Summary: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.
- Shopsowitz K, Qi H, Hamad W, MacLachlan M. Free-standing mesoporous silica films with tunable chiral nematic structures. Nature. 2010;468:422-5 pubmed publisher..Template synthesis of inorganic solids using the self-assembly of lyotropic liquid crystals offers access to materials with well-defined porous structures, but only recently has chirality been ..
- Stamatoiu O, Mirzaei J, Feng X, Hegmann T. Nanoparticles in liquid crystals and liquid crystalline nanoparticles. Top Curr Chem. 2012;318:331-93 pubmed publisherCombinations of liquid crystals and materials with unique features as well as properties at the nanoscale are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to recent developments, i.e...
- Goodby J, Saez I, Cowling S, Görtz V, Draper M, Hall A, et al. Transmission and amplification of information and properties in nanostructured liquid crystals. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2008;47:2754-87 pubmed publisher..Since Reinitzer's days, liquid crystals have either been classed as rodlike or disclike, with combinations of the two leading to phasmidic liquid ..
- Yoon D, Choi M, Kim Y, Kim M, Lavrentovich O, Jung H. Internal structure visualization and lithographic use of periodic toroidal holes in liquid crystals. Nat Mater. 2007;6:866-70 pubmed..arrays of toric focal conic domains (TFCDs) covering large areas can be formed by semi-fluorinated smectic liquid crystals. Combined with controlled geometry, that is, a microchannel, our smectic liquid-crystal system exhibits a ..
- Bai Y, Abbott N. Enantiomeric interactions between liquid crystals and organized monolayers of tyrosine-containing dipeptides. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:548-58 pubmed publisherWe have examined the orientational ordering of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) supported on organized monolayers of dipeptides with the goal of understanding how peptide-based interfaces encode intermolecular interactions that are ..
- Negrini R, Mezzenga R. pH-responsive lyotropic liquid crystals for controlled drug delivery. Langmuir. 2011;27:5296-303 pubmed publisher..The Im3m cubic phase at pH 7 is shown to release 4 times faster than the H(II) phase at pH 2, making this system an ideal candidate for oral administration of drugs for targeted delivery in intestine or colon tracts. ..
- Stevenson C, Bennett D, Lechuga Ballesteros D. Pharmaceutical liquid crystals: the relevance of partially ordered systems. J Pharm Sci. 2005;94:1861-80 pubmed..In contrast, fewer examples of thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals, or mesophases, appear in the pharmaceutical literature, and that literature teaches that the aforementioned ..
- Wang L, Chen X, Zhan J, Chai Y, Yang C, Xu L, et al. Synthesis of gold nano- and microplates in hexagonal liquid crystals. J Phys Chem B. 2005;109:3189-94 pubmed
- Popa Nita V, van der Schoot P, Kralj S. Influence of a random field on particle fractionation and solidification in liquid-crystal colloid mixtures. Eur Phys J E Soft Matter. 2006;21:189-97 pubmed..We have also estimated another characteristic value of disorder above which the isotropic phase can exist only in a liquid state, the crystal phase being suppressed completely. ..
- Smalyukh I, Lansac Y, Clark N, Trivedi R. Three-dimensional structure and multistable optical switching of triple-twisted particle-like excitations in anisotropic fluids. Nat Mater. 2010;9:139-45 pubmed publisher..Robust generation of torons at predetermined locations combined with both optical and electrical reversible switching can lead to new ways of multistable structuring of complex photonic architectures in soft materials. ..
- Mohammady S, Pouzot M, Mezzenga R. Oleoylethanolamide-based lyotropic liquid crystals as vehicles for delivery of amino acids in aqueous environment. Biophys J. 2009;96:1537-46 pubmed publisherWe have investigated the phase behavior of self-assembled lyotropic liquid crystals (LC) formed by ternary mixtures of oleoylethanolamide (OEA), water and arginine...
- Sung S, Jung E, Kim D, Son D, Kang J, Cho K. Pixel-isolation liquid crystals formed by polarization-selective UV-curing of a prepolymer containing cinnamate oligomer. Opt Express. 2010;18:11737-45 pubmed publisher..It was found that the polymer walls containing cinnamate dimers formed by polarized UV exposure showed ordered orientation of LC molecules at the boundary of the polymer walls resulting in electro-optic performance improvement. ..
