts of wounds the removal of debris as equally the bullet is not usually necessary. For firearms with a high firing velocity the wounds are more severe due to the greater quantity of kinetic energy transferred ..
  43. Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Household firearm ownership and suicide rates in the United States. Epidemiology. 2002;13:517-24 pubmed
    In the United States, more people kill themselves with firearms than with all other methods combined...
  44. Barkin S, Duan N, Fink A, Brook R, Gelberg L. The smoking gun: do clinicians follow guidelines on firearm safety counseling?. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998;152:749-56 pubmed
    ..Guidelines and handouts are available from major medical organizations. Research should focus on how to get practitioners to use available materials, enabling them to better adhere to guidelines. ..
  45. Klieve H, Sveticic J, De Leo D. Who uses firearms as a means of suicide? A population study exploring firearm accessibility and method choice. BMC Med. 2009;7:52 pubmed publisher
    The 1996 Australian National Firearms Agreement introduced strict access limitations. However, reports on the effectiveness of the new legislation are conflicting...
  46. Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Rates of household firearm ownership and homicide across US regions and states, 1988-1997. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1988-93 pubmed
    ..In this study we explored the association between rates of household firearm ownership and homicide across the United States, by age groups...
  47. Shenassa E, Catlin S, Buka S. Lethality of firearms relative to other suicide methods: a population based study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003;57:120-4 pubmed
    1) To quantify lethality of firearms relative to other suicide methods, (2) to quantify the extent to which suicide mortality may be reduced by limiting access to firearms.
  48. Ashe M, Jernigan D, Kline R, Galaz R. Land use planning and the control of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and fast food restaurants. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1404-8 pubmed understand how legal tools protect public health by regulating the location and density of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and fast food retail outlets...
  49. Sherman M, Burns K, Ignelzi J, Raia J, Lofton V, Toland D, et al. Firearms risk management in psychiatric care. Psychiatr Serv. 2001;52:1057-61 pubmed
    This study sought to assess the effectiveness of a firearms risk management program...
  50. Miller M, Lippmann S, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Household firearm ownership and rates of suicide across the 50 United States. J Trauma. 2007;62:1029-34; discussion 1034-5 pubmed
    ..all ages and both sexes are more likely to die from suicide when they live in areas where more households contain firearms. A positive and significant association exists between levels of household firearm ownership and rates of firearm ..
  51. Conner K, Zhong Y. State firearm laws and rates of suicide in men and women. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25:320-4 pubmed
    To evaluate the associations of state laws restricting firearms and incidence rates of suicide in men and women using a cross-sectional design...
  52. Webster D, Vernick J, Bulzacchelli M. Effects of a gun dealer's change in sales practices on the supply of guns to criminals. J Urban Health. 2006;83:778-87 pubmed
    ..Proposed anti-gun-trafficking efforts in other cities could benefit from targeting problem retail outlets. ..
  53. Miller M, Hemenway D, Azrael D. Firearms and suicide in the northeast. J Trauma. 2004;57:626-32 pubmed
    ..When it comes to suicide, the availability of household firearms matters-a lot.