smokeless tobacco

Summary

Summary: Any product of NICOTIANA TABACUM that is not smoked but is either inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches.

Top Publications

  1. Gartner C, Hall W, Vos T, Bertram M, Wallace A, Lim S. Assessment of Swedish snus for tobacco harm reduction: an epidemiological modelling study. Lancet. 2007;369:2010-2014 pubmed publisher
    Swedish snus is a smokeless tobacco product that has been suggested as a tobacco harm reduction product. Our aim was to assess the potential population health effects of snus...
  2. Daniel Roth H, Roth A, Liu X. Health risks of smoking compared to Swedish snus. Inhal Toxicol. 2005;17:741-8 pubmed
    ..Although there appears to be a general belief that a unique smokeless tobacco product called Swedish snus has fewer health risks than cigarettes, no one has systematically reviewed the ..
  3. Yatsuya H, Folsom A. Risk of incident cardiovascular disease among users of smokeless tobacco in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172:600-5 pubmed publisher
    Use of smokeless tobacco in the United States has been relatively constant in recent years, as tobacco companies continue aggressive marketing campaigns. The health effects of smokeless tobacco use need further documentation...
  4. Ramstrom L. Re: "Smokeless tobacco use and risk of cancer of the pancreas and other organs" by Boffetta et al. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:1584; author reply 1586-7 pubmed
  5. Wennberg P, Eliasson M, Hallmans G, Johansson L, Boman K, Jansson J. The risk of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death amongst snuff users with or without a previous history of smoking. J Intern Med. 2007;262:360-7 pubmed
    ..This study does not support the hypothesis that the risk for SCD is increased amongst snuff users. ..
  6. Hecht S. Progress and challenges in selected areas of tobacco carcinogenesis. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:160-71 pubmed
    ..their possible relationship to specific carcinogens, secondhand smoke and lung cancer, emerging issues in smokeless tobacco use, and a conceptual model for understanding tobacco carcinogenesis...
  7. Lee P, Hamling J. Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America. BMC Med. 2009;7:36 pubmed publisher
    Interest is rising in smokeless tobacco as a safer alternative to smoking, but published reviews on smokeless tobacco and cancer are limited...
  8. Alpert H, Koh H, Connolly G. Free nicotine content and strategic marketing of moist snuff tobacco products in the United States: 2000-2006. Tob Control. 2008;17:332-8 pubmed publisher
    From 2000 to 2006, moist snuff sales have increased and now account for 71% of the smokeless tobacco market...
  9. Tønnesen P, Mikkelsen K, Bremann L. Smoking cessation with smokeless tobacco and group therapy: an open, randomized, controlled trial. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10:1365-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Smokeless tobacco might be effective as an adjunct for smoking cessation...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Dobe M, Sinha D, Rahman K. Smokeless tobacco use and its implications in WHO South East Asia Region. Indian J Public Health. 2006;50:70-5 pubmed
  2. Savitz D, Meyer R, Tanzer J, Mirvish S, Lewin F. Public health implications of smokeless tobacco use as a harm reduction strategy. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:1934-9 pubmed
    ..b>Smokeless tobacco low in nitrosamine content offers potential benefits in reducing smoking prevalence rates...
  3. Boffetta P, Hecht S, Gray N, Gupta P, Straif K. Smokeless tobacco and cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9:667-75 pubmed publisher
    Use of smokeless tobacco products is common worldwide, with increasing consumption in many countries. Although epidemiological data from the USA and Asia show a raised risk of oral cancer (overall relative risk 2.6 [95% CI 1.3-5...
  4. McCarty K, Houseman E, Quamruzzaman Q, Rahman M, Mahiuddin G, Smith T, et al. The impact of diet and betel nut use on skin lesions associated with drinking-water arsenic in Pabna, Bangladesh. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:334-40 pubmed
    ..The results of this study do not provide clear support for a protective effect of vegetable and overall protein consumption against the development of skin lesions, but a modest benefit cannot be excluded. ..
  5. Rosenquist K, Wennerberg J, Schildt E, Bladström A, Hansson B, Andersson G. Use of Swedish moist snuff, smoking and alcohol consumption in the aetiology of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. A population-based case-control study in southern Sweden. Acta Otolaryngol. 2005;125:991-8 pubmed
    ..7; 95% CI 2.4-9.1). We found no increased risk of OOSCC associated with the use of Swedish moist snuff (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.5-2.5). ..