- Pérez García L, Amabilino D. Spontaneous resolution, whence and whither: from enantiomorphic solids to chiral liquid crystals, monolayers and macro- and supra-molecular polymers and assemblies. Chem Soc Rev. 2007;36:941-67 pubmed
- Smalyukh I, Kaputa D, Kachynski A, Kuzmin A, Ackerman P, Twombly C, et al. Optically generated reconfigurable photonic structures of elastic quasiparticles in frustrated cholesteric liquid crystals. Opt Express. 2012;20:6870-80 pubmed publisher..This robust control is performed by tightly focused laser beams of power 10-100 mW and by low-frequency electric fields at voltages ~10 V applied to the transparent electrodes. ..
- Senyuk B, Evans J, Ackerman P, Lee T, Manna P, Vigderman L, et al. Shape-dependent oriented trapping and scaffolding of plasmonic nanoparticles by topological defects for self-assembly of colloidal dimers in liquid crystals. Nano Lett. 2012;12:955-63 pubmed publisher..Using laser tweezers, we manipulate the ensuing nanoparticle-microsphere colloidal dimers, probing the strength of elastic binding and demonstrating self-assembly of hierarchical colloidal superstructures such as chains and arrays. ..
- Guzman O, Abbott N, de Pablo J. Quenched disorder in a liquid-crystal biosensor: adsorbed nanoparticles at confining walls. J Chem Phys. 2005;122:184711 pubmed..In contrast, for particles adsorbed in periodic patterns, the nematic at the center of the cell can remain in a monodomain orientation state, provided the patterns in opposite walls are synchronized. ..
- Yao L, Bax A. Modulating protein alignment in a liquid-crystalline medium through conservative mutagenesis. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:11326-7 pubmed
- Quevedo W, Petri M, Busse G, Techert S. On the mechanism of photoinduced phase transitions in ternary liquid crystal systems near thermal equilibrium. J Chem Phys. 2008;129:024502 pubmed publisher..Spectroscopically, the mechanism of photoinduced phase transition has been characterized by optical absorption and emission techniques. ..
- van Oosten C, Bastiaansen C, Broer D. Printed artificial cilia from liquid-crystal network actuators modularly driven by light. Nat Mater. 2009;8:677-82 pubmed publisher..The process is easily adapted for roll-to-roll fabrication, allowing for large-scale and low-cost production of miniaturized active polymer systems. ..
- Chiu C, Lin Y, Chao P, Fuh A. Achieving high focusing power for a large-aperture liquid crystal lens with novel hole-and-ring electrodes. Opt Express. 2008;16:19277-84 pubmed..The proposed design reduces the thickness of LC lens and is capable of achieving relative higher focusing power than past studies with lower applied voltage. ..
- Ravnik M, Alexander G, Yeomans J, Zumer S. Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5188-92 pubmed publisher..Exploiting the interplay between structural and optical properties, colloidal lattices embedded in liquid crystals (LCs) are promising candidates for such materials...
- Elze T, Tanner T. Liquid crystal display response time estimation for medical applications. Med Phys. 2009;36:4984-90 pubmed..In contrast, the popular convolution approach for estimating response times is prone to misestimations of time by several orders of magnitude and tend to further worsen as advances in LCD technology lead to shorter response times. ..
- Bai Y, Abbott N. Recent advances in colloidal and interfacial phenomena involving liquid crystals. Langmuir. 2011;27:5719-38 pubmed publisher..feature article describes recent advances in several areas of research involving the interfacial ordering of liquid crystals (LCs). The first advance revolves around the ordering of LCs at bio/chemically functionalized surfaces...
- Elze T. Achieving precise display timing in visual neuroscience experiments. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;191:171-9 pubmed publisher..The use of LCD technology for brief stimulus presentation requires extensive display measurements prior to the experiment. ..
- Behabtu N, Lomeda J, Green M, Higginbotham A, Sinitskii A, Kosynkin D, et al. Spontaneous high-concentration dispersions and liquid crystals of graphene. Nat Nanotechnol. 2010;5:406-11 pubmed publisher..High-concentration solutions, both isotropic and liquid crystalline, could be particularly useful for making flexible electronics as well as multifunctional fibres. ..
- Xu Z, Gao C. Graphene chiral liquid crystals and macroscopic assembled fibres. Nat Commun. 2011;2:571 pubmed publisherChirality and liquid crystals are both widely expressed in nature and biology. Helical assembly of mesophasic molecules and colloids may produce intriguing chiral liquid crystals...
- Furumi S, Sakka Y. Circularly polarized laser emission induced by supramolecular chirality in cholesteric liquid crystals. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2006;6:1819-22 pubmed..spectroscopic studies on absorption and emission of an achiral fluorescent dye embedded in cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs)...
- Mazza M, Greschek M, Valiullin R, Schoen M. Role of stringlike, supramolecular assemblies in reentrant supernematic liquid crystals. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2011;83:051704 pubmed..The strings consist of several molecules traveling in the direction of n as individual "trains" consisting of chains of molecular "cars." ..
- Araki T, Tanaka H. Colloidal aggregation in a nematic liquid crystal: topological arrest of particles by a single-stroke disclination line. Phys Rev Lett. 2006;97:127801 pubmed..The interaction depends upon the topology of a disclination loop binding particles, which is determined by aggregation history. ..
- Libster D, Aserin A, Garti N. Interactions of biomacromolecules with reverse hexagonal liquid crystals: drug delivery and crystallization applications. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2011;356:375-86 pubmed publisherRecently, self-assembled lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) of lipids and water have attracted the attention of both scientific and applied research communities, due to their remarkable structural complexity and practical potential in ..
- Basu R, Nemitz I, Song Q, Lemieux R, Rosenblatt C. Surface topography and rotational symmetry breaking. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2012;86:011711 pubmed..Our results also suggest that the azimuthal anchoring strength coefficient is relatively insensitive to the strength of the rubbing. ..
- Val kov A, Aksenova E, Romanov V. First-order and continuous Fréedericksz transitions in cholesteric liquid crystals. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2013;87:022508 pubmedThe Fréedericksz transition in twist cells of cholesteric liquid crystals with a finite surface energy is considered...
- Guillamat P, Ignés Mullol J, Sagués F. Control of active liquid crystals with a magnetic field. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:5498-502 pubmed publisher..By using well-established protocols for the orientation of liquid crystals with a uniform magnetic field, and through the mediation of anisotropic shear stresses, the active nematic ..
- Saed M, Torbati A, Nair D, Yakacki C. Synthesis of Programmable Main-chain Liquid-crystalline Elastomers Using a Two-stage Thiol-acrylate Reaction. J Vis Exp. 2016;:e53546 pubmed publisher..Overall, the two-stage TAMAP methodology is presented as a powerful tool to prepare main-chain LCE systems and explore structure-property-performance relationships in these fascinating stimuli-sensitive materials. ..
- Lancelot A, Sierra T, Serrano J. Nanostructured liquid-crystalline particles for drug delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2014;11:547-64 pubmed publisher..Especially relevant is their use for the release of anticancer drugs, biomolecules and vaccines. Nevertheless a number of critical points need to be solved in order to attain practical applications. ..
- Pesch W, Krekhov A. Optical analysis of spatially periodic patterns in nematic liquid crystals: diffraction and shadowgraphy. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2013;87:052504 pubmed..where the refraction index of the fluid is isotropic in contrast to its uniaxial symmetry in nematic liquid crystals. Our analysis is in excellent agreement with an earlier physical optics approach by Trainoff and Cannell [..
- Lorenz A, Zimmermann N, Kumar S, Evans D, Cook G, Kitzerow H. Doping the nematic liquid crystal 5CB with milled BaTiO3 nanoparticles. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2012;86:051704 pubmed..Surprisingly, the multilayers possess unusual interlayer spacing, which cannot be explained by simple smectic order of the calamitic molecules. ..
- Werzer O, Boucher N, de Silva J, Gbabode G, Geerts Y, Konovalov O, et al. Interface induced crystal structures of dioctyl-terthiophene thin films. Langmuir. 2012;28:8530-6 pubmed publisher..The understanding of such interfacial induced phases in thin semiconducting liquid crystal films allows tuning of crystallographic and therefore physical properties within organic thin films. ..