  6. Weitkunat R, Sanders E, Lee P. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:334 pubmed
    b>Smokeless tobacco is often referred to as a major contributor to oral cancer...
  7. Ebbert J, Haddock C, Vander Weg M, Klesges R, Poston W, DeBon M. Predictors of smokeless tobacco initiation in a young adult military cohort. Am J Health Behav. 2006;30:103-12 pubmed
    To identify predictors of smokeless tobacco (ST) initiation among young adults. A military cohort (N=28,229) was analyzed to identify variables associated with ST initiation...
  8. Mitchell C, Joyce A, Piper J, McKallip R, Fariss M. Role of oxidative stress and MAPK signaling in reference moist smokeless tobacco-induced HOK-16B cell death. Toxicol Lett. 2010;195:23-30 pubmed publisher
    The use of smokeless tobacco products is often associated with an oral injury at the site of repeated use...
  9. Bombard J, Rock V, Pederson L, Asman K. Monitoring polytobacco use among adolescents: do cigarette smokers use other forms of tobacco?. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10:1581-9 pubmed publisher
    ..9% did. Among current cigarette smokers using one other tobacco product, cigars or smokeless tobacco were the most frequently used products...
  10. Rodu B. Snus and the risk of cancer of the mouth, lung, and pancreas. Lancet. 2007;370:1207-8; author reply 1208 pubmed
  11. Choudhury K, Hanifi S, Mahmood S, Bhuiya A. Sociodemographic characteristics of tobacco consumers in a rural area of Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2007;25:456-64 pubmed
    ..Only aggressive anti-tobacco programmes on various fronts may salvage the vulnerable groups from the menace of tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. ..
  12. Stepanov I, Jensen J, Hatsukami D, Hecht S. New and traditional smokeless tobacco: comparison of toxicant and carcinogen levels. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10:1773-82 pubmed publisher
    ..S. cigarette industry to turn to another tobacco category, smokeless tobacco products...
  13. Akers L, Gordon J, Andrews J, Barckley M, Lichtenstein E, Severson H. Cost effectiveness of changing health professionals' behavior: training dental hygienists in brief interventions for smokeless tobacco cessation. Prev Med. 2006;43:482-7 pubmed
    ..This cost effectiveness analysis compared two methods of disseminating an effective protocol for smokeless tobacco cessation intervention...
  14. Melikian A, Hoffmann D. Smokeless tobacco: a gateway to smoking or a way away from smoking. Biomarkers. 2009;14 Suppl 1:85-9 pubmed publisher
    Recently, tobacco companies have been marketing moist smokeless tobacco products that are 'spitless'...
  15. Sawhney M, Rohatgi N, Kaur J, Shishodia S, Sethi G, Gupta S, et al. Expression of NF-kappaB parallels COX-2 expression in oral precancer and cancer: association with smokeless tobacco. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:2545-56 pubmed
    ..To determine the relationship between NF-kappaB and COX-2 in Smokeless Tobacco (ST) associated oral tumorigenesis, we performed immunohistochemistry in serial sections from 107 OSCCs, 78 ..
  16. Shiffman S, Gitchell J, Rohay J, Hellebusch S, Kemper K. Smokers' preferences for medicinal nicotine vs smokeless tobacco. Am J Health Behav. 2007;31:462-72 pubmed
    To assess and compare smokers' interest in medicinal nicotine (MN) and smokeless tobacco (SLT) and preference between them.
  17. Zhu S, Wang J, Hartman A, Zhuang Y, Gamst A, Gibson J, et al. Quitting cigarettes completely or switching to smokeless tobacco: do US data replicate the Swedish results?. Tob Control. 2009;18:82-7 pubmed publisher
    Swedish male smokers are more likely than female smokers to switch to smokeless tobacco (snus) and males' smoking cessation rate is higher than that of females...
  18. Henley S, Connell C, Richter P, Husten C, Pechacek T, Calle E, et al. Tobacco-related disease mortality among men who switched from cigarettes to spit tobacco. Tob Control. 2007;16:22-8 pubmed
  19. Nelson D, Mowery P, Tomar S, Marcus S, Giovino G, Zhao L. Trends in smokeless tobacco use among adults and adolescents in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:897-905 pubmed
    b>Smokeless tobacco has many adverse health effects. We analyzed long-term national trends in smokeless tobacco use.
  20. Timberlake D, Huh J. Demographic profiles of smokeless tobacco users in the U.S. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37:29-34 pubmed publisher
    Users of smokeless tobacco (chew or snuff) in the U.S. are viewed demographically as being homogeneous. Prior studies have demonstrated such homogeneity in national survey data but have not utilized latent-variable methods...
  21. Mumford E, Levy D, Gitchell J, Blackman K. Smokeless tobacco use 1992-2002: trends and measurement in the Current Population Survey-Tobacco Use Supplements. Tob Control. 2006;15:166-71 pubmed
    As smoking prevalence declines in the United States, it is important to understand if smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is also changing and if so, among what groups.
  22. Timberlake D. Are smokers receptive to using smokeless tobacco as a substitute?. Prev Med. 2009;49:229-32 pubmed publisher
    Few studies have addressed the feasibility of promoting smokeless tobacco as an alternative for smokers...
  23. Stegmayr B, Eliasson M, Rodu B. The decline of smoking in northern Sweden. Scand J Public Health. 2005;33:321-4; discussion 243 pubmed
    ..2% (CI 1.4-3.4%) by 2004. For the first time snus use is also associated with a decrease in smoking prevalence among women. These patterns of tobacco use have implications for all smoking-dominated societies...
  24. Kozlowski L. Effect of smokeless tobacco product marketing and use on population harm from tobacco use policy perspective for tobacco-risk reduction. Am J Prev Med. 2007;33:S379-86 pubmed
    This article presents policy perspectives on the marketing of smokeless tobacco products to reduce population harm from tobacco use...
  25. Rooban T, Elizabeth J, Umadevi K, Ranganathan K. Sociodemographic correlates of male chewable smokeless tobacco users in India: a preliminary report of analysis of National Family Health Survey, 2005-2006. Indian J Cancer. 2010;47 Suppl 1:91-100 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the prevalence, the socioeconomic and demographic correlates of chewable smokeless tobacco consumption among males in India.
  26. Khawaja M, Mazahir S, Majeed A, Malik F, Merchant K, Maqsood M, et al. Chewing of betel, areca and tobacco: perceptions and knowledge regarding their role in head and neck cancers in an urban squatter settlement in Pakistan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006;7:95-100 pubmed
    ..Besides curtailing the availability of chewing products, correct knowledge regarding its ill-effects should be inculcated among population to decrease the burden of head and neck cancers...
  27. Furberg H, Lichtenstein P, Pedersen N, Bulik C, Sullivan P. Cigarettes and oral snuff use in Sweden: Prevalence and transitions. Addiction. 2006;101:1509-15 pubmed
    ..To investigate the prevalence and patterns of transitions between cigarette and snus use...
  28. Ali N, Khuwaja A, Ali T, Hameed R. Smokeless tobacco use among adult patients who visited family practice clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. J Oral Pathol Med. 2009;38:416-21 pubmed
    Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is significantly associated with poor oral health and cancers...
  29. Avti P, Vaiphei K, Pathak C, Khanduja K. Involvement of various molecular events in cellular injury induced by smokeless tobacco. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010;23:1163-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption is implicated in the pathogenesis of oral diseases, including cancer. However, its pathological effect in other organs is not well understood...
  30. Rosendahl K, Galanti M, Gilljam H, Ahlbom A. Knowledge about tobacco and subsequent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco among Swedish adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2005;37:224-8 pubmed
    To investigate whether knowledge of the risks and properties of tobacco among adolescents influences their future use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco in different directions.
  31. Sponsiello Wang Z, Weitkunat R, Lee P. Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer of the pancreas in Europe and North America. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:356 pubmed publisher
    Recent reviews claiming smokeless tobacco increases pancreatic cancer risk appear not to have considered all available epidemiological evidence; nor were meta-analyses included...
  32. Timberlake D, Huh J, Lakon C. Use of propensity score matching in evaluating smokeless tobacco as a gateway to smoking. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11:455-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings from prospective studies in the United States have suggested that smokeless tobacco (SLT) is a significant predictor of smoking onset, before and after adjustment for baseline covariates...
  33. Luo J, Ye W, Zendehdel K, Adami J, Adami H, Boffetta P, et al. Oral use of Swedish moist snuff (snus) and risk for cancer of the mouth, lung, and pancreas in male construction workers: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2007;369:2015-20 pubmed
    ..We aimed to assess the risks for cancer of the oral cavity, lung, and pancreas...