- Gregorc M, Li H, Domenici V, Ambrozic G, Copic M, Drevensek Olenik I. Optical properties of light-sensitive liquid-crystal elastomers in the vicinity of the nematic-paranematic phase transition. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2013;87:022507 pubmed..The relation between the cis isomer molar fraction and nematic order also provides a possibility for recording hidden holograms, which can be made visible by cooling the sample from the paranematic to the nematic phase. ..
- Morikawa J, Hashimoto T, Kishi A, Shinoda Y, Ema K, Takezoe H. Critical anomalies in thermal diffusivity of liquid-crystalline terephthal-bis-(4-n-butylaniline). Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2013;87:022501 pubmed
- Lin C, Huang C, Wang J, Hwang Y, Shie R, Chang Y, et al. Exposure to multiple low-level chemicals in relation to reproductive hormones in premenopausal women involved in liquid crystal display manufacture. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:1406-17 pubmed publisher..49, 95% CI: -7.90, -1.08 ?g/mg Cr) lower in the early follicular phase; and E1C (-5.16, 95% CI: -9.61, -0.71 ?g/mg Cr) level was significantly lower in the periovulatory phase. ..
- Groebner J, Berger M, Umathum R, Bock M, Rauschenberg J. 7 Tesla compatible in-bore display for functional magnetic resonance imaging. MAGMA. 2013;26:371-5 pubmed publisher..In the fMRI experiments, activated regions in the visual cortex were clearly visible. The monitor provided excellent resolution at minor SNR reduction in EPI images, and is thus suitable for fMRI at ultra-high field. ..
- Soon C, Khaghani S, Youseffi M, Nayan N, Saim H, Britland S, et al. Interfacial study of cell adhesion to liquid crystals using widefield surface plasmon resonance microscopy. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013;110:156-62 pubmed publisher..report the application of the WSPR imaging system in the study of the interaction between keratinocytes and liquid crystals (LC)...
- Xu S, Ren H, Wu S. Adaptive liquid lens actuated by liquid crystal pistons. Opt Express. 2012;20:28518-23 pubmed publisher..Since the actuation power can be enhanced by increasing the number of LC pistons rather than the operating voltages, it is possible to significantly actuate a large-aperture lens or lens array at a relatively low operating voltage. ..
- Martens K, Funck T, Kempter S, Roller E, Liedl T, Blaschke B, et al. Alignment and Graphene-Assisted Decoration of Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals Containing DNA Origami Nanostructures. Small. 2016;12:1658-66 pubmed publisher..This decoration method can be used for studying the local orientational order and the defects in chromonic liquid crystals.
- Wu Y, Ferroni F, Pieraccini S, Schweizer W, Frank B, Spada G, et al. 1,2-Di(phenylethynyl)ethenes with axially chiral, 2,2'-bridged 1,1'-binaphthyl substituents: potent cholesteric liquid-crystal inducers. Org Biomol Chem. 2012;10:8016-26 pubmed
- Ichikawa T, Fujimura K, Yoshio M, Kato T, Ohno H. Designer lyotropic liquid-crystalline systems containing amino acid ionic liquids as self-organisation media of amphiphiles. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013;49:11746-8 pubmed publisher..Amino acid ionic liquids provide suitable media for lyotropic liquid-crystalline systems whose self-organisation behaviour is tuneable by the selection of amino acid anions. ..
- Lee J, Yamaguchi A, Alam M, Yamamoto Y, Fukushima T, Kato K, et al. Discotic ionic liquid crystals of triphenylene as dispersants for orienting single-walled carbon nanotubes. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012;51:8490-4 pubmed publisherOrient and conduct: Triphenylene-based discotic ionic liquid crystals (ILCs) with six imidazolium ion pendants can disperse pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)...
- Carlton R, Ma C, Gupta J, Abbott N. Influence of specific anions on the orientational ordering of thermotropic liquid crystals at aqueous interfaces. Langmuir. 2012;28:12796-805 pubmed publisher..molar concentrations can trigger rapid, orientational ordering transitions in water-immiscible, thermotropic liquid crystals (LCs; e.g., nematic phase of 4'-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl, 5CB) contacting the aqueous phases...