  34. Warnakulasuriya K, Ralhan R. Clinical, pathological, cellular and molecular lesions caused by oral smokeless tobacco--a review. J Oral Pathol Med. 2007;36:63-77 pubmed
    While carcinogenicity of smokeless tobacco (ST) to humans is well established the oral lesions that precede development of cancer are less well characterized. The clinical appearances of ST-associated lesions are variable...
  35. Tomar S, Alpert H, Connolly G. Patterns of dual use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco among US males: findings from national surveys. Tob Control. 2010;19:104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined patterns of concurrent use of smokeless tobacco (ST) and cigarettes among young people and adults in the USA just before cigarette companies' control of the ..
  36. Rogers J, Biener L, Clark P. Test marketing of new smokeless tobacco products in four U.S. cities. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12:69-72 pubmed publisher
    This exploratory study was designed to assess the availability, price, and point-of-purchase marketing strategies for new smokeless tobacco products in 4 test market areas.
  37. Danaher B, Smolkowski K, Seeley J, Severson H. Mediators of a successful web-based smokeless tobacco cessation program. Addiction. 2008;103:1706-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine self-efficacy and program exposure as possible mediators observed treatment effects for a web-based tobacco cessation intervention...
  38. Walsh M, Langer T, Kavanagh N, Mansell C, Macdougal W, Kavanagh C, et al. Smokeless tobacco cessation cluster randomized trial with rural high school males: intervention interaction with baseline smoking. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12:543-50 pubmed publisher
    Adolescent males in rural areas use smokeless tobacco (ST). We assessed the efficacy of a school-based nurse-directed ST intervention among rural high school males.
  39. Mejia A, Ling P, Glantz S. Quantifying the effects of promoting smokeless tobacco as a harm reduction strategy in the USA. Tob Control. 2010;19:297-305 pubmed publisher
    Snus (a form of smokeless tobacco) is less dangerous than cigarettes. Some health professionals argue that snus should be promoted as a component of a harm reduction strategy, while others oppose this approach...
  40. Watson R. European Commission asked to investigate use of snus to reduce smoking. BMJ. 2007;335:907 pubmed
  41. Hatsukami D, Ebbert J, Feuer R, Stepanov I, Hecht S. Changing smokeless tobacco products new tobacco-delivery systems. Am J Prev Med. 2007;33:S368-78 pubmed
  42. Peiper N, Stone R, Van Zyl R, Rodu B. University faculty perceptions of the health risks related to cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2010;29:121-30 pubmed publisher
    It is now widely understood by tobacco research and policy experts that smokeless tobacco (ST) use confers significantly less risk than smoking, but no studies have assessed tobacco risk perceptions in highly educated populations...
  43. Aral M, Ekerbicer H, Celik M, Ciragil P, Gul M. Comparison of effects of smoking and smokeless tobacco "Maras powder" use on humoral immune system parameters. Mediators Inflamm. 2006;2006:85019 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to assess the impacts of "Maras powder" and cigarette smoking on the parameters of the humoral immune system...
  44. Gillum F, Obisesan T, Jarrett N. Smokeless tobacco use and religiousness. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009;6:225-31 pubmed publisher
    Although smoking shows a strong negative association with religiousness, no studies have appeared of use of smokeless tobacco (ST) and religiousness...
  45. Johnson M, Schilz J, Djordjevic M, Rice J, Shields P. Evaluation of in vitro assays for assessing the toxicity of cigarette smoke and smokeless tobacco. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:3263-304 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this review is to critically evaluate in vitro toxicology methods related to cancer for assessing tobacco products and to identify related research gaps...
  46. Lombard C, Farthing D, Sun J, Fariss M, McKallip R. Reference moist smokeless tobacco-induced apoptosis in human monocytes/macrophages cell line MM6. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:1029-40 pubmed publisher
    Moist smokeless tobacco use is associated with various types of oral injury, including leukoplakia and dipper's pouch, although the mechanism by which the injury is caused still remains unclear...
  47. Schwartz J, Brunnemann K, Adami A, Panda S, Gordon S, Hoffmann D, et al. Brand specific responses to smokeless tobacco in a rat lip canal model. J Oral Pathol Med. 2010;39:453-9 pubmed publisher
    Different compositions of smokeless tobacco (ST) are widely thought to cause oral carcinoma at different rates but there is little direct evidence for this hypothesis.
  48. Lee P, Hamling J. The relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Northern Europe and North America. A commentary on differences between the conclusions reached by two recent reviews. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:256 pubmed publisher
    b>Smokeless tobacco is an alternative for smokers who want to quit but require nicotine. Reliable evidence on its effects is needed. Boffetta et al...
  49. Bombard J, Pederson L, Nelson D, Malarcher A. Are smokers only using cigarettes? Exploring current polytobacco use among an adult population. Addict Behav. 2007;32:2411-9 pubmed
    ..Polytobacco use (the concurrent use of cigarettes and one or more other tobacco product[s]), may present additional health risks and make cessation more difficult...
  50. Tomar S, Hatsukami D. Perceived risk of harm from cigarettes or smokeless tobacco among U.S. high school seniors. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:1191-6 pubmed
    ..sex and race, high school seniors who perceived that smoking conveyed a greater risk for harm than did using smokeless tobacco were significantly more likely to be smokers than were those who perceived equal risk from the products (..
  51. Zendehdel K, Nyren O, Luo J, Dickman P, Boffetta P, Englund A, et al. Risk of gastroesophageal cancer among smokers and users of Scandinavian moist snuff. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:1095-9 pubmed
    ..Although confounding by unmeasured exposures, and some differential misclassification of smoking, might have inflated the associations, our study provides suggestive evidence for an independent carcinogenic effect of snus...
  52. Muwonge R, Ramadas K, Sankila R, Thara S, Thomas G, Vinoda J, et al. Role of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking in the risk of oral cancer in Trivandrum, India: a nested case-control design using incident cancer cases. Oral Oncol. 2008;44:446-54 pubmed
    ..Given the relatively poor survival rates of oral cancer patients, cessation of tobacco and moderation of alcohol use remain the key elements in oral cancer prevention and control...
  53. Sapkota A, Gajalakshmi V, Jetly D, Roychowdhury S, Dikshit R, Brennan P, et al. Smokeless tobacco and increased risk of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers: a multicentric case-control study from India. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:1793-8 pubmed
  54. Lee P. Circulatory disease and smokeless tobacco in Western populations: a review of the evidence. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36:789-804 pubmed
    ..There is some evidence that nicotine contributes to circulatory disease (CID) from smoking. We therefore reviewed the evidence relating smokeless tobacco (ST) to CID and related risk factors.
  55. Mendoza Baumgart M, Tulunay O, Hecht S, Zhang Y, Murphy S, Le C, et al. Pilot study on lower nitrosamine smokeless tobacco products compared with medicinal nicotine. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:1309-23 pubmed
    b>Smokeless tobacco (ST) products have the potential to be used as a harm reduction method for cigarette smokers. These products can deliver significantly less toxicants than cigarettes, although they are not toxicant free nor harmless...
  56. Stenbeck M, Hagquist C, Rosén M. The association of snus and smoking behaviour: a cohort analysis of Swedish males in the 1990s. Addiction. 2009;104:1579-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The ban is motivated by the potential adverse health effects of snus, but snus may also help people to avoid smoking or stop tobacco use...
  57. Stepanov I, Villalta P, Knezevich A, Jensen J, Hatsukami D, Hecht S. Analysis of 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smokeless tobacco by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010;23:66-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Smokeless tobacco contains 28 known carcinogens and causes precancerous oral lesions and oral and pancreatic cancer. A recent study conducted by our research team identified eight different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in U.S...
  58. Carpenter C, Connolly G, Ayo Yusuf O, Wayne G. Developing smokeless tobacco products for smokers: an examination of tobacco industry documents. Tob Control. 2009;18:54-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether development of smokeless tobacco products (SLT) is intended to target current smokers.
  59. Berggren U, Eriksson M, Fahlke C, Blennow K, Balldin J. Different effects of smoking or use of smokeless tobacco on platelet MAO-B activity in type 1 alcohol-dependent subjects. Alcohol Alcohol. 2007;42:267-71 pubmed
    ..However, not much is known about the influence of smokeless tobacco, i.e. snuff or chewing tobacco, on platelet MAO-B activity...
  60. Ramström L, Foulds J. Role of snus in initiation and cessation of tobacco smoking in Sweden. Tob Control. 2006;15:210-4 pubmed
    ..To examine patterns of smoking and snus use and identify individual pathways of Swedish tobacco users in order to clarify whether snus use is associated with increased or decreased smoking...
  61. Gruskin E, Greenwood G, Matevia M, Pollack L, Bye L, Albright V. Cigar and smokeless tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual population. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:937-40 pubmed
    ..The prevalence rates for lifetime and current cigar smoking and smokeless tobacco use were lower for all LGB subpopulations compared with the general population.
  62. McKee M, Gilmore A. Commentary: Smokeless tobacco: seeing the whole picture. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36:805-8 pubmed
  63. Rodu B, Cole P. A deficient study of smokeless tobacco use and cancer. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:1585; author reply 1586-7 pubmed
  64. Gupta P, Pednekar M, Parkin D, Sankaranarayanan R. Tobacco associated mortality in Mumbai (Bombay) India. Results of the Bombay Cohort Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34:1395-402 pubmed
    ..than cigarette smoking that are widely prevalent in India, such as bidi smoking and the various forms of smokeless tobacco use...
  65. Joyce A, Hawkins W, Fariss M, Sengupta T. Role of plasma membrane disruption in reference moist smokeless tobacco-induced cell death. Toxicol Lett. 2010;198:191-9 pubmed publisher
    An oral injury is thought to presage the development of mucosal lesions that are common in moist smokeless tobacco (MST) users...
  66. Haglund B, Eliasson M, Stenbeck M, Rosén M. Is moist snuff use associated with excess risk of IHD or stroke? A longitudinal follow-up of snuff users in Sweden. Scand J Public Health. 2007;35:618-22 pubmed
    ..The potential risks of Swedish moist snuff (snus) are debated and studies have shown diverging results...
  67. Chu Y, Tatakis D, Wee A. Smokeless tobacco use and periodontal health in a rural male population. J Periodontol. 2010;81:848-54 pubmed publisher
    Despite the reported effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) on the periodontium and high prevalence of ST use in rural populations and in men, studies on this specific topic are limited...
  68. Kaduri P, Kitua H, Mbatia J, Kitua A, Mbwambo J. Smokeless tobacco use among adolescents in Ilala Municipality, Tanzania. Tanzan J Health Res. 2008;10:28-33 pubmed
    b>Smokeless tobacco use is a significant part of the overall world tobacco problem...
  69. Montén U, Wennström J, Ramberg P. Periodontal conditions in male adolescents using smokeless tobacco (moist snuff). J Clin Periodontol. 2006;33:863-8 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential association of the use of smokeless tobacco (moist snuff) on the periodontal conditions of adolescents.
  70. Gartner C, Hall W, Chapman S, Freeman B. Should the health community promote smokeless tobacco (snus) as a harm reduction measure?. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e185 pubmed
    The tobacco control community is divided on whether or not to inform the public that using oral, smokeless tobacco (Swedish snus) is less hazardous to health than smoking tobacco...
  71. Tomar S, Fox B, Severson H. Is smokeless tobacco use an appropriate public health strategy for reducing societal harm from cigarette smoking?. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009;6:10-24 pubmed publisher
    Four arguments have been used to support smokeless tobacco (ST) for harm reduction: (1) Switching from cigarettes to ST would reduce health risks; (2) ST is effective for smoking cessation; (3) ST is an effective nicotine maintenance ..
  72. Zeller M, Hatsukami D. The Strategic Dialogue on Tobacco Harm Reduction: a vision and blueprint for action in the US. Tob Control. 2009;18:324-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Short-term and long-term objectives are described...
  73. Rahman M, Zaman M. Smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption: possible risk factors for coronary heart disease among young patients attending a tertiary care cardiac hospital in Bangladesh. Public Health. 2008;122:1331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) associated with various types of tobacco consumption among young patients aged 20-49 years attending a tertiary care cardiac hospital in Bangladesh...
  74. Hergens M, Alfredsson L, Bolinder G, Lambe M, Pershagen G, Ye W. Long-term use of Swedish moist snuff and the risk of myocardial infarction amongst men. J Intern Med. 2007;262:351-9 pubmed
    ..The use of this smokeless tobacco has increased in recent decades, and adverse health effects associated with snuff use could be of great ..
  75. Sharma C, Kaur J, Shishodia S, Aggarwal B, Ralhan R. Curcumin down regulates smokeless tobacco-induced NF-kappaB activation and COX-2 expression in human oral premalignant and cancer cells. Toxicology. 2006;228:1-15 pubmed
    b>Smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption is a major cause of oral cancer in South East Asia including India